Influence of maternal and neonatal factors on bronchopulmonary dysplasia development

OBJECTIVE: To review epidemiological features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and its relationship with maternal and neonatal conditions in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study involving preterm newborns (NBs) with a birth weight lower than 1,500 g and gestational age under 37 weeks. Data was collected through a review of medical records of these newborns admitted to a neonatal unit. RESULTS: The study included 323 newborns with a mean birth weight of 1,161 g (± 231 g), gestational age between 24 and 36.5 weeks, with a BPD incidence of 17.6%. Among the NBs developing BPD, the mean of days using invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), non-invasive ventilation (NIMV), and supplemental oxygen was 17.6, 16.2, and 46.1 days, respectively, with a time significantly longer for those NBs developing BPD (p < 0.001). BPD occurred significantly more often in NBs with a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). CONCLUSION: BPD incidence in this study was similar to that found in the literature. No BPD association with maternal infection and antenatal corticosteroid use was found. NBs receiving exogenous surfactant had a higher BPD incidence because they had lower BW and GA. Concomitant occurrence of PDA and BPD is associated with staying longer on IMV, NIMV and supplemental oxygen

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia; premature newborns; mechanical ventilation; oxygen therapy; risk factors

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