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Drug-induced nephrotoxicity

SUMMARY

Acute kidney injury is a very common diagnosis, present in up to 60% of critical patients, and its third main cause is drug toxicity. Nephrotoxicity can be defined as any renal injury caused directly or indirectly by medications, with acute renal failure, tubulopathies, and glomerulopathies as common clinical presentations. Some examples of drugs commonly associated with the acute reduction of glomerular filtration rate are anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, such as vancomycin and aminoglycosides, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin and methotrexate. Cases of tubulopathy are very common with amphotericin B, polymyxins, and tenofovir, and cases of glomerulopathies are common with VEGF inhibitors, bisphosphonates, and immunotherapy, and it is also common to have more than one clinical presentation related to a single agent. Early diagnosis is essential for the good evolution of the patient, with a reduction of renal exposure to the toxic agent, which requires knowing the risk factors and biomarkers. General measures such as correcting hydroelectrolytic disorders and hypovolemia, monitoring the serum level, avoiding combinations with the synergy of renal injury, and looking for similar options that are less toxic are the foundations for the treatment of complications that are still common and often preventable.

KEYWORDS:
Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions; Acute kidney injury; Kidney tubules

Associação Médica Brasileira R. São Carlos do Pinhal, 324, 01333-903 São Paulo SP - Brazil, Tel: +55 11 3178-6800, Fax: +55 11 3178-6816 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: ramb@amb.org.br