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Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy: A case report and literature review

Vasculopatia trombótica fetal: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

Summary

Introduction:

Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is a recently described placental alteration with varying degrees of involvement and often associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. The diagnosis is made histologically and therefore is postnatal, which makes it a challenge in clinical practice.

Method:

Case report and review of literature on the subject.

Results:

The present case refers to a pregnant woman presenting fetal growth restriction, with poor obstetrical past, and sent late to our service. Even with weekly assessments of fetal vitality (fetal biophysical profile and Doppler velocimetry) and prenatal care, the patient progressed with fetal death at 36 weeks and 1 day. There was no association with inherited and acquired thrombophilia. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed fetal thrombotic vasculopathy.

Conclusion:

The fetal thrombotic vasculopathy may be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes including fetal death, but much remains to be studied regarding its pathogenesis. Diagnosis during pregnancy is not possible and there is still no proven treatment for this condition. Future studies are needed so that strategies can be developed to minimize the impact of fetal thrombotic vasculopathy.

Keywords:
fetal death; placental diseases; fetal growth restriction

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