THE INFLUENCE OF FRENCH LANGUAGE THOUGHT ON THE BRAZILIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES: A QUEBEC FRENCH LOOK

Jean-François Chanlat About the author

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo é dar uma olhada na influência que as obras de língua francesa têm exercido sobre a comunidade acadêmica brasileira nas últimas décadas, a partir do conhecimento do autor e sua longa associação do campo das ciências administrativas brasileiras. Para isso, o artigo está dividido em três partes. A primeira lembra a relação que o autor estabeleceu com a comunidade brasileira para localizar quem está falando e onde ele está falando. A segunda discute brevemente o vínculo histórico que o Brasil mantém, de um modo geral, com o pensamento francês. A terceira apresentará as principais correntes intelectuais que parecem, segundo o autor, ter chamado a atenção dos pesquisadores brasileiros em ciências administrativas. Esta reflexão se conclui com algumas considerações sobre o futuro da área e alguns desejos sobre as futuras relações entre pesquisadores brasileiros e pesquisadores francófonos.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE:
Ciências administrativas; Brasil; língua francesa; França; Québec

ABSTRACT

The object of this article is to take a look at the influence that French-language works have had on the Brazilian academic community over the past decades, based on the author's knowledge of it, and a long attendance of the field of Brazilian administrative sciences. To do this, the article is divided into three parts. The first recalls the relationship that the author has established with the Brazilian community to locate who is speaking and from where he is speaking. The second briefly discusses the historical link that Brazil maintains with French thought in general. And the third presents the French main intellectual currents, which, according to the author, seem to have caught the attention of Brazilian researchers in administrative sciences. This reflection ends with some considerations on the future of the field and some wishes on the future relationship between Brazilian researchers and French-speaking researchers.

KEYWORDS:
Administrative science; Brazil; French language; France; Quebec

RESUME

L'objet de cet article est de jeter un regard sur l'influence que les travaux de langue française ont exercé sur la communauté académique brésilienne au cours des dernières décennies à partir de la connaissance que l'auteur en a, suite à une longue fréquentation du champ des sciences administratives brésilien. Pour ce faire, l'article se divise en trois parties. La première procède à un rappel de la relation que l'auteur a établie avec la communauté brésilienne pour situer qui parle et d'où il parle. La deuxième aborde brièvement le lien historique que le Brésil entretient avec la pensée française en général. Et la troisième présente les principaux courants qui semblent, selon l'auteur, avoir retenu l'attention des chercheurs brésiliens en sciences administratives. Il conclut cette réflexion par quelques considérations sur l'avenir du champ et quelques souhaits sur la relation future entre chercheurs brésiliens et chercheurs de langue française.

MOTS CLÉS:
Sciences administratives; Brésil; langue française; France; Québec

This special issue celebrates the sixtieth anniversary of RAE, to which I was kindly invited to contribute by its editor-in-chief, Maria José Tonelli. For me, this is not just an honor and witness of the long-lasting relationship I have had for over thirty years with the Brazilian administrative sciences community, but it is also acknowledgement of the friendly and intellectual ties that have been consolidated in recent years with the community of French-speaking researchers to which I belong. It is, therefore, on behalf of this intellectual and linguistic affinity that, at the request of the organizers of this edition, I shall be looking at the influence that works in the French language have had on the Brazilian academic community in recent years. I do it in a very special historical context: the global pandemic that is challenging our development model and is proving to be a real anthropological crisis (Chanlat, 2020Chanlat, J-F. (2020). La catastrophe sanitaire actuelle: un fait social total. Le Libellio d'AEGIS, 16(7), p. 3-30. Recuperado de https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03120567
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-031...
).

This article is in three parts. The first will undertake a retrospective look at my relationship with the Brazilian community, in order to remind readers who I am and from where I am speaking. The second will briefly address the historical links that Brazil has with French thought in general. The third will present the main currents of thought that, in my opinion, seem to have sparked an interest in Brazilian researchers in administrative sciences. This reflection will end with some considerations on the prospects for our area and some wishes with regard to the future relationship between Brazilian and French-speaking researchers.

MY DISCOVERY OF BRAZIL: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHIC RECOLLECTION

Before getting to know Brazil’s sensitive reality, I had, like many other people in the world, a view of the country that stemmed in part from the often stereotypical image that one can have of it: the Amazon rainforest, Carnival in Rio, Copacabana beach, samba, soccer, etc. As a child, I actually watched the television broadcast of the semi-final of the 1958 World Cup - a first for that time - between Brazil and France, and the emergence of Pelé as one of the greatest players in the history of this sport. Of course, in 1964 I also watched the celebrated French movie, That Man from Rio, with Jean-Paul Belmondo. But I also acquired another view that came from a certain knowledge I had of the country’s history and its sociological peculiarities, which I had gathered from my friend and colleague, Allain Joly (2004)Joly, A, (2004). Fiefs et entreprises en Amérique latine. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'université Laval., when I was living in HEC-Montreal. Allain Joly was at the time doing his PhD Fundação Getulio Vargas’s Sao Paulo School of Business Administration (Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo da Fundação Getulio Vargas [FGV EAESP]), in the early 1980s, and he later played a decisive role in my relationship with Brazil.

The first time I had any contact with a Brazilian administrative science professor was in Montreal, during the 1984-1985 academic year. At the time I was still a young professor at HEC-Montreal, and I met Roberto Fachin, a professor in the Administration School of the (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul [EA/UFRGS]). Roberto, already an authority in the area in Brazil, came to spend a sabbatical year in Canada. In the course of the 1984-85 school year, we discussed at length the Brazilian situation in general, and management teaching in particular, above all during an important international conference on the subject that was organized in the spring of 1985 by my brother Alain and by Maurice Dufour.

In September 1990 I met again in Montreal, thanks to the mediation of Allain Joly, two important professors from FGV EAESP, Ofélia Torres and Fernando Prestes Motta, who came to take part in the major international conference I organized about the book I had just finished coordinating (Chanlat, 1990) following a sabbatical year I had spent in France, and that would quickly become a work of reference in French-speaking countries (Nugent, 1993Nugent, P. (1993). Compte rendu de L’individu dans l’organisation: Les dimensions oubliées sous la direction de Jean-François Chanlat, Québec, Canada, Les Presses de l’Université Laval et les Éditions Eska, 1990, 842 p, Revue québécoise de science politique, (24), 186-191.; Padioleau, 1992Padioleau, J.-G. (1992, Juillet-septembre). Jean-François CIianlat,L'individu dans l'organisation, les dimensions oubliées, 1990. Sociologie du travail, 34ᵉ année, (3), pp. 384-385.; Sciences Humaines, 1998Sciences Humaines, (1998, Mars-Avril). Comprendre les organisations, 20. Recuperado de https://www.scienceshumaines.com/comprendre-les-organisations_fr_95.htm
https://www.scienceshumaines.com/compren...
).

After their participation in the conference and the interest expressed by Professors Torres and Motta in the perspective that was developed in this work, and that today is considered pioneering (Bouville & Yousfi, 2021Bouville, G., & Yousfi, H. (Dir.). (2021). Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion, anthropologie, management, travail et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur du professeur Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval; Paris, France: Hermann.), a three-volume Portuguese edition would be quickly coordinated in Brazil by Ofélia Torres, with chapters being translated by various Brazilian professors, particularly from FGV EAESP (Chanlat, 1992Chanlat, J.-F. (Dir.). (1992a). Indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas (Vol. I). São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas, Montréal, Québec, Canada: HEC CETAI., 1994Chanlat, J.-F. (1994b). Francophone organizational analysis (1950-1990): An overview. Organization Studies, 15(1), 47-79. doi: 10.1177/017084069401500103
https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840694015001...
, 1996Chanlat, J.-F. (Dir.). (1996). O indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas (Vol. III), São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas , Montréal, Québec, Canada: HEC CETAI.). On the initiative of Ofélia Torres, Roberto Fachin and Tânia Fischer, and with support from National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq]), in 1992 I was invited to take part in the launch of the first volume, and to give a series of lectures in Brazil in that same year.

That first three-week stay in Brazil took me successively to FGV EAESP, to the Administration Schools of the Federal Universities of Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, and to Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro [PUC-Rio]), which allowed me to discover Brazil - this continent-sized country - with all its human and geographic diversity and its social fractures. These trips increased over the years and during them I met many colleagues: Valmiria Carolina Piccinini, Ana Maria Kirschner, Maria Elisabeth Antunes Lima, Suzana Braga Rodrigues, Liliana Segnini, Marlene Catarina de Oliveira Lopes Melo, Alfredo Alves de Oliveira Melo, Juvêncio Braga de Lima, Tânia Fischer, José Antônio Gomes de Pinho, Silvia Vergara, Patricia Tomei, Clovis Machado †, Maria José Tonelli, Fernando Prestes Motta †, Sigmar Malvezzi, Maria Irene Betiol, Thomaz Wood, Miguel Caldas, Bianor Cavalcanti, Eduardo Marques, Yann Duzert, Maria Ester de Freitas, Maria Teresa Fleury, Roberto Lima Ruas, Luiz Bignetti †, Fábio Bittencourt Meira, Isabella de Vasconcelos, Flávio de Vasconcelos, Angelo Soares,, Guilherme Azevedo, Marlei Pozzebon, Eduardo Diniz and Rafael Alcadipani, Sidinei Rocha-de-Oliveira, who would then become my friends. I also met several future students of mine: Eduardo Davel, Gelson Junquilho, Jair Nascimento Santos, Carolina Andion, the late José Roberto Gomes da Silva †, Maria Elisa Brandao, Marina Nakayama, Marcelo Dantas, and Mauricio Serva, with whom I have maintained a cordial and intellectual relationship ever since.

During the years I spent in Montreal, Strasbourg, and then Paris, and since my arrival in Dauphine in September 2001, I have regularly visited Brazil as an invited speaker at National Association of Graduate Studies in Administration (Associação Nacional de Pós Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração [ANPAD]), Encontro de Estudos Organizacionais da ANPAD (EnEO), and Ibero-Academy of Management congresses, at international conferences of the Federal University of Bahia (Universidade Federal da Bahia [UFBA]), which was organized by Professor Tânia Fischer in Salvador and Núcleo de Estudos sobre Poder e Organizações Locais (NEPOL), currently Centro Interdisciplinar de Desenvolvimento e Gestão Social (CIAGS). I also attended a conference in Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul [PUC-RS]) in Porto Alegre, and seminars and conferences in various public and private institutions in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Campinas, Brasília, São Leopoldo, Florianópolis, Porto Alegre, Bahia, Rio, Vitória, etc. On a few occasions I have also taken the opportunity to sit on various PhD examining boards, or co-supervised some theses, including one by the late José Roberto Gomes da Silva † (2010)Silva, J.-R. G. da. (2010). La dynamique identitaire entre organisations et individus. Revue française de gestion, 36(20), 185-204. doi: 10.3166/rfg.203.185-204
https://doi.org/10.3166/rfg.203.185-204...
, whose tragic disappearance was heavily associated, as we all know, with this French-Brazilian relationship (Chanlat, 2010bChanlat, J.-F. (2010b). Hommage à José Roberto Gomes da Silva. Revue Française de Gestion, 36(20), 183-184. Recuperado de https://www.cairn.info/revue-francaise-de-gestion-2010-4-page-183.htm
https://www.cairn.info/revue-francaise-d...
). My supervision of Brazilian researchers would continue in Paris, where I had the pleasure to supervise the Master’s degree research dissertation of Simone Cota; I supervised Virginia Drummond’s thesis, and during his post-doctoral studies I was the supervisor of Rodrigo Bandeira de Mello, who would later join each year our teaching and research unit. Also in Paris I was on the PhD examining boards for Teresa Bicalho de Menezes, another doctoral student at Dauphine, supervised by my colleague, Professor Jacques Richard, and Bibiana Volker Martins and Laura Scherer, PhD students from UFRGS, Porto Alegre, whom I had previously met in Paris when they were on a sandwich scholarship.

Over the years, several other works of mine have been translated (Chanlat, 2000Chanlat J.-F. (2000). Ciências sociais e administração. São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas ., 2010a), my articles have been published in the following journals: RAE, Organização e Sociedade, Gestão e Planejamento, Cadernos EBAPE.BR, GVexecutivo, and chapters have appeared in several other works (Bendassoli & Soboll, 2010/2021; Davel & Melo, 2005Davel, E. P. B., & Melo, M. C. de O. L. (2005). Gerência em ação: Singularidades e dilemas do trabalho gerencial. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora FGV. ; Davel & Vergara, 2005). Finally, I was invited to co-coordinate two important works with my colleagues and friends, Roberto Fachin and Tânia Fischer - Análise das organizações: perspectivas latinas. Vol. 1 e 2 (Analysis of organizations: Latin perspectives), which took a number of papers on the topic that were issued during a memorable conference that was held in July 2000 in Zacatecas, Mexico, organized by our Mexican colleagues and friends from the organizational studies area at UAM-Iztapalapa (Ramirez Martinez & Gonzáles-Miranda, 2018Ramirez Martinez, G., & Gonzáles-Miranda, D, R. (2018). Tratado de estudios organizacionales. Volumen 1. Teorización sobre el campo, Medellin, Columbia. Editorial EAFIT, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Red Mexicana de Investigadores en Estudios Organizacionales, Sage; Gonzáles-Miranda & Ramirez Martinez, 2018, 2020) and myself, and which had gathered for the occasion recognized colleagues coming from French-speaking countries (France, Belgium, Canada), Spanish-speaking countries (Mexico, Colombia, Argentina) and Brazilians (Chanlat, Fachin, & Fischer, 2006Chanlat, J.-F., Fachin, R., & Fischer, T. (Dir.). (2006). Analyse das organizações: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1). Porto Alegre, Brasil: UFRGS , 2007Chanlat, J.-F., Fachin, R., & Fischer, T. (Dir.). (2007). Analyse das organizações: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1). Porto Alegre, RS: UFRGS ; Fachin, 2014Fachin, R. (2014). Memórias e posicionamentos em estudos organizacionais. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Organizacionais, 1(1), 4-16. doi: 10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo.2014.v1n1.27v
https://doi.org/10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo....
).

As one can see, these numerous visits to Brazil enabled me to gradually familiarize myself with the country and acquire a clear view of the administrative sciences field, a Quebecois French view considering my own intellectual and professional path. Each time I observed how seriously French thought was taken, and how production in French about organizations, work and economics awakened an interest in the country.

BRAZILIAN OPENESS TO FRENCH THOUGHT: AN OLD STORY

When I first arrived in Brazil I quickly noticed the influence that French thought had historically exerted and was still exerting on Brazilian society. I was particularly struck by the number of administrative science colleagues, who had mastered the French language, or who understood it without always being able to speak it.

According to certain Brazilian and foreign analysts, this French influence goes back to the 18th century, due to the thinking of French philosophers of the Enlightenment, and continued into the 19th century with the thoughts of Auguste Comte, a movement that was driven by Miguel de Lemos, Benjamin Constant Botelho de Magalhães and Raimundo Teixeira Mendes (Grange, 2000Grange, J. (2000). Auguste Comte: La politique et la science. Paris, France: Éditions Odile Jacob.; Lins, 1967Lins, I. (1967). História do positivismo no Brasil. São Paulo, SP: Cia. Editora Nacional.). I could also see some architectural vestiges of this school of thought in the first positivist church in Rio de Janeiro that was built in 1881, several years before the proclamation of the Republic. There is also an eloquent trace of this school in the official motto of Brazil, “Order and Progress”, which refers to a the maxim of Comte (Tyr, 2007Tyr, A. (2007). Le drapeau brésilien et Auguste Comte [Film documentaire, coproduction Évasion en vidéo, PDR, TVM Est Parisien].). Comte’s philosophy was seen, then, as a source of political inspiration for those modernist elites who aspired to found a Republic and put an end to slavery, as Lorelai Kury points out in this regard:

The positivist, republican and authoritarian political project was very influential in Brazil, and particularly powerful at the turn of the 20th century. In 1889 Auguste Comte’s disciples won a symbolic battle with regard to the Brazilian republican flag: the model, proposed by Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, added the motto “Order and Progress” to the former Imperial flag in order to establish a link between the past and the future, which closely followed the French philosopher’s instructions. Even though positivism throughout the 20th century lost the influence it had once had, this current of thought left its deep ideological marks on the country’s urban middle classes (Kury, 2003Kury, L. (2003). Nation, races et fétichisme: La religion de l’humanité au Brésil. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences Humaines, 1(1), 125-137. doi: 10.3917/rhsh.008.0125
https://doi.org/10.3917/rhsh.008.0125...
, p. 126). (Our translation.)

This French influence persisted in the 20th century. It is associated with the creation of the University of São Paulo (Universidade de São Paulo [USP]) in the 1930s, with which remarkable French personalities were associated, such as geographers Pierre Monbeig and Pierre Deffontaines, historian Fernand Braudel, ethnologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, sociologist and anthropologist Roger Bastide, philosopher François Châtelet, historians Gérard Lebrun and Jean-Pierre Vernant, and epistemologist Gilles-Gaston Granger. It was also associated in a more general way with the strong influence that French philosophy, the major discipline in the country throughout the century, had.

As Sérgio Paulo Rouanet recalled it in the ‘Year of Brazil’ that was held in France in 2010Rouanet, S. P. (2010). Quelques remarques sur l'influence de la philosophie française au Brésil. Synergies, Brésil numéro spécial (2), 41-46. Recuperado de https://gerflint.fr/Base/Bresil_special2/Rouanet.pdf
https://gerflint.fr/Base/Bresil_special2...
:

The French influence was so predominant that the history of welcoming French philosophical ideas became largely confounded with the history of philosophy in Brazil. To demonstrate this hegemony, we need only mention a recent book on philosophy teaching in the University of São Paulo (USP), one of the most respected institutions in Brazil, whose foundation was inspired by French professors. The author recalls this university’s Philosophy Department as being ‘a French overseas department’: that says it all (2010, p. 41). (Our translation.).

That is how Bergson’s thinking, Maritain’s integral humanism, Mounier’s personalism, Lévi-Strauss’s structuralism, Sartre’s existentialism, and later, works by Castoriadis, Foucault, Derrida and Deleuze succeeded in line with the trends specific to each period, became highly popular with Brazilian intellectual elites. After the 1970s, it was combined with the enthusiasm that the Brazilian community then granted French social sciences, which was enjoying great international influence, and with the ties that great Brazilian intellectuals, like Fernando Henrique Cardoso, established with great French intellectual figures, notably with Alain Touraine (Kirschner & Gomes, 2014bKirschner, A.-M., & Gomes, E. R. (2014b). Les sciences sociales brésiliennes aujourd'hui: Des questions structurelles aux nouvelles questions sociales. Sociologies Pratiques , 2(2), 123-134. doi: 10.3917/sopr.017.0123
https://doi.org/10.3917/sopr.017.0123...
). Brazil’s intellectual background, therefore, is clearly marked by these successive historical traces left by French thinking, even though other schools of thought, mainly those in English and German, have grown in importance in recent decades (Rouanet, 2010Rouanet, S. P. (2010). Quelques remarques sur l'influence de la philosophie française au Brésil. Synergies, Brésil numéro spécial (2), 41-46. Recuperado de https://gerflint.fr/Base/Bresil_special2/Rouanet.pdf
https://gerflint.fr/Base/Bresil_special2...
).

Due to this historical attraction that French culture had in the hearts of the elites (Fachin & Cavedon, 2003Fachin, R., & Cavedon, N. R. (2003). Em busca da especificidade da influência francesa na análise organizacional no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 1(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512003000100006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951200300...
), a phenomenon that could also be seen in other Latin America countries (Bonnafous, 1953Bonnafous, E. (1953). Les liens intellectuels entre la France et l'Amérique latine. Revue Des Deux Mondes (1829-1971), 63-86. Recuperado de http://www.jstor.org/stable/44585861
http://www.jstor.org/stable/44585861...
), since the end of the 20th century this historical breeding ground has revealed itself to be favorable to being more open to production in French that focused on work, organizations and economics. This was favored by the fact that many Brazilian professors went to France to study for their PhDs, and later to Quebec, at a time when the Brazilian administrative sciences community was seeking alternatives to Anglo-Saxon thought that is predominant in this field of knowledge (Bertero, Caldas, & Wood, 1999Caldas, M., Fachin, R., & Fischer, T. (1999). Prefácio à edição brasileira do Handbook de Estudos Organizacionais.Vol.1: Modelos de Análise e Novas Questões em Estudos Organizacionais. (Eds), Clegg, S., Hardy, C., & Nord, W. São Paulo, SP: Atlas , 61-98.; Cassundé, Barbosa & Mendonça, 2016Cassundé, F. R., Barbosa, M. A. C., & Mendonça, J. R. C. de. (2016). A influência da tradição anglo-saxônicas estudos organizacionais brasileiros: O que mudou (ou não) nos últimos 15 anos? Perspectivas em Gestão & Conhecimento, 6(1), 238-254. Recuperado de https://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.php/pgc/article/view/27064
https://periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs2/index.ph...
; Fachin, 2014Fachin, R. (2014). Memórias e posicionamentos em estudos organizacionais. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Organizacionais, 1(1), 4-16. doi: 10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo.2014.v1n1.27v
https://doi.org/10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo....
; Fachin & Cavedon, 2003Fachin, R., & Cavedon, N. R. (2003). Em busca da especificidade da influência francesa na análise organizacional no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 1(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512003000100006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951200300...
; Fischer, 1985Fischer, T. M. (1985). O ensino de administração pública no Brasil: Da tutela estrangeira à autonomia necessária. In Reunião Nacional da ANPAD (pp165-170). Anais... Florianópolis: Ed. UFSC; Motta, 1990Motta, F. C. P. (1990). Organização e poder. São Paulo, SP: Atlas.; Paula, Maranhão, Barreto, & Klechen, 2010Paula, A. P. P. de, Maranhão, C. de A., Barreto, R. de O., & Klechen, C. F. (2010). A tradição e a autonomia dos estudos organizacionais críticos no Brasil. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 50(1), 10-23. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75902010000100002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201000...
; Torres & Gonçalves, 1991Torres, O., & Gonçalves, M. A. (1991). O indivíduo na organização: dimensões esquecidas. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 31(4), 107-108. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75901991000400011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590199100...
; Vergara, 2006Vergara, S. C. (2006). Análise organizacional no Brasil: Em busca da independência intelectual. In J.-F. Chanlat, R. Fachin, & T. Fischer , Análise organizacional: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1: Olhar histórico e constatações atuais, pp. 219-238). Porto Alegre, RS: Editora da UFRGS.; Waiandt, 2018Waiandt, C. A. (2018). Ensino-Aprendizagem na administração: Contribuições e desafios na trajetória de Tânia Fischer. Farol - Revista de Estudos Organizacionais e Sociedade , 5(12), 85-125. doi: 10.25113/farol.v5i12.4797
https://doi.org/10.25113/farol.v5i12.479...
).

BRAZILIAN ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCE RESEARCHERS SEEKING AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANGLO-SAXON HEGEMONY

When we consult Brazilian works, particularly those that seek to summarize their field in social sciences (Bendassolli & Soboll, 2010/2020; Kirschner & Gomes, 2014aKirschner, A.-M., & Gomes, E. R. (2014a). La sociologie brésilienne et l'entreprise à la fin du XXe siècle. Sociologies Pratiques, 3(3), 41-48. doi : 10.3917/sopr.hs01.0041
https://doi.org/10.3917/sopr.hs01.0041...
, 2014b)Kirschner, A.-M., & Gomes, E. R. (2014b). Les sciences sociales brésiliennes aujourd'hui: Des questions structurelles aux nouvelles questions sociales. Sociologies Pratiques , 2(2), 123-134. doi: 10.3917/sopr.017.0123
https://doi.org/10.3917/sopr.017.0123...
and administrative sciences (Bertero, 2006Bertero, C. O. (2006). Ensino e pesquisa em administração. São Paulo, SP: Thomson Learning.; Bertero, Alcadipani, Cabral, Faria, & Rossoni, 2013Alcadipani, R., & Cooke, B. (2013). The Ford Foundation’s mess in Brazil. Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management Meeting. doi: 10.5465/ambpp.2013.218
https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2013.218...
; Bertero, Caldas, & Wood, 2005Bertero, C. O., Caldas, P. P., & Wood, T. (Coord.). (2005). Produção científica em administração no Brasil: O estado-da-arte. São Paulo, SP: Atlas.), we observe that, despite the domination of Anglo-Saxon works, a lot of French works are mentioned in their reflections, particularly those from Brazilian researchers who are looking for an alternative to the domination of Anglo-American references (Fachin, 2014Fachin, R. (2014). Memórias e posicionamentos em estudos organizacionais. Revista Brasileira de Estudos Organizacionais, 1(1), 4-16. doi: 10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo.2014.v1n1.27v
https://doi.org/10.21583/2447-4851.rbeo....
; Vergara, 2006Vergara, S. C. (2006). Análise organizacional no Brasil: Em busca da independência intelectual. In J.-F. Chanlat, R. Fachin, & T. Fischer , Análise organizacional: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1: Olhar histórico e constatações atuais, pp. 219-238). Porto Alegre, RS: Editora da UFRGS.; Vergara & Pinto, 2001; Waiandt, 2018Waiandt, C. A. (2018). Ensino-Aprendizagem na administração: Contribuições e desafios na trajetória de Tânia Fischer. Farol - Revista de Estudos Organizacionais e Sociedade , 5(12), 85-125. doi: 10.25113/farol.v5i12.4797
https://doi.org/10.25113/farol.v5i12.479...
).

In administrative science in Brazil, this Anglo-American hegemony goes back to the 1950s, when the US and Brazilian governments signed agreements to establish the first teaching programs and create the first higher education institutions in management in a cold war context, and with the help of Ford Foundation, which was heavily inspired by the American model of business academic education (Alcadipani & Bertero, 2012Alcadipani, R., & Caldas, M. (2012). Americanizing Brazilian management. Critical Perspectives on International Business , 8(1), 37-55. doi: 10.1108/17422041211197558
https://doi.org/10.1108/1742204121119755...
; Alcadipani & Bertero, 2014Alacadipani, R., & Bertero, C. O. (2014l). Uma escola Norte-Americana Ultramar? Uma historiagrafia da EAESP. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(2), 154-169. doi: /10.1590/S0034-759020140204
https://doi.org//10.1590/S0034-759020140...
; Alcadipani & Caldas, 2012Alcadipani, R., & Bertero, C. (2012). Guerra Fria e ensino do management no Brasil: O caso da FGV/EAESP. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 52(3), 284-299. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75902012000300002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201200...
; Alcadipani & Cooke, 2013Alcadipani, R., & Cooke, B. (2013). The Ford Foundation’s mess in Brazil. Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management Meeting. doi: 10.5465/ambpp.2013.218
https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2013.218...
; Barros, Alcadipani & Bertero, 2018Barros, A., Alcadipani, R., & Bertero, C. O. (2018). A criação do curso superior em administração na ufrgs em 1963: uma análise histórica [The creation of the higher education course in administration at UFRGS in 1963: A historical analysis]. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas , 58(1), 3-15. doi: 10.1590/s0034-759020180102
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-7590201801...
; Serva & Andion, 2021Serva, M., & Andion, M.-C. (2021). La contribution de l'oeuvre de Jean-François Chanlat au champ des études épistémologiques des sciences administratives brésiliennes. In G. Bouville, & H. Yousfi, Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion. Anthropologie, management et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur de Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, Les Presses de l'université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann (à paraître).).

In Brazil this occurred in a much broader context of a society historically open to ideas coming from abroad, which Brazilians call “Estrangeirismo” (“foreignism”) (Bartel-Radic, 2013Bartel-Radic, A. (2013). 'Estrangeirismo’ and flexibility: intercultural learning in Brazilian. MNCs. Management International/International Management/ Gestión International, 17(4), 239-253. doi: 10.7202/1020680
https://doi.org/10.7202/1020680...
; Buarque de Holanda, 1936Buarque de Holanda, S. (1936). Raízes do Brasil. Rio do Janeiro: Editora José Olympio Editora. Edição francesa, (1998) Racines du Brésil, Paris: UNESCO/Gallimard.; 1998; Caldas & Wood, 1997Caldas, M. P., & Wood, T., Jr . (1997). For the English to see': The importation of managerial technology in late 20th-century Brazil. Organization, 4(4), 517-534. doi: 10.1177/135050849700400410
https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508497004004...
; Freyre, 1963Freyre, G. (1963). Casa grande e senzala. Brasília, DF: Ed. UnB.; Motta, Alcadipani, & Bresler, 2001Motta, F. C. P., Alcadipani, R., & Bresler, R. (2001). A valorização do estrangeiro como segregação nas organizações. Revista de Administração Contemporânea , 5(Edição Especial), 59-79. doi: 10.1590/s1415-65552001000500004
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1415-6555200100...
), whch is often pragmatically characterized as being a kind of “cannibalism” of foreign practices (Davel, Dantas, & Vergara, 2008Davel, E., & Dupuis, J.-P., & Chanlat, J.-F. (Eds.). (2008). Gestion en contexte interculturel . Québec, Canada: Presses de l’Université de Laval et Téléuniversité.).

Nowadays, according to certain colleagues (Bertero et al., 2013Bertero, C. O., Alcadipani, R., Cabral, S., Faria, A., & Rossoni, P. (2013). Os desafios da produção de conhecimento em administração no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 11(1), 181-196. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512013000100012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951201300...
), the situation is as follows:

. . . The vast majority of studies in Administration in Brazil, particularly in areas like organizational studies and teaching and research, comprise theoretical essays that focus on European authors . . . . It seems that a large proportion of the academics in the field hates going into the field, and when they do, they produce texts using a weak and inconsistent methodology. Being aware of what is Brazilian is going to the Brazilian "reality", studying the Brazilian "reality", and getting to know the Brazilian "reality", with references that will enable this reality to be expressed in all its complexity, rather than being hampered and hidden behind theories and models. We study Administration in Brazil very little. One of the reasons for our lack of originality is the fact that we look very little at our reality, at what happens in Brazil. But the parochialism of some sectors is compensated for by the "foreignism" of others . . . . We tend to overrate foreigners . . . . Valuing teaching and research from the North as being "first-class" is fundamental for constructing our inferiority as researchers. It implies leaving to them the role of creating models, which makes us mere imitators (p. 186). (Our translation.)

Based on this tough observation, they emphasize en passant the role played by the publication market:

More importantly, we need to bear in mind that much of the academic publication market, which is considered “international”, is controlled by Anglo-Saxon publishing houses and by Anglo-Saxon academics. If we take those that are considered to be the main journals in the area, they publish almost only articles on specific topics that are produced in specific universities. Publishing in an international journal involves serious academic work, but also involves questions of power. Today we see many scholars from different parts of the world looking for an Anglo-Saxon “broker” in order to have their articles published in these renowned journals. As a result, the superior foreigner is privileged and our condition of subordinate remains. Many foreigners really believe we are inferior (p. 186). (Our translation.)

For these same authors:

There is a hegemonic thinking in the field, which is mainly of North-American origins, that tends to ignore qualitative perspectives and more reflexive approaches. Being North American does not mean following this restricted and restrictive view of research in the field. There are North Americans who defend a more plural view, as there are Latin researchers who argue for a more restrictive view of research in the field. What we notice is an international shock between views (p. 193). (Our translation.)

It is in this historical context that some Brazilian researchers, therefore, sought to develop original thinking from the 1960s. This is the case of Guerreiro Ramos (1981/1989; 1983; Azevedo & Albernaz, 2006Azevedo, A., & Albernaz, R. (2006). A “antropologia” do guerreiro: A história do conceito de homem parentético. Em memória a Eliana Guerreiro Ramos (1949-2003). Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 4(3), 1-19. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/cadernosebape/article/view/7398
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
; de Paula, 2007Paula, A. P. P. de. (2007). Guerreiro Ramos: Resgatando o pensamento de um sociólogo crítico das organizações. Organização & Sociedade, 14(40), 169-188. doi: 10.1590/S1984-92302007000100010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-9230200700...
; Serva, 1997aServa, M. (1997a). A racionalidade substantiva demonstrada na prática administrativa. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 37(2), 18-30. doi: 10.1590/s0034-75901997000200003
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-7590199700...
, 1997bServa, M. (1997b). Abordagem substantiva e ação comunicativa: Uma complementaridade frutuosa para a teoria das organizações. Revista de Administração Pública, 31(2), 108-134. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rap/article/view/7940
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
; Serva & Andion, 2021Serva, M., & Andion, M.-C. (2021). La contribution de l'oeuvre de Jean-François Chanlat au champ des études épistémologiques des sciences administratives brésiliennes. In G. Bouville, & H. Yousfi, Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion. Anthropologie, management et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur de Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, Les Presses de l'université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann (à paraître).), Mauricio Tragtenberg or Fernando Prestes Motta (Segnini & Alcadipani, 2014Alcadipani, E., & Faria, A. (2014). Fighting Latin American marginality in "International business".Critical Perspectives on International Business, 10(1/2), 107-111. doi: 10.1108/cpoib-11-2013-0047
https://doi.org/10.1108/cpoib-11-2013-00...
), the first of whom finds support particularly in Jacques Maritain’s integral humanism and Emmanuel Mounier’s personalism (Azevedo & Albernaz, 2006), while the latter two derive their support from other French intellectual traditions, particularly the anarchists (Motta, 1981Motta, F. C. P. (1981). Burocracia e autogestão: A proposta de Proudhon. São Paulo, SP: Brasiliense., 1984Motta, F. C. P. (1984). Participação e co-gestão: Novas formas de administração. São Paulo, SP: Brasiliense ., 1990Motta, F. C. P. (1990). Organização e poder. São Paulo, SP: Atlas., 2003Motta, F. C. P. (2003). Teoria das organizações: Evolução e crítica. São Paulo, SP: Thompson Learning. ; Tragtenberg, 2005, 2010, 2012Tragtenberg, M. (2005). Administração, poder e ideologia. São Paulo, SP: Unisep. ), with all three Brazilian authors having a very significant influence in the country (Harzing, 2016Harzing, A-W. (2016, June). Do Google Scholar, Scopus and the Web of Science speak your language? EURAM Conference, Paris). Other authors, like Fachin and Cavedon, at the end of their article about the influence of French thinking on Brazilian organizational studies, do not hesitate to stress their interest in these texts:

In the French-speaking world, therefore, we must seek the influx of academic production that, based on certain selective areas of knowledge, translates the critical French thinking that is so dear to Brazilian intellectuals from all sectors. The availability of such works in Portuguese undoubtedly represents a substantial addition to the reading possibilities of Brazilian scholars who did not do any of their graduate studies in France or Quebec (2003, p. 11). (Our translation.)

If the Brazilian field of administrative sciences, therefore, has been influenced by countless works in French, for the purposes of this article I decided to consider - but without ranking them - the three subjects that were, in my opinion, the sources of their inspiration, namely organization science, work science and heterodox economic science; This phenomenon was encouraged by the bilingualism of many Brazilian researchers, and by the translation of several reference works on these three subjects by Brazilian publishers.

The science of organizations

My first source of inspiration was the science of organizations, the result of works that were associated with the emergence of organizations as a social fact in the early 1960s (Caldas, Fachin, & Fischer, 1999Caldas, M., Fachin, R., & Fischer, T. (1999). Prefácio à edição brasileira do Handbook de Estudos Organizacionais.Vol.1: Modelos de Análise e Novas Questões em Estudos Organizacionais. (Eds), Clegg, S., Hardy, C., & Nord, W. São Paulo, SP: Atlas , 61-98.; Clegg & Bayley, 2007Clegg, S R., & Bayley, J.R. (Eds). (2007). International Encyclopedia of Organization studies. Thousand. Oaks: Sage.; Clegg, Hardy & Nord, 1999; 2001, 2004; Chanlat & Séguin, 1987Chanlat, J-F.,& Séguin, F. (1987). L'analyse des organisations. Tome II: les composantes de l'organisation, Montréal, Québec, Canada: Gaëtan Morin.; Etzioni, 1967Etzioni, A. (1967). Organizações complexas. São Paulo, SP: Pioneira.; Gonzáles-Miranda & Ramirez Martinez, 2020Gonzáles-Miranda, D, R., & Ramirez Martinez, G. (2020). Tratado de estudios organizacionales. Volumen 2. Exploración de las temáticas, Medellin, Columbia: Editorial EAFIT, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Red Mexicana de Investigadores en Estudios Organizacionales, London, UK: Sage.; Perrow, 1976Perrow, C. (1976), Análise organizacional: Um enfoque sociológico. São Paulo, SP: Atlas .; Séguin & Chanlat, 1983;Saussois, 2016Saussois, J. M. (2016). Les Organisations: Etat des savoirs, Paris, Editions Sciences Humaines.).

In the French-speaking context, notably in France, this is translated by research that studied four important thematic axes: the psychology of organizations and institutional analysis; the sociology of organizations and companies; the anthropology of organizations; and the management of organizations.

Among the countless works published in French (Chanlat, 1992bChanlat J.-F. (1992b). L’analyse des organisations: Un regard sur les productions de langue française contemporaines (1950-1990). Cahiers De Recherche Sociologique, (18-19), 93-138. doi: 10.7202/1002305ar
https://doi.org/10.7202/1002305ar...
, 1994, 2014; Stokes, Davoine & Oiry, 2014Stokes, P., Davoine., E & Oiry, E. (Guest Editors), (2014). Special issue on organizations and organizing in a French context. International Journal of Organization al Analysis, 22(4), 1-3. doi: 10.1108/IJOA-08-2014-0794
https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-08-2014-079...
), Brazilian researchers went to the heart of the very rich, psycho-sociological current (Barus-Michel, Enriquez, & Lévy, 2002Barus-Michel, J., Enriquez, E., & Lévy, A. (Dir.). (2002). Vocabulaire de Psychosociologie. Ramonville Saint-Agne, France: Éditions Érès) to favor works of institutional analysis (Lapassade, 1989Lapassade, G. (1989). Grupos, organizações e instituições. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Francisco Alves; Lourau, 1975Lourau, R. (1975). A análise institucional. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes.; Rossi & Passos, 2014Rossi, A., & Passos, E. (2014). Análise institucional: Revisão conceitual e nuances da pesquisa-intervenção no Brasil. Revista EPOS, 5(1), 156-181.) by authors like Eugène Enriquez (1990Enriquez, E. (1990). Da horda ao estado: Psicanálise do vínculo social. São Paulo, SP: Editora Senac., 1997Enriquez, E. (1997). A organização em análise. Capa comun. Kindle Direct Publishing., 2007Enriquez, E. (2007). As figuras do poder. Capa Comun, Kindle Direct Publishing. , 2014)Enriquez, E. (2014). Jogos de poder na empresa: Sobre os processos de poder e estrutura. São Paulo, SP: Zagodoni Editora., Max Pagès, Bonetti, and de Gaulejac (1987)Pagès, M., Bonetti, M., & Gauléjac, V. de. (1987). O poder das organizações. São Paulo, SP: Casa Editorial Atlas. , Nicole Aubert and Vincent de Gaulejac (1993Aubert, N., & Gauléjac, V. de. (1993). Coste de la excelencia¿. Madrid, España: Paidos.; de Gaulejac, 2005Gauléjac, V. De. (2005). Gestão como doença social: Ideologia, poder gerencialista e fragmentação social. São Paulo, SP: Editora Ideias e Letras. ) and Gilles Amado (2013)Amado, G. (2013). Les processus psychiques au sein des groupes de travail: au-delà de Bion et de Pichon-Rivière. Nouvelle Revue de Psychosociologie, 1(15), 163-182. Recuperado de https://www.cairn.info/revue-nouvelle-revue-de-psychosociologie-2013-1-page-163.htm
https://www.cairn.info/revue-nouvelle-re...
, as Newton Garcia de Araújo and Andrade de Barros recalled in their recent review (2019)Araújo, N. G. de, & Barros, V. A. de. (2019). A psicologia do trabalho e as clínicas do trabalho no Brasil. Laboreal, 15(2), 1-12. doi: 10.4000/laboreal.15515
https://doi.org/10.4000/laboreal.15515...
. These latter authors had an influence on the view that Brazilian researchers in administrative sciences built up of the relationship between psychic life and the organization, and helped inspire, along with many other French language researchers (Didier Anzieu, Serge Moscovici, Jean-Claude Rouchy, Guy and Jacqueline Palmade, André Green, Laurent Lapierre, etc.) the field of Brazilian critical organizational studies since the 1990s (Bendassolli & Soboll, 2011/2021Bendassolli, P., & Soboll, L. A. P. (Orgs.). (2011/2021). Clínicas do trabalho, novas perspectivas para compreender do trabalho na atualidade. São Paulo, SP: Atlas.; Freitas, 1999bFreitas, M. E. de. (1999b). Cultura organizacional: Identidade, sedução e carisma? Rio de Janeiro, RJ: FGV.; Freitas & Motta, 2005).

Another line of research that Brazilian researchers drew on concerns the sociology of organizations. This subject, which was founded in France by Michel Crozier at the beginning of the 1960s, later learned of an important development in French-speaking and Latin countries, driven by work carried out at the Center for the Sociology of Organizations (CSO), which was created and directed by Crozier (1963 a and b; 2000; Crozier & Friedberg, 1977; Entreprises et Histoire, 2016). This center later became the training home of most of the French-speaking pioneers in this subject (Chanlat, 1992 bChanlat J.-F. (1992b). L’analyse des organisations: Un regard sur les productions de langue française contemporaines (1950-1990). Cahiers De Recherche Sociologique, (18-19), 93-138. doi: 10.7202/1002305ar
https://doi.org/10.7202/1002305ar...
, 1994Chanlat, J.-F. (Dir.). (1994a). O indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas (Vol. II). São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas, Montréal, Québec, Canada: HEC-CETAI.; Saussois, 2016Saussois, J. M. (2016). Les Organisations: Etat des savoirs, Paris, Editions Sciences Humaines.) and influenced certain Brazilian works, particularly in public administration (de Vasconcelos & Pinochet, 2004Vasconcelos, I., & Pinochet, L. (2004). Poder, tecnologia e controle burocrático: Uma análise crozieriana em uma empresa de informática do governo do estado do Paraná. Revista de Administração Pública, 38(3), 465-479. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rap/article/view/6546
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
). It also benefited from work being done by the Laboratory of the Sociology of Change in Institutions (LSCI), which was created and directed by Renaud Sainsaulieu (1977/2014, 1990, 1997, 2002)Sainsaulieu, R. (1997). Sociologie de l’entreprise. Paris, France: Presses de la Fondation des Sciences Politiques., one of the first of Crozier’s collaborators at CSO, and from studies by the Lyonnais Group of Industrial Sociology (GLYSI), which was created and directed by Philippe Bernoux (1985Bernoux, P (1985). Sociologie des organisations. Paris, France: Seuil .; Amblard, Bernoux, Herreros, & Livian, 1995)Amblard, H., Bernoux, P., Herreros, G., & Livian, Y.-F. (1995). Les nouvelles approches en sociologie des organisations. Paris, France: Seuil.. It is from the sociology of organizations that the sociology of business firm emerged in the 1990s (Bélanger & Lévesque, 1996Bélanger, P., & Lévesque, B. (1996). La modernisation sociale des entreprises. Montréal, Canada: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.; Dupuis & Kuzminski, 1998Dupuis, J.-P., & Kuzminski, A. (1998). Sociologie de l'économie, du travail et de l'entreprise. Montréal, Canada: Gaëtan Morin éditeur.; Sainsaulieu, 1990Sainsaulieu, R. (Dir.). (1990). L’entreprise: Une affaire de société. Paris, France: Presses de la Fondation des Sciences Politiques.; Sainsaulieu & Segrestin, 1987Sainsaulieu, R. (1997). Sociologie de l’entreprise. Paris, France: Presses de la Fondation des Sciences Politiques.; Segrestin, 1992Segrestin, B.(1992). Sociologie de l'entreprise. Paris, France: Armand Colin.), which played a very important role in Brazil in the early 2000s (Kirschner & Gomes, 2014aKirschner, A.-M., & Gomes, E. R. (2014a). La sociologie brésilienne et l'entreprise à la fin du XXe siècle. Sociologies Pratiques, 3(3), 41-48. doi : 10.3917/sopr.hs01.0041
https://doi.org/10.3917/sopr.hs01.0041...
; Sainsaulieu & Kirschner, 2006Sainsaulieu, R., & Kirschner, A-M. (2006). Sociologia da Empresa Organização Poder, Cultura e Desenvolvimento no Brasil. Rio, Brasil: DP & A Editora.).

From the beginning of the 1990s, another group of works achieved great popularity in the field of Brazilian administrative sciences, works that were associated with my own anthropological perspective. They can be found in the three volumes of the Brazilian translation of the work that I directed: L'individu dans l'organisation: les dimensions oubliées [The individual in the organization: the forgotten dimensions]. in two other translated works (Chanlat, 2000Chanlat J.-F. (2000). Ciências sociais e administração. São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas ., 2010Chanlat, J.-F. (2010a). Gestão das empresas: Uma perspectiva antropológica. (Coleção Debates em Administração). São Paulo, SP: Cengage Learning. ), one by Ofelia Torres (Chanlat, 2000Chanlat J.-F. (2000). Ciências sociais e administração. São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas .), and the other published by Isabela de Vasconcelos in her Cengage learning serie "Debates em Administração" ('Debates in Management") (Chanlat, 2010Chanlat, J.-F. (2010a). Gestão das empresas: Uma perspectiva antropológica. (Coleção Debates em Administração). São Paulo, SP: Cengage Learning. ), and in numerous other publications (Serva & Andion, 2021Serva, M., & Andion, M.-C. (2021). La contribution de l'oeuvre de Jean-François Chanlat au champ des études épistémologiques des sciences administratives brésiliennes. In G. Bouville, & H. Yousfi, Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion. Anthropologie, management et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur de Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, Les Presses de l'université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann (à paraître).). As stressed by Ofélia Torres and Marilson Alves Gonçalves (1991) in their review of the work, in 1991:

L'Individu dans l'Organisation: les dimensions oubliées [The Individual in the Organization -the forgotten dimensions] masterfully transmits the message of renewing the knowledge and practice of behavioral science in the business world. Based on a general reflection on the development of an anthropology of the human condition in organizations, each author develops their contribution from a particular perspective. From language to space, including the symbolic universe, time, psychic life, otherness and psychopathology, the work achieves its proposed objective, that is, to establish a common view of human beings, recognizing the importance of their role in each dimension, without, however, curtailing the shock of ideas and styles and the freedom to disagree with methods and approaches around the common theme . . . . This publication opens new perspectives, and is of interest to professors, researchers and students alike, particularly Master’s degree and PhD students, who are numerous today in Brazil, because it can serve as a reference when it comes to writing monographs and theses in this new field of knowledge. Because of its reflexive and practical content about human beings in organizations as subject, actor, living and concrete person, it will also be of interest to company executives and HR managers (p.107-108). (Our translation.)

In other words, this perspective encourages Brazilian researchers to become interested in the different dimensions set out in the work by numerous French-speaking colleagues, thanks to its Brazilian edition (Fachin & Cavedon, 2003Fachin, R., & Cavedon, N. R. (2003). Em busca da especificidade da influência francesa na análise organizacional no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 1(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512003000100006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951200300...
; Torres & Gonçalves 1992Torres, O., & Gonçalves, M. A. (1991). O indivíduo na organização: dimensões esquecidas. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 31(4), 107-108. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75901991000400011
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590199100...
; Vergara, 2006Vergara, S. C. (2006). Análise organizacional no Brasil: Em busca da independência intelectual. In J.-F. Chanlat, R. Fachin, & T. Fischer , Análise organizacional: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1: Olhar histórico e constatações atuais, pp. 219-238). Porto Alegre, RS: Editora da UFRGS.), and to the fact that these studies have been “Brazilianized” (Chanlat et al., 2006Chanlat, J.-F., Fachin, R., & Fischer, T. (Dir.). (2006). Analyse das organizações: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1). Porto Alegre, Brasil: UFRGS ). This perspective being not ethnocentric; these works will also inspire certain Brazilian reflections about the epistemology of administrative sciences (Serva & Andion, 2021Serva, M., & Andion, M.-C. (2021). La contribution de l'oeuvre de Jean-François Chanlat au champ des études épistémologiques des sciences administratives brésiliennes. In G. Bouville, & H. Yousfi, Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion. Anthropologie, management et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur de Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, Les Presses de l'université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann (à paraître).).

Finally, some works on management sciences also raised notable interest in the Brazilian community. We can mention, among others, Omar Aktouf’s work of critical synthesis on management, in the wake of studies conducted at the time at HEC-Montreal (Chanlat & Dufour, 1985Dufour, M.,Chanlat,A.(1985). La rupture entre l'entreprise et les hommes . Montréal, Québec, Canada: Québec/Amériques.; Chanlat, 1990Chanlat, J.-F. (Dir.). (1992a). Indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas (Vol. I). São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas, Montréal, Québec, Canada: HEC CETAI.), the Portuguese translation of which was widely known in Brazil (1996); some works from the École Polytechnique’s CRG in Paris (Berry, 1983Berry, M. (1983). La technologie invisible. Paris, France: Ecole Polytechnique., 2011Chanlat, J-F.,& Séguin, F. (1987). L'analyse des organisations. Tome II: les composantes de l'organisation, Montréal, Québec, Canada: Gaëtan Morin.), particularly one by Jacques Girin (2016)Girin, J. (2016). Langage, organisations, situations et agencements [avec la collaboration de Jean-François Chanlat, Hervé Dumez et Michèle Breton]. St-Foy, Québec, Canada: Presses de l’Université de Laval, Paris, France: Hermann. about language and management situations (Bayard, Borzeix, & Dumez, 2010Bayart, D., Borzeix, A., & Dumez, H. (Dir.), (2010). Langage et organisations: Sur les traces de Jacques Girin. Palaiseau, France: Presses de l’École Polytechnique.), and by Hervé Dumez (2016) about qualitative methodologies; and work by Audet and Malouin (1986)Audet, M., & Malouin, J.-L. (Orgs.). (1986). La production des connaissances scientifiques de l’administration. Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l’Université Laval., and Audet and Déry (1996) in Quebec, and by Martinet (1990)Martinet, A.-C. (Org.) (1990). Épistémologies et sciences de gestion. Paris, France: Economica. and Pesqueux in France on the epistemology of management sciences (Martinet & Pesqueux, 2013; Serva, 2013Serva, M. (2013). O surgimento e desenvolvimento da epistemologia da administração: Inferências sobre a contribuição ao aperfeiçoamento da teoria administrativa. RGO Revista Gestão Organizacional, 6(Edição especial), 51-64. doi: 10.22277/rgo.v6i3.1529
https://doi.org/10.22277/rgo.v6i3.1529...
, 2017 a et b), and by Pesqueux on philosophy and orgnizations (2008). It is also worth mentioning the work by Thévenet (1992)Thévenet, M. (1992). Auditoría de la cultura empresarial. Madrid, España: Ediciones Díaz de Santos. on corporate culture, and the pioneering work by Philippe d'Iribarne and his team, “Gestion et Société” [Management and Society] about national culture (d'Iribarne, Chevrier, Henry, Segal, & Tréguer-Felten, 2020d'Iribarne, P., Chevrier, S., Henry, A., Segal, J.-P., & Tréguer-Felten, G. (2020). Cross-cultural management revisited: A qualitative approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press .; d'Iribarne, Henry, Segal, Chevrier, & Globokar, 1998d'Iribarne, P., Henry, A., Segal, J.-P., Chevrier, S., & Globokar, T. (1998). Cultures et mondialisation: Gérer par-delà les frontières. Paris, France: Seuil .); works by Jean-Pierre Dupuis, Serge Bouchard and Omar Aktouf about culture and organizational symbolism (Freitas, 1991Freitas, M. E. (1991). Cultura organizacional: Grandes temas em debates. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 31(3), 73-82. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rae/article/view/38605
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
; 1999aFreitas, M. E. de. (1999a). Cultura organizacional: Formação, tipologias e impacto. São Paulo, SP: Editora Atlas . ), and works by Laurent Lapierre about leadership (1989Lapierre,L.(1989). Imaginário, Administração e Liderança. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 29(4), 05-16. doi : 10.1590/S0034-75901989000400002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590198900...
, 2005)Lapierre, L. (2005). Gérir e Criar. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 45(4), 108-117. doi : 10.1590/S0034-75902005000400008
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590200500...
, notably presented in Chanlat (1992, 1994, 1996)Chanlat, J.-F. (Dir.). (1992a). Indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas (Vol. I). São Paulo, SP: Publicação Atlas, Montréal, Québec, Canada: HEC CETAI., and also the works by Romain Laufer (1977)Laufer, R. (1977). Crise de légitimité dans les grandes organisations. Revue Française de Gestion , 9 (1), 112-123. on the legitimacy crisis in organizations (Laufer & Paradeise, 1982; Motta, 1988Motta, F. C. P. (1988). As formas organizacionais do estado. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 28(4), 15-31. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75901988000400003
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590198800...
).

We can also mention the more recent works of the École des Mines, notably by Segrestin and Hatchuel (2012)Segrestin, B., & Hatchuel, A. (2012). Refonder l'entreprise. Paris, France: Seuil. about a redefinition of the company. These two authors were responsible for arousing a certain enthusiasm among several Brazilian researchers who were interested in the management of solidarity organizations (Eynaud & França, 2019Eynaud, P., & França, C. de., Filho . (2019). Solidariedade e organizações: Pensar uma outra gestão. São Paulo, SP: Ateliê de Humanidades Editorial. [Edition française, Solidarité et organisation: Penser une autre gestion. Toulouse, France: Erès .) and in contributing to a legal redefinition of companies in France (Hatchuel, 2021Hatchuel, A. (2021, Janvier). La France, pionnière de la bonne gouvernance. Le Monde , 6 . Recuperado de https://www.lemonde.fr/emploi/article/2021/01/06/la-france-pionniere-de-la-bonne-gouvernance_6065334_1698637.html
https://www.lemonde.fr/emploi/article/20...
), a topic, which is also seen as a key issue for some English-speaking colleagues (Clarke, O'Brien and O'Kelley, 2019Clarke, T., O'Brien, J., & O'Kelley, C. (2019). The Oxford Handbook of The Corporation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.). There are also works produced for over ten years (2008-2018) by “Chaire Management, diversité et cohésion sociale”, of the Paris-Dauphine University, by Stéphanie Dameron, Mustafa Özbilgin and by the author of this article (Chanlat et al., 2013Chanlat, J.-F, Dameron, S., Dupuis, J.-P., Freitas, M,E, & Özbilgin, M. (2013). Management et Diversité : lignes de tension et perspectives. Management international / International Management / Gestiòn Internacional, 17, 5-13. doi: 10.7202/1015807ar
https://doi.org/10.7202/1015807ar...
; Chanlat & Özbilgin, 2018, 2019). These works and the two international symposia that were organized in Paris in 2011 and 2015, with the participation of Maria Ester de Freitas and Marcelo Dantas, had a great repercussion in Brazil thanks to the contacts established at the time with other researchers. Since then, a new sphere of research has emerged in the administrative sciences in interculturality (Davel, Dupuis, & Chanlat, 2008Davel, E., & Dupuis, J.-P., & Chanlat, J.-F. (Eds.). (2008). Gestion en contexte interculturel . Québec, Canada: Presses de l’Université de Laval et Téléuniversité.) and diversity that sought a better understanding, specially of expatriation experiences and reducing inequality and discrimination in Brazilian organizations (Bueno & Freitas, 2016Bueno, J. M., & Freitas, M. E. (2016). Les équipes multiculturelles dans les filiales brésiliennes de multinationales. In J.-P. Dupuis, J.-P. Lemaire, & E. Milliot (Coord.), Ancrages culturels dans un monde en mutation (pp. 157-172). Paris, France: Vuibert.; Freitas, 2018Freitas, M.-E. de. (2018). Gérer la diversité au Brésil. In J.-F. Chanlat, & Özbilgin, M, (Dir.), Management et diversité: Comparaisons internationales (pp.115-162). Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval; Paris, France: Hermann. ; Freitas et Dantas, 2011Freitas, M. E. de, & Dantas, M. (2011). Diversidade sexual e trabalho. São Paulo, SP: Cengage.; Freitas & Dantas, 2014Freitas, M. E. de, & Dantas, M. (2014). L'étranger dans le groupe: Pont et porte de l´interculturel. In A.-M. Guénette, E. Mutabazi, S. Von O. Ottino, & P. Pierre (Dir.), Management interculturel, altérité et identités (pp. 523-531). Paris, France: L'Harmattan.).

We can finally mention recent fundamental works in accounting written by Alexandre Rambaud and Jacques Richard, who question the very foundations of the discipline with a view to reformulating our economic system, which should ultimately be of interest to Brazilian researchers who are looking for an ecological management model because of the ties that Jacques Richard established with certain of them (Rambaud & Richard, 2021Rambaud, A., Richard, J. (2021). Philosophie d'une écologie anticapitaliste: Pour un nouveau modèle de gestion écologique. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann.) and David, Hatchuel and Laufer ' new building reflections on Administrative sciences (2012)David, A., Hatchuel, A., & Laufer, R. (2012). Les nouvelles fondation des sciences de gestion. Paris, France: Presses des Mines.. At last there are, of course, numerous works in French-speaking scientific networks, such as RIODD that deals with company responsibility and sustainable development, AGRH (Human Resource Management), AIMS (Strategic Management and Organization), RHIME (Ethics and Interdisciplinarity) and ATLAS-AFMI (International management), which French-speaking Brazilian researchers can access via the Internet and participate in, as some have sometimes done in recent years. Finally, researchers can consult various journals that will give them access to often original works, such as Revue Française de Gestion, Gérer et Comprendre, Gestion, Management International, Management et Avenir, Finance, Contrôle, Stratégie, M@n@gement, Rhime, le Libellio d'Aegis, Entreprise et Société, Revue internationale PME, Gestion 2000, La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, Management et Sciences Sociales, Revue de l'organisation responsable, Question(s) de management, Entreprises et histoire... and consult the Société Française de Management website to read its reviews, its opinions and publications on current matters in our area.

Work Sciences

Work Sciences are a second source of inspiration. The work by Christophe Dejours (2007Dejours, C. (2007). Fator humano. São Paulo, SP: Editora Atlas ., 2011Dejours, C. (2011). A banalização da injustiça social. São Paulo, SP: Editora Atlas ., 2015Dejours, C. (2015). A loucura do trabalho: Estudo de psicopatologia do trabalho. São Paulo, SP: Cortez Editora-Oboré., 2017)Dejours, C. (2017). Psicodinâmica do trabalho: Casos clínicos. São Paulo, SP: Dublinense. occupies a centrally historical place in Brazil (Dejours, Abdoucheli, & Jayet, 1994). Since the 1990s his psycho-dynamic perspective of work has, in fact, been a significant source of inspiration for Brazilian research into the psychology of work (Aerosa, 2019Aerosa, J. (2019). O mundo do trabalho em (re)análise: Um olhar a partir da psicodinâmica do trabalho. Laboreal, 15(2), 1-24. doi: 10.4000/laboreal.15504
https://doi.org/10.4000/laboreal.15504...
; Bendassolli & Borges-Andrade, 2015Bendassolli, P., & Borges-Andrade, J. (Orgs.). (2015). Dicionário de psicologia do trabalho e das organizações. São Paulo, SP: Artesa.; Bendassolli & Soboll, 2010/2021; Betiol & Tonelli, 2002Betiol, M. I. S., & Tonelli, M. J. (2002). A Trama drama numa intervenção: Análise sobra oticada psicodinâmica do trabalho. Organizações & Sociedade, 9(24), 11-23. doi: 10.1590/S1984-92302002000200001
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-9230200200...
; Cicero, Cardoso, & Klipan, 2019Cicero, A. F. C., Cardoso, J. M. M., & Klipan, M. L. (2019). Panorama da psicodinâmica do trabalho no Brasil entre os anos de 2005 e 2015. Revista Interinstitucional de Psicologia, 12(1), 19-36. doi: 10.36298/gerais2019120103
https://doi.org/10.36298/gerais201912010...
; Lima, 1998Lima, M.-E. A. (1998). A psicopatologia do trabalho: Origens e desenvolvimentos recentes na França. Psicologia, Ciências e Profissão, 18(2), 10-15. doi: 10.1590/s1414-98931998000200003
https://doi.org/10.1590/s1414-9893199800...
; Sznelwar, Uchida, & Lancman, 2011Sznelwar, L. I., Uchida, S., & Lancman, S. (2011). A subjetividade no trabalho em questão. Tempo Social, 23(1), 11-30. doi: 10.1590/S0103-20702011000100002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-2070201100...
), a fact that was emphasized in 2009 by Álvaro Roberto Crespo Merlo and Ana Magnólia Bezerra Mendes (2009)Merlo, A. C., & Mendes, A. M. B. (2009). Perspectivas do uso da psicodinâmica do trabalho no Brasil: Teoria, pesquisa e ação. Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho, 12(2), 141-156. doi: 10.11606/issn.1981-0490.v12i2p141-156
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-0490....
in an inventory of work psychodynamics in Brazil:

The launch in Brazil in 1987 of the A loucura do trabalho [Psychopathology of Work] by Christophe Dejours, with the new theoretical contribution of the work, turned it into a reference text that was used by almost all researchers in the area. The discussion and approach in this book were new, provided many answers, and opened the way for thinking about the consequences of work - particularly the way it is organized - on the psychic health of workers (p. 142). (Our translation.)

Later the authors added:

The approach adopted in this subject enabled the reductionist view to be surpassed, a view that held only the individual accountable for the consequences of work on their health, and sought specific work experiences that occurred in real work realities, such as, for example, the role played by worker intelligence and its function as a defense mechanism and in the construction of identity at work (2009, p. 143). (Our translation.)

Because it is based on practice, this approach also exerted a notable influence on the administrative sciences, thanks to the researchers who were interested in the relationship between psychology and organization (Fachin & Cavedon, 2003Fachin, R., & Cavedon, N. R. (2003). Em busca da especificidade da influência francesa na análise organizacional no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 1(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512003000100006
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951200300...
; Freitas, 2008 a; Freitas & Motta, 2000; Vergara, 2006Vergara, S. C. (2006). Análise organizacional no Brasil: Em busca da independência intelectual. In J.-F. Chanlat, R. Fachin, & T. Fischer , Análise organizacional: Perspectivas latinas (Vol. 1: Olhar histórico e constatações atuais, pp. 219-238). Porto Alegre, RS: Editora da UFRGS.), sometimes via the chapter he had written in my main work (Dejours, 1996Dejours, C. (1996). Uma nova visão do sofrimento humano nas organizações. In J.-F. Chanlat (Dir.), O indivíduo na organização: Dimensões esquecidas. (Vol 1). São Paulo, SP: Editora Atlas, 149-174.).

Other publications about work sciences also awoke interest. Here we can recall those by Pascale Molinier (2013)Molinier, P. (2013). O trabalho e a psique: Uma introdução à psicodinâmica do trabalho (F. Soudant, Trad.). Brasília, DF: Paralelo 15. about service and care jobs (Gaviria & Molinier, 2011Gaviria, L. G. A., & Molinier, P. (Éds.). (2011). El trabajo y la ética del cuidado. Bogotá, Colombia: La Carreta Social.), for a long time close to Dejours; works by Yves Clot (2010)Clot, Y., & Lhuillier, D. (2010). Agir en clinique du travail. Toulouse, France: Erès . and Dominique Lhuillier, who were responsible for developing a work activity clinic inspired by Vygotsky and Bakthine (Bendassolli & Soboll, 2011/2021Bendassolli, P., & Soboll, L. A. P. (Orgs.). (2011/2021). Clínicas do trabalho, novas perspectivas para compreender do trabalho na atualidade. São Paulo, SP: Atlas.; Clot & Lhuillier, 2006Clot, Y., & Lhuillier, D. (2006). Perspectives en cliniques du travail. Toulouse, France: Erès., 2010Clot, Y., & Lhuillier, D. (2010). Agir en clinique du travail. Toulouse, France: Erès .; Lima, 2013Lima, M. E. A. (2013). Saúde mental e trabalho: Limites, desafios, obstáculos e perspectivas. Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho, 16(spe1), 91-98. doi: 10.11606/issn.1981-0490.v16ispe1p91-98
https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1981-0490....
); and the pioneering works on ergonomics led by Alain Wisner, the founder of the French Ergonomics School (Sznelwar, 2006Sznelwar, I. L. (2006). Alain Wisner: O desenvolvimento da ergonomia e do pensamento sobre o "trabalhar". Travailler, 1(15), 55-70. doi: 10.3917/trav.015.0055
https://doi.org/10.3917/trav.015.0055...
). Finally, certain writings on the sociology of work also had some repercussions, in particular the theory of social regulation by Jean-Daniel Reynaud (1989)Reynaud, J.-D. (1989). Les règles du jeu: l’Action collective et la régulation sociale. Paris, France: Armand Colin., one of the main reference in the French-speaking area (Terssac, 2003Terssac, G. de. (Ed.). (2003). La théorie de la régulation sociale de Jean-Daniel Reynaud. Paris, France: La Decouverte.) who enjoyed some success with his colleagues in administrative sciences in Brazil, particularly Marlene Catarina Oliveira Lopes Melo (1984)Melo, M. C. De O. L. (1984). Processos de participação como meios não-instutionalizados dois postulados básicos de regulação de conflitos. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 24(4), 11-18. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75901984000400004
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590198400...
who, having written her thesis under Reynaud in Paris, used his reflection to understand the role played by conflict management at work, an observation we can also make with regard to her French language colleagues (Richebé et al, 2020Richebé, N., Favereau, O., Livian, Y., Bréchet, J.-P., Taskin, L., Havard, C., & Croset, N. (2020). La théorie de la régulation sociale: Hommage à Jean-Daniel Reynaud. Revue Française de Gestion , 6(6), 105-128. doi: 10.3166/rfg.2020.00437
https://doi.org/10.3166/rfg.2020.00437...
). Finally, we can mention the works by Norbert Alter on innovation (2002)Alter, N. (2002). L'innovation ordinaire. Paris, France: PUF. and cooperation (2010), which have also been remarked upon by the Brazilian community (Salvador, 2011Salvador, P. (2011, janeiro). Entrevista com Norbert Alter. Pequenas Empresas & Grandes Negócios, 264. Recuperado de http://revistapegn.globo.com/Revista/Common/0,,EMI199915-17172,00-ENTREVISTA+COM+NORBERT+ALTER+INTEGRA.html
http://revistapegn.globo.com/Revista/Com...
).

The heterodox economic sciences

The third source of inspiration for Brazilian researchers in administrative sciences is the heterodox economic sciences (Lévesque, Bourque, & Forgues, 1997). In fact, all those interested in socio-economic equilibrium, social development, and social economy organizations in a country where there are deep social inequalities (Ferreira de Souza, 2018Ferreira de Souza, P, H, D. (2018). Uma história de desigualdade: a concentração de renda entre os ricos no Brasil, 1926-2013. São Paulo, SP: Hucitec.; Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica, 2019Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica. (2019). Sintese de Indicadores Sociais: uma análise das condições de vida da população brasileira. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: IBGE.) found elements in certain currents of French heterodox economic thinking that were capable of enriching their own reflections on Brazilian realities.

Among these currents of thought, we find those that deal with regulation theory: Boyer, Freyssenet, Aglietta, Coriat, Lipietz, Orléan... (Aglietta, 1997Aglietta, M. (1997). Régulation et crises du capitalisme. Paris, France: Odile Jacob.; Boyer & Cohen, 2010Boyer, R., & Cohen, P. (2010). Teoria da regulação: Os fundamentos. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade ; Coriat, 1994Coriat, B. (1994). Pensar pelo avesso. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: UFRJ/Revan.; Mello, 2019Mello, M, S. B. de, Filho. (2019). Quarenta anos de Escola Francesa da Regulação: Entre o marxismo e o institucionalismo histórico. Economia e Sociedade, 28(1), 25-29. doi: 10.1590/1982-3533.2019v28n1art02
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-3533.2019v2...
), which is well known in Latin America (Castaingts-Teillery, 2014Castaingts-Teillery, J. (2014). La crisis financiera. Un análisis de etnoeconomía. Conferencia, Academia Mexicana de Economía Política, Ciudad de México, México. Recuperado de amepmexico.com.mx.
amepmexico.com.mx...
; de Mello Filho, 2019Mello, M, S. B. de, Filho. (2019). Quarenta anos de Escola Francesa da Regulação: Entre o marxismo e o institucionalismo histórico. Economia e Sociedade, 28(1), 25-29. doi: 10.1590/1982-3533.2019v28n1art02
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-3533.2019v2...
), and with the economics of convention (Boltanski & Chiapello, 1999Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, E. (1999). Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris, France: Gallimard.; Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991; Eymard-Duvernay, 2004Eymard-Duvernay, F. (2004). Economie politique de l'entreprise. Paris, France: La Découverte ; Favereau, 1989Favereau, O. (1989). Organisation et marché. Revue française d'économie, 4(1), 65-96. doi: 10.3406/rfeco.1989.1203
https://doi.org/10.3406/rfeco.1989.1203...
; Orléan, 2004Orléan, A. (2004). Analyse économique des conventions. Paris, France: Quadrige, PUF.; Salais et Thévenot, 1986Salais, R., Thévenot, L.(éd.).(1986). Le travail : marché, règles et conventions. Paris, France: Economica. ), an analysis of conventions that is a theory of collective action that seeks to overcome the contradictions of rational choice theory (Bessy & Favereau, 2003Bessy, C., & Favereau, O. (2003). Institutions et économie des conventions. Cahiers d’Économie Politique, 1(44), 119-164. doi: 10.3917/cep.044.0119
https://doi.org/10.3917/cep.044.0119...
).

The works of this last current, particularly those by Boltanski and Thévenot (1991)Boltanski, L., & Thévenot, L. (1991). De la justification: Les économies de la grandeur. Paris, France: Gallimard . on economies by of Grandeurs, turn the spotlight on the situation in which collective action occurs. It is constituted, according to the authors, by processes of justification and proof, and from this process emerges a plurality of meanings about what is just across several models of “worlds” (market, domestic, industrial, civic, of opinion, and of inspiration), without an external or determined hierarchy existing among them. The existence of these many conventions, therefore, makes it possible to produce a critique of a purely market view of action. These works, joining a certain number of Brazilian researchers reflections on substantive rationality in the footsteps of the Gueirrero Ramos pioneering work done in Brazil, are going to have some resonance among them (Serva, Caitano, Santos, & Siqueira, 2015Serva, M., Caitano, D., Santos, L., & Siqueira, G. (2015). A análise da racionalidade nas organizações: Um balanço do desenvolvimento de um campo de estudos no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.br, 13(3), 414-437. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/cadernosebape/article/view/16344
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
).

Since social economics is an important area in Brazil, the works carried out in the French-speaking world on this subject also aroused great interest in Brazilian researchers, and Brazilian works were welcomed with great interest in France and Quebec (Laville, 2011Laville, J-L. (dir). (2011). Economie solidaire. Paris, France: Editions CNRS.). Since solidarity economy organizations had not shown much interest in the theory of organizations (Serva, 2002Serva, M. (2002). Contribuições da sociologia econômica à teoria das organizações. Sociedade e Estado, 17(1), 106-122. doi: 10.1590/s0102-69922002000100007
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0102-6992200200...
; Serva et Andion, 2006Andion, C., & Serva, M. A. (2006). Etnografia e os estudos organizacionais. In K, C, Godoi., R, Bandeira-de-Mello, & A., Barbosa da Silva. (Orgs.), Pesquisa qualitativa em estudos organizacionais: Paradigmas, estratégias e métodos. São Paulo, SP: Saraiva.), it is not surprising, therefore, that some Brazilian researchers again seek their inspiration from this school of economic sociology, while making their own original contributions (Andion, 1998, 2005; França, Laville, Medeiros, & Magnen, 2005França, G, C. dé, Filho, Laville, J.-L., Medeiros, A. J. de S., & Magnen, J.-L. (2005). Ação pública e economia solidária: Uma perspectiva internacional. Salvador, Bahia: Editora CIAGS/UFBA.; Martes, Loureiro, Abramovay & Serafim, 2007Martes, A.-C. B., Loureiro, M., Abramovay, S. M., & Serafim, M. (2007). Apresentação Fórum - Sociologia econômica. RAE-eletrônica, 6(1), Art 10. Recuperado de https://www.scielo.br/pdf/raeel/v6n1/a05v6n1.pdf
https://www.scielo.br/pdf/raeel/v6n1/a05...
; Sperb et Serva, 2018Sperb, M. P., & Serva, M. (2018). Economia social e solidária, governança e turismo no âmbito do desenvolvimento territorial sustentável. Revista de Ciências da Administração, 20(50), 93-109. doi: 10.5007/2175-8077.2018v20n50p93
https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2018v2...
). The international conferences on local power held in Bahia by NEPOL, which is known today as CIAGS, and coordinated by Tânia Fischer, favored their spread.

The recent work by Philippe Eynaud and Genauto Carvalho de França Filho- a CIAGS member-Solidarité et organisation: penser une autre gestion [Solidarity and organization: thinking of another management], published both in France (2019) and in Brazil (2020) is, in its own way, a testimony of this exemplary Franco-Brazilian cooperation on this subject that is fundamental both for management and our socio-economic and environmental future. They emphasize both the potential and the paradoxes as follows:

. . . Faced with these threatening dangers, one single solution . . . , however, can be invoked: solidarity. The defense of solidarity between human beings and Nature (understood as all living beings: animals and plants) is, in fact, the most direct way of responding to the challenges of climate change and the loss of biodiversity. The development of solidarity among human beings is also a perennial response to the inequalities that divide them. But while saying what our response should be is easy, its execution is particularly difficult. We are faced with countless obstacles, among them - and not the least - the lack of reflection on usable concepts for organizing this solidarity as close as possible to the actors and their economic activities. There is, in fact, a paradox that needs to be highlighted: it has never been more necessary to implement solidarity both nationally and internationally, and reflecting on it has never been so avoided, misunderstood or discredited (p. 5). (Our translation.)

BETWEEN LOCALISM AND OPENNESS: IS THE BRAZILIAN FIELD SEEKING ITS SINGULARITY IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT?

The field of Brazilian administrative science has always known foreign influences, as we have just seen, which is not surprising in the scientific world that is traditionally marked by the circulation of ideas. Though this exchange can prove to be very fertile, some situations may be problematic when a particular field suffers from strongly dominant force, thus preventing it from developing at its own pace and in accordance with its own issues. Such is the case today in numerous national fields that are coming under increasing pressure to comply with the so-called “international” rules and logics that come from the heart of the North-American world. This phenomenon, however, is not only experienced in countries situated in the South; it equally affects numerous other countries worldwide, including English-speaking countries (Clegg & Bayley, 2007Clegg, S R., & Bayley, J.R. (Eds). (2007). International Encyclopedia of Organization studies. Thousand. Oaks: Sage.; Dameron & Durand, 2017Dameron, S., Durand, T. (Eds). (2017). The Future of Management Education. Volume 1: Challenges facing Business Schools around the World. London, UK: Palgrave. ; Willmott, 2011Willmott, H. (2011). Journal List Fetishism and the Perversion of Scholarship: Reactivity and the ABS List. Organization, 18(4), 429-442.).

The universe of teaching and research in management is characterized, among other aspects, by annual national and international rankings of institutions (Shanghai, Times, Financial Times, etc.), which are based on the international accreditations obtained (AACSB, EQUIS, AMBA), the number of publications by teaching personnel that appear in classified journals, the most cited always being American, and of course, the growing hegemony of the English language in the field that this implies (Chanlat, 2014 aChanlat, J.-F. (2014a). Langue et pensée dans la recherche en gestion: Constats, enjeux et atouts de la langue française. Gérer et Comprendre, 115(1), 4-17. doi: 10.3917/geco.115.0004
https://doi.org/10.3917/geco.115.0004...
, bChanlat, J.-F. (2014b). A língua e o pensar no campo da pesquisa em administração: Constatações e questões para os pesquisadores que não utilizam a língua inglesa. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(6), 706-714. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020140610
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201406...
, cChanlat, J.-F. (2014c). Language and thinking in organization studies: The visibility of French OS production in the Anglo-Saxon OS field. International Journal of Organization al Analysis, 22 (4), 504-533. doi: 10.1108/IJOA-09-2013-0708
https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-09-2013-070...
; Collectif, 2019Collectif. (2019, Février). La recherche francophone en sciences de gestion n'a aucune raison d'acccepter une soumission à un ordre anglo-saxon. Le Monde, 20. Recuperado de https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2019/02/20/la-recherche-francophone-en-sciences-de-gestion-n-a-aucune-raison-d-accepter-une-soumission-a-un-ordre-anglo-saxon_5425600_3232.html
https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/201...
; Dameron & Durand, 2017Dameron, S., Durand, T. (Eds). (2017). The Future of Management Education. Volume 1: Challenges facing Business Schools around the World. London, UK: Palgrave. ; Lussier & Chanlat, 2017Lussier, S., Chanlat, J-F. (2017). Les enseignants en gestion face aux nouvelles injonctions institutionnelles. Une étude France-Québec. Revue Française de Gestion, 43(267), 79-96. doi: 10.3166/rfg.2017.00183
https://doi.org/10.3166/rfg.2017.00183...
; Nygaard, 2019Nygaard, L. P. (2019). The institutional context of "linguistic injustice": Norwegian social scientists and situated multilingualis. Publications, 7(10), 1-13. Doi: 10.3390/publications7010010
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications7010...
; Tietze & Dick, 2012; Tsuda, 2013Tsuda, Y. (2013). Speaking Against the Hegemony of English Problems, Ideologies and Solutions. In The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, Nakayama, T., & Halualani, R, T , London, UK: Basil Blackwell, 248-269. ). As these bibliometric classifications are increasingly criticized (Berry, 2009Berry, M. (2009). Les mirages de la bibliométrie, ou comment scléroser la recherche en croyant bien faire. Revue du MAUSS, 1(33), 227-245. Recuperado de https://www.cairn.info/revue-du-mauss-2009-1-page-227.htm
https://www.cairn.info/revue-du-mauss-20...
; Lussier et Chanlat, 2017; Willmott, 2011Willmott, H. (2011). Journal List Fetishism and the Perversion of Scholarship: Reactivity and the ABS List. Organization, 18(4), 429-442.; Tourish & Willmott, 2015Bouville, G., & Yousfi, H. (Dir.). (2021). Les dimensions oubliées de la gestion, anthropologie, management, travail et organisation: Mélanges en l'honneur du professeur Jean-François Chanlat. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval; Paris, France: Hermann.), some institutions have had no hesitation in abandoning them, such as occurred recently in France with the Management and Economics section of CNRS (the French most important scientific research center), which suppressed its classification once and for all.

Despite everything, for non-English-speaking countries, this tension remains strong, making them oscillate between a full adoption of the so-called “international” rules, which is often confused with “everything in English”, and that leads, therefore, to a growing Anglicization of minds (Boussebaa & Tienari, 2019Boussebaa, M., & Tienari, J. (2019). Englishization and the politics of knowledge production in management studies. Journal of Management Inquiry , 30(1), 59-67. doi: 10.1177/1056492619835314
https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492619835314...
; Chanlat, 2014aChanlat, J.-F. (2014a). Langue et pensée dans la recherche en gestion: Constats, enjeux et atouts de la langue française. Gérer et Comprendre, 115(1), 4-17. doi: 10.3917/geco.115.0004
https://doi.org/10.3917/geco.115.0004...
; Collectif, 2019; Jackson & Primecz, 2019Jackson, T, & Primecz, H. (2019). Cross-cultural management studies and the Englishization of scholarly communication: A paradox. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management , 19(2), 115-119.https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595819865095
https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595819865095...
; Lussier & Chanlat, 2017Lussier, S., Chanlat, J-F. (2017). Les enseignants en gestion face aux nouvelles injonctions institutionnelles. Une étude France-Québec. Revue Française de Gestion, 43(267), 79-96. doi: 10.3166/rfg.2017.00183
https://doi.org/10.3166/rfg.2017.00183...
; Nygaard, 2019Nygaard, L. P. (2019). The institutional context of "linguistic injustice": Norwegian social scientists and situated multilingualis. Publications, 7(10), 1-13. Doi: 10.3390/publications7010010
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications7010...
; Tietze & Dick, 2012; Tsuda, 2013Tsuda, Y. (2013). Speaking Against the Hegemony of English Problems, Ideologies and Solutions. In The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, Nakayama, T., & Halualani, R, T , London, UK: Basil Blackwell, 248-269. ), and a resistance strategy that aims to remain relevant to their local, regional and national environment, while avoiding closing in on themselves.

In the case of Latin American countries, and particularly Brazil, these issues are, as we have seen, a recurring object of countless debates in the scientific community (Alcadipani & Caldas, 2012Alcadipani, R., & Caldas, M. (2012). Americanizing Brazilian management. Critical Perspectives on International Business , 8(1), 37-55. doi: 10.1108/17422041211197558
https://doi.org/10.1108/1742204121119755...
; Alcadipani & Faria, 2014; Bertero, Caldas, & Wood, 1999Bertero, C. O., Caldas, M. P., & Wood, T., Jr. (1999). Produção científica em administração: Provocações, insinuações e contribuições para o debate local. Revista de Administração Contemporânea , 3(1), 147-178. doi: 10.1590/S1415-65551999000100009
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-6555199900...
; Guedes et Faria, 2010Guedes, A., & Faria, A. (Eds.). (2010). International management and international relations: A critical perspective from Latin America. New York, USA: Routledge .; Ibarra-Colado, Faria & Guedes, 2010Ibarra-Colado, E., Faria, A., & Guedes, A. (2010). Introduction to the special issue on "Critical international management and international critical management: Perspectives from LatinAmerica”. Critical Perspectives on International Business , 6(2/3), 86-96. doi: 10.1108/17422041011049923
https://doi.org/10.1108/1742204101104992...
; Ibarra-Colado, 2006Ibarra-Colado, E. (2006). Organization studies and epistemic coloniality in Latin America: Thinking otherness from the margins. Organization, 13(4), 463-488. doi : 10.1177/1350508406065851
https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508406065851...
; Paula et al., 2010Paula, A. P. P. de, Maranhão, C. de A., Barreto, R. de O., & Klechen, C. F. (2010). A tradição e a autonomia dos estudos organizacionais críticos no Brasil. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 50(1), 10-23. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75902010000100002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201000...
; Serva, 2017Serva, M. (2017b). A nova ideologia econômica da ciência e a (re) politização do campo. Ciências em Debate, 2, 52-58.). Given the current situation, while some seem to succumb to the dominant rules, others however try to offer some resistance. In Brazil, this resistance involves criticism of the dominant logics (Bertero et al., 2013Bertero, C. O., Alcadipani, R., Cabral, S., Faria, A., & Rossoni, P. (2013). Os desafios da produção de conhecimento em administração no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 11(1), 181-196. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512013000100012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951201300...
; Fischer, Waiandt, & Fonseca, 2011Fischer, T., Waiandt, C., & Fonseca, R. L. (2011). A história do ensino em administração: Contribuições teórico-metodológicas e uma proposta de agenda de pesquisa. Revista de Administração Pública, 45(4), 911-939. doi: 10.1590/S0034-76122011000400002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7612201100...
) of classification systems (Fischer, 2018; Serva, 2017), of the “everything English” policy in terms of publications (Alves & Pozzebon, 2013Alves, M. A., & Pozzebon, M. (2013). How to resist linguistic domination and promote knowledge diversity. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 53(6), 629-633. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020130610
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201306...
; Gantman, Yousfi, & Alcadipani, 2015Gantman, E,. Yousfi, H., & Alcadipani, R. (2015). Challenging Anglo-Saxon dominance in management and organizational knowledge. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(2), 126-129. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020150202v
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201502...
), and the affirmation of their singularities (Motta, 1983Motta, F. C. P. (1983). A questão da formação do administrador. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 23(4), 53-55. doi: 10.1590/s0034-75901983000400005
https://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-7590198300...
, 2002; Motta & Caldas, 1997; Fachin, 2006Fachin, R. (2006). Construindo uma associação científica: Trinta anos da ANPAD - Memórias, registros, desafios. Porto Alegre, RS: ANPAD., 2014; Davel, Vergara & Ghadiri, 2007Davel, E., Vergara, S., & Ghadiri, S. (Orgs.). (2007). Administração com arte: Experiências vividas de ensino-aprendizagem. São Paulo, SP: Atlas .; Waiandt, 2009, 2018) and the questioning of works produced based on a critical post-colonial reflection and from a deeply unequal social context (Alcadipani, 2010bAlcadipani, R. (2010a). Critical international management and international critical management: Perspectives from Latin America. Critical Perspectives on International Business, 6, (2/3), 86-96. doi: 10.1108/cpoib.2010.29006baa.001
https://doi.org/10.1108/cpoib.2010.29006...
; Alcadipani & Faria, 2014Alcadipani, R. (2010b). From Latin America to the world: Notes on the (possible) latin american management styles. In A. Guedes, & A. Faria (Eds.), International management and international relations: A critical perspective from Latin America (Vol. 1, pp. 136-158). New York, USA: Routledge.; Alcadipani & Rosa, 2011Alcadipani, R., & Bertero, C. (2012). Guerra Fria e ensino do management no Brasil: O caso da FGV/EAESP. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 52(3), 284-299. doi: 10.1590/S0034-75902012000300002
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201200...
; Gantman et al., 2015Gantman, E,. Yousfi, H., & Alcadipani, R. (2015). Challenging Anglo-Saxon dominance in management and organizational knowledge. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(2), 126-129. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020150202v
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201502...
; Ferreira de Souza, 2018Ferreira de Souza, P, H, D. (2018). Uma história de desigualdade: a concentração de renda entre os ricos no Brasil, 1926-2013. São Paulo, SP: Hucitec.; IBGE, 2020).

These critiques, in fact, advocate a review of the system as a whole:

. . . Therefore, faced with the imperial power of the re-Westerniziation and the obligation to as­sume more substantive geo-epistemic responsibilities, one of the main challenges for the coming decades in Brazil is to rebuild or reform our current institutions (Anpad, Capes, CNPq etc.) . . . Thus the Management area in Brazil will be able to lead transformations of the same order as institutions abroad (US Academy of Management, Chinese Academy of Management, World Bank, Egos etc.) by means of a large project that includes a geopolitics of knowledge, promotes the substitution of Eurocentric universalism for a pluriversality, and enables the construction of a world, in which different worlds and knowledge can coexist. Maybe it is too much to ask or hope for from the Management area, but it can be an excellent opportunity for us to reinvent the area (Bertero et al., 2013Bertero, C. O., Alcadipani, R., Cabral, S., Faria, A., & Rossoni, P. (2013). Os desafios da produção de conhecimento em administração no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 11(1), 181-196. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512013000100012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951201300...
, p. 190). (Our translation.)

This constitutes a warning against a purely bibliometric assessment of research, the lion’s share of which is published in English, which contributes towards reducing creativity:

We must be careful not to let the values and metrics that regulate us become the intellectual castration we don’t deserve, and that puts an end to our creative and innovative efforts. So, the main question is: what impact does my management have on people, territories, and organizations? It needs to be assessed in relation to its impact, and by what it adds, in order to avoid the almost autism we find in people who become isolated when they are only guided by metrics. In fact, these metrics may not be valid in a few years’ time. We must be sensitive now to this issue, which could permit to a reposition of our scientific field in the right direction (Fischer, 2018Fischer, T., & Davel, E. (2018). Administração como aprendizagem: do vir ao porvir com Tânia Fischer. Farol - Revista de Estudos Organizacionais e Sociedade, 5(12), 13-31. Recuperado de https://revistas.face.ufmg.br/index.php/farol/article/view/4794
https://revistas.face.ufmg.br/index.php/...
, p. 26). (Our translation.)

The regulatory agency in Brazil, CAPES, instituted its own ranking of journals that is known as Qualis. It is the main point of reference for assessing Graduate Programs, based on publications of the Program’s faculty in the best-positioned journals in the ranking. The architecture of the Qualis valuation reflects the range of indices and the impact factors of the scientific associations mentioned above. In the Administration area, at the top classification level of Qualis (A1), no Brazilian journal appears; most of them are American journals, with the English language being totally predominant (Serva, 2017bServa, M. (2017b). A nova ideologia econômica da ciência e a (re) politização do campo. Ciências em Debate, 2, 52-58., p. 55). (Our translation.)

Finally, this criticism reaffirms the importance of dialogue with other fields of knowledge, and reinforces international cooperation with a view to withstanding the huge challenges faced by our societies and our planet (Alcadipani & Faria, 2018; Chanlat, Fachin, & Fischer, 2006Fachin, R. (2006). Construindo uma associação científica: Trinta anos da ANPAD - Memórias, registros, desafios. Porto Alegre, RS: ANPAD., 2007; Eynaud & França, 2019Eynaud, P., & França, C. de., Filho . (2019). Solidariedade e organizações: Pensar uma outra gestão. São Paulo, SP: Ateliê de Humanidades Editorial. [Edition française, Solidarité et organisation: Penser une autre gestion. Toulouse, France: Erès ., 2020). For us, dialogue between French-speaking researchers and Brazilian researchers should continue to occur within this framework.

It is in this context, as we have seen, that works in French have found some support from the Brazilian community for some decades, particularly by way of some outstanding works and lines. This interest is based on historical value and a Latin cultural proximity, which, despite the differences there may be between Latin peoples, in my own specific case, French and Brazilians, still exists despite everything (Pinot de Villechenon, 2003Pinot de Villechenon, F. (2003). La latinidad: una cuestión de afinidad cultural en las relaciones euro-latinoamericanas. In Cavallero, P, A., Buzón, R, P., Frenkel, D., & Nocito, A. Koronis. Homenaje a Carlos A. Ronchi March. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Universidad de Buenos Aires, p. 395-409; Pinot de Villechenon, Chanlat, & Rizzo, 2021; Rouquié, 1987Rouquié A. (1987). Amérique latine: introduction à l’Extrême Occident. Paris, France: Seuil,).

This dialogue, in my opinion, can only last, however, if French language researchers and Brazilian researchers keep on defending their specialties by writing books, articles, and monographs in their native language, and organizing conferences and seminars where issues of their own societies are always addressed (Chanlat, 2014aChanlat, J.-F. (2014a). Langue et pensée dans la recherche en gestion: Constats, enjeux et atouts de la langue française. Gérer et Comprendre, 115(1), 4-17. doi: 10.3917/geco.115.0004
https://doi.org/10.3917/geco.115.0004...
, 2014b). Researchers should continue to concentrate on their socio-economic environment in a relevant way (Fischer, 2018Fischer, T., & Davel, E. (2018). Administração como aprendizagem: do vir ao porvir com Tânia Fischer. Farol - Revista de Estudos Organizacionais e Sociedade, 5(12), 13-31. Recuperado de https://revistas.face.ufmg.br/index.php/farol/article/view/4794
https://revistas.face.ufmg.br/index.php/...
). Therefore, we need to avoid finding ourselves in the situation of that Norwegian researcher who confessed he was incapable of presenting the results of his studies to his fellow citizens in Norwegian, because of the “everything in English” policy implemented by his institution, which had resulted in him losing his ability to do so [present in Norwegian] (Niggard, 2019Nygaard, L. P. (2019). The institutional context of "linguistic injustice": Norwegian social scientists and situated multilingualis. Publications, 7(10), 1-13. Doi: 10.3390/publications7010010
https://doi.org/10.3390/publications7010...
).

On my part, as I have just said, I have always tried to be an author that affirms local, regional and national singularities in all the areas in which I have intervened (teaching, research, publications, national and international scientific associations), always promoting a true intercultural dialogue (Chanlat, 2014bChanlat, J.-F. (2014b). A língua e o pensar no campo da pesquisa em administração: Constatações e questões para os pesquisadores que não utilizam a língua inglesa. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(6), 706-714. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020140610
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201406...
; Chanlat, Davel, & Dupuis, 2013Chanlat, J.-F, Davel, E., & Dupuis, J.-P. (2013). Cross-Cultural Management. Culture and management across the world. Londres, RU: Routledge.; Chanlat & Pierre, 2018Chanlat, J.-F., Özbilgin, M. (2018). Management et diversité: Comparaisons internationales. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Paris, France: Hermann.; Davel, Dupuis & Chanlat, 2008Davel, E., Dantas, M., & Vergara, S. C. (2008). Culture et gestion au Brésil. In E. Davel, J.-P. Dupuis, & J.-F. Chanlat (Eds.), Gestion en contexte interculturel. Québec, Canada: Presses de l’Université de Laval et Téléuniversité. CD.) between linguistic worlds, and remaining attentive to this bond with the Brazilian community that is dear to me for the reasons I have previously mentioned, a community that has, in my opinion, despite the previous criticisms, all the elements necessary for a scientific field that aspires to relative autonomy: demographic number, journals, publishing houses, scientific associations, conferences, etc. (Chanlat, 2015Chanlat J.-F. (2015). Le champ des études organisationnelles: Le regard critique d’un chercheur plurilingue. RAE- Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(2), 226-230. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020150212
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-7590201502...
). It was precisely for this reason that, as much as I could, I encouraged numerous colleagues, particularly French speakers, to participate in events in Brazil, and numerous Brazilian colleagues to participate in French language events. I also tried to publicize some of their works in French, including in the collection I direct at Laval University publishing house (Cavalcanti, 2011Calvacanti, B. (2011). Le leadership dans les organisations publiques au Brésil. Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada: Les Presses de l'Université Laval. ).

This spirit of openness is based, among other things, on multilingualism and an active policy in terms of translation that allow us access to foreign thinking (Helsinki, initiative, 2019). This is often not the case with our American colleagues, whose monolingualism and the few translations of our reference works in English that are available to them very often result in them becoming academically provincial, as Gaylord Georges Candler (2014)Candler, G. G. (2014). Linguistic diglossia and parochialism in American public administration: The missing half of Guerreiro Ramos's redução sociológica. Administrative Theory and Praxis, 28(4), 540-561. doi: 10.1080/10841806.2006.11029561
https://doi.org/10.1080/10841806.2006.11...
reminds us with regard to the reception of the thinking of Guerreiro Ramos in the United States. This provincialism, of course, is not exclusive to our American colleagues. Brazilian researchers who often master several languages are, therefore, well-placed to avoid this trap if this multilingualism is used to develop original works about their reality, knowingly dialoguing with other linguistic worlds in full knowledge of the cause (Bertero et al., 2013Bertero, C. O., Alcadipani, R., Cabral, S., Faria, A., & Rossoni, P. (2013). Os desafios da produção de conhecimento em administração no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 11(1), 181-196. doi: 10.1590/S1679-39512013000100012
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-3951201300...
; Chanlat, 2014aChanlat, J.-F. (2014a). Langue et pensée dans la recherche en gestion: Constats, enjeux et atouts de la langue française. Gérer et Comprendre, 115(1), 4-17. doi: 10.3917/geco.115.0004
https://doi.org/10.3917/geco.115.0004...
, 2015; Clegg & Bayley, 2007Clegg, S R., & Bayley, J.R. (Eds). (2007). International Encyclopedia of Organization studies. Thousand. Oaks: Sage.), and so materializing Guerreiro Ramos’s (1981/1989) thought: “Only through the free experience of reality and its precise articulation can substantive rationality be understood”.

I would like to conclude this article in this special issue of RAE with the wish that relations between Brazilian and French-speaking researchers be maintained and developed through benevolent reciprocity, as Guerreiro Ramos wanted (1984)Ramos, G. (1984). Modelos de Homen e teoria administrativa. Revista de Administração Pública, 18(2), 3-12. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/rap/article/view/10559
http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/inde...
. This will occur through works being regularly published in our different journals and by our several publishing houses, and of course in this multilingual journal, RAE, that has become a journalistic benchmark (Tonelli, 2018Tonelli, M. J. (2018). Revistas científicas em administração: O papel histórico da Revista de Administração de Empresas (RAE) na construção do campo acadêmico em administração no Brasil. Cadernos EBAPE.BR , 16(Edição Especial), 509-515. doi: 10.1590/1679-395173941
https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395173941...
), and to which I offer my sincere wishes as it continues on this formidable adventure that started sixty years ago. Sixty years is, in fact, an unforgettable anniversary for a scientific journal in administrative sciences. * * In comparison, the American journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, was founded in 1956, only five years before.

  • Text submitted on the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of RAE, Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV EAESP; dedicated to all my Brazilian and French-speaking colleagues who have contributed during this exchange in recent decades.
  • *
    In comparison, the American journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, was founded in 1956, only five years before.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    17 May 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021
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