the detection rate of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is higher in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In an attempt to contribute to our epidemiological understanding of this coinfection and to investigate the activity of EBV in normal oral mucosa, we performed a cross-sectional study with HIV-positive patients.
oral smears from 145 HIV-positive patients were collected between March 2010 and March 2011. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) were used to genotype EBV and to detect EBNA-2 expression, respectively.
EBV DNA was detected in 48.3% of the study participants, of whom 32.85% were EBV-1 and 45.71% were EBV-2 carriers. Additionally, 14.28% were coinfected with both types. EBNA-2 mRNA was expressed in 45.7% of the EBV -positive samples, including 20.0% with EBV-1 only, 20.0% with EBV-2 only and 1.4% with both genotypes. Immune status affected the overall EBV infection, and EBV-2 positivity was significantly correlated with sexual lifestyle of the participants. EBV co-infection with both viral types was dependent upon HIV viral load and the activity of the EBNA-2 gene.
we report a high prevalence of active EBV in the oral mucosa of asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals. This study addresses the need for monitoring and treatment of HIV-infected patients with EBV reactivation.
Epstein-Barr virus; HIV; genotypes; oral mucosa