Female aging

Envelhecimento feminino

Isabel Cristina Esposito Sorpreso José Maria Soares Júnior Angela Maggio da Fonseca Edmund Chada Baracat About the authors

SUMMARY

Female aging is a process that involves hypoestrogenism time, the individual impact on each woman, and what we can do as experts to reduce morbidity and provide quality of life. This natural process in the female life cycle has been of concern to women after menopause. Changes in different biophysical and psychosocial aspects, and their individual experiences, have repercussions on the lives of patients seeking specialized and multidisciplinary support to reduce the harmful effects of prolonged hypoestrogenism. Overweight and obesity, inadequate living habits and the presence of multi-morbidities cause damage to the quality of life and impact the functional capacity. Behavioral prescription and hormone therapy are among the treatments given to ease symptoms and reduce morbidity. A better understanding of these factors can help identify groups that require more care after menopause.

Keywords:
post-menopause; women; aging

RESUMO

O envelhecimento feminino é um processo em que devemos correlacionar o tempo do hipoestrogenismo com o impacto individual em cada mulher e o que poderemos fazer, enquanto especialistas, para reduzir morbidades e proporcionar qualidade de vida. Esse processo natural no ciclo de vida da mulher tem sido motivo de preocupação das mulheres na pós-menopausa. As transformações nos diferentes aspectos biofísicos, psicossociais e em suas vivências individuais trazem repercussões na vida das pacientes, que buscam apoio especializado e multiprofissional para reduzir os efeitos deletérios do hipoestrogenismo prolongado. O sobrepeso e a obesidade, inadequados hábitos de vida e a presença de multimorbidades trazem prejuízos à qualidade de vida e impactam a capacidade funcional. A prescrição comportamental e a terapia hormonal são tratamentos indicados para amenizar os sintomas e reduzir morbidades. Assim, uma melhor compreensão desses fatores pode ajudar a identificar grupos propensos a cuidados na pós-menopausa.

Palavras-chave:
pós-menopausa; mulher; envelhecimento

Aging is a physiological process in life and, in women, it is influenced by hypoestrogenism the greater their longevity. The increase in life expectancy among women brought changes in the mortality panorama.11 Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Azevedo e Silva G, Menezes AM, Monteiro CA, Barreto SM et al. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: burden and current challenges. Lancet. 2011; 377(9781):1949-61.Currently, the prevalence of chronic diseases, malignancies and repercussions of hypoestrogenism in each individual serves as motivation for health professionals in clinical and gynecological settings to offer prevention and promotion actions for women seeking quality of life and reduced morbidity.22 Aguiar LB, Baccaro LF, de Souza Santos Machado V, Pinto-Neto AM, Costa Paiva L. Disability and multimorbidity in women older than 50 years: a population-based household survey. Menopause. 2015; 22(6):660-6.,33 Lui Filho JF, Baccaro LF, Fernandes T, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, Pinto Neto AM. Factors associated with menopausal symptoms in women from a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil: a population-based household survey. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2015; 37(4):152-8.

Also, concern about the quality of life and prevention of chronic diseases and cancer are the demands of women seeking a gynecologist.33 Lui Filho JF, Baccaro LF, Fernandes T, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, Pinto Neto AM. Factors associated with menopausal symptoms in women from a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil: a population-based household survey. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2015; 37(4):152-8.,44 Baccaro LF, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, de Souza Santos Machado V, Pinto Neto AM. Cancer in women over 50 years of age: a focus on smoking. Cancers (Basel). 2015; 7(1):450-9. The notion of health has been a concern of the very patients interested in weight maintenance, adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, cessation of legal and illegal adictions, and the use of medications for adequate control of chronic diseases.55 Sorpreso IC, Vieira LH, Haidar MA, Nunes MG, Baracat EC, Soares JM. Multidisciplinary approach during menopausal transition and postmenopause in Brazilian women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 37(4):283-6.

Changes in biophysical aspects also affect the quality of life caused by prolonged hypoestrogenism related to urogenital disorders, changes in sexual behavior and libido, memory, skin tropism, effects on lipid profile, and bone metabolism.66 Chedraui P, Blümel JE, Baron G, Belzares E, Bencosme A, Calle A et al. Impaired quality of life among middle aged women: a multicentre Latin American study. Maturitas. 2008; 61(4):323-9.

Psychosocial factors contribute to a positive or negative perception of women's health, which depends on how she experiences and sees life after menopause.77 Da Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Azevedo RS, Couto Ede B Jr, Soares JM Jr et al. Impact of age and body mass on the intensity of menopausal symptoms in 5968 Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(2):116-8. There are occurrences such as loss of loved ones, change in marital status, retirement process, and prior preparation of this phase in which women turn their attention to themselves, their achievements and accomplishments, their wishes and needs.88 Esposito Sorpreso IC, Laprano Vieira LH, Longoni Calió C, Abi Haidar M, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Health education intervention in early and late postmenopausal Brazilian women. Climacteric. 2012; 15(6):573-80.

It is known that age, overweight and obesity, smoking, and the presence of multi-morbidities impair the quality of life and impact the functional capacity.99 Calio CL, Sorpreso IC, Abi Haidar M, Maciel GA, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Physiotherapeutic approach in early and late post-menopausal Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(7):670-3. According to Fonseca et al., the most relevant information in medical history declared at the time of the initial treatment in women after menopause were: hypertension (44.94%), diabetes (10.1%), smoking (8.39%), thyroid disorders (7.7%), malignancies (6.41%), cardiovascular disease (17.1%), dyslipidemia (0.88%) and psychiatric disorders (0.06%).1010 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Soares JM Jr, Jacob Filho W, Baracat EC. Envelhecimento Feminino. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2015.

The severity of menopausal symptoms is negatively influenced in the presence of chronic diseases, multiple pregnancies and not using hormone therapy, with worsening of self-perceived health.66 Chedraui P, Blümel JE, Baron G, Belzares E, Bencosme A, Calle A et al. Impaired quality of life among middle aged women: a multicentre Latin American study. Maturitas. 2008; 61(4):323-9.,77 Da Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Azevedo RS, Couto Ede B Jr, Soares JM Jr et al. Impact of age and body mass on the intensity of menopausal symptoms in 5968 Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(2):116-8.

The effects of hypoestrogenism on the weight gain is unclear, but several experimental studies have demonstrated the relationship between oophorectomy and an increase in adipocytes, tissue inflammation and the development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance.1111 Davis SR, Castelo-Branco C, Chedraui P, Lumsden MA, Nappi RE, Shah D et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric. 2012; 15(5):419-29. Weight gain is more related to age than menopause itself.1212 Bagnoli VR, Fonseca AM, Arie WM, Das Neves EM, Azevedo RS, Sorpreso IC et al. Metabolic disorder and obesity in 5027 Brazilian postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014; 30(10):717-20.,1313 Blümel JE, Chedraui P, Aedo S, Fica J, Mezones-Holguín E, Barón G et al. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015; 80(1):100-5. In a previous study which included body mass index (BMI), calculated by weight (in kg) divided by height (in meters) squared, it was observed that 68.13% of women were overweight or obese.1212 Bagnoli VR, Fonseca AM, Arie WM, Das Neves EM, Azevedo RS, Sorpreso IC et al. Metabolic disorder and obesity in 5027 Brazilian postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014; 30(10):717-20.

The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher in age groups above 60 years and relates to cardiovascular risk and metabolic disease. In addition, this correlation worsens after menopause, with accumulation of visceral fat and changes in the concentration of inflammatory markers and serum hormone binding globulin carrier (SHBG) levels, which are inversely related to insulin resistance.1212 Bagnoli VR, Fonseca AM, Arie WM, Das Neves EM, Azevedo RS, Sorpreso IC et al. Metabolic disorder and obesity in 5027 Brazilian postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014; 30(10):717-20.,1313 Blümel JE, Chedraui P, Aedo S, Fica J, Mezones-Holguín E, Barón G et al. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015; 80(1):100-5. Visceral obesity is also related to sexual dysfunction, breast and endometrial cancer.1313 Blümel JE, Chedraui P, Aedo S, Fica J, Mezones-Holguín E, Barón G et al. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015; 80(1):100-5.,1414 Sánchez-Borrego R, Manubens M, Navarro MC, Cancelo MJ, Beltrán E, Duran M et al. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2014; 78(2):146-50.

In a study in Latin America, obesity is associated with hypertension, depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and worsening of climacteric symptoms.1313 Blümel JE, Chedraui P, Aedo S, Fica J, Mezones-Holguín E, Barón G et al. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015; 80(1):100-5. Recent Brazilian studies show obesity as a major risk factor for worsening of menopausal symptoms and increased cardiovascular risk (hypertension, hyperglycemia and low serum levels of high-density protein).33 Lui Filho JF, Baccaro LF, Fernandes T, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, Pinto Neto AM. Factors associated with menopausal symptoms in women from a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil: a population-based household survey. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2015; 37(4):152-8.,1212 Bagnoli VR, Fonseca AM, Arie WM, Das Neves EM, Azevedo RS, Sorpreso IC et al. Metabolic disorder and obesity in 5027 Brazilian postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014; 30(10):717-20.

A better understanding of these factors can help reduce the impact of symptoms on women's health in late postmenopausal women, and identify groups likely to require care after menopause. This same group of women is often out of the window of opportunity to use hormone therapy and, therefore, multidisciplinary support to reduce the harmful effects of these factors is important to maintain an adequate quality of life.

Thus, multidisciplinary support with changes in lifestyle, encouraging aerobic physical activity and a balanced diet are guidelines adopted by educational programs during climacteric.55 Sorpreso IC, Vieira LH, Haidar MA, Nunes MG, Baracat EC, Soares JM. Multidisciplinary approach during menopausal transition and postmenopause in Brazilian women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 37(4):283-6. Studies have demonstrated benefits for climacteric symptoms, particularly improvement in vasomotor symptoms, depressed mood, arthralgia and myalgia.88 Esposito Sorpreso IC, Laprano Vieira LH, Longoni Calió C, Abi Haidar M, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Health education intervention in early and late postmenopausal Brazilian women. Climacteric. 2012; 15(6):573-80.,99 Calio CL, Sorpreso IC, Abi Haidar M, Maciel GA, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Physiotherapeutic approach in early and late post-menopausal Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(7):670-3.

In female aging, effects in lower genital tract are common and related to late post-menopause, being atrophic vulvovaginitis and urogenital dysfunctions common complaints brought by patients.1515 Sartori MG, Feldner PC, Jarmy-Di Bella ZI, Aquino Castro R, Baracat EC, Rodrigues de Lima G et al. Sexual steroids in urogynecology. Climacteric. 2011; 14(1):5-14.,1616 Feldner PC Jr, Sartori MG, Nader HB, Dietrich CP, Rodrigues de Lima G, Baracat EC et al. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in pre and postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008; 139(2):252-5.

Atrophic vulvovaginitis affects 40% of postmenopausal women. Effects of prolonged hypoestrogenism are observed on physical examination of the vulva and vagina and clinical findings include loss of vaginal rugae, reduced elasticity, sparse vaginal content and thinning of the vaginal mucosa.1515 Sartori MG, Feldner PC, Jarmy-Di Bella ZI, Aquino Castro R, Baracat EC, Rodrigues de Lima G et al. Sexual steroids in urogynecology. Climacteric. 2011; 14(1):5-14. All these aspects influence the daily lives of patients on account of clinical manifestations, such as symptoms of vaginal dryness, pain or discomfort during intercourse, and urinary symptoms such as dysuria and urgency.1414 Sánchez-Borrego R, Manubens M, Navarro MC, Cancelo MJ, Beltrán E, Duran M et al. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2014; 78(2):146-50.,1616 Feldner PC Jr, Sartori MG, Nader HB, Dietrich CP, Rodrigues de Lima G, Baracat EC et al. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in pre and postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008; 139(2):252-5.

Genitourinary dysfunction, in turn, characterized by sagging, dystopia and incontinence, may be made worse with the decrease in collagen secondary to hypoestrogenism affecting the support mechanisms, fasciae, and ligaments of the pelvic floor. There is also a reduction in the periurethral vascular cushion and estrogen receptor alpha and beta in the urethra, both involved in the urinary continence process.1616 Feldner PC Jr, Sartori MG, Nader HB, Dietrich CP, Rodrigues de Lima G, Baracat EC et al. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in pre and postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008; 139(2):252-5.

Symptoms related to the late post-menopause include cognition and memory, which may adversely affect the working lives of women due to estrogen levels that interact with other neurotransmitters, as well as glucocorticoids in the brain. Memory and cognition dysfunction in post-menopause is transient and not progressive. The worsening of symptoms may be related to other comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease.1717 Shifren JL, Gass ML, NAMS Recommendations for Clinical Care of Midlife Women Working Group. The North American Menopause Society recommendations for clinical care of midlife women. Menopause. 2014; 21(10):1038-62.

Another important aspect of women's health during the aging process is osteoporosis and fracture risk. What preventive measures are considered for women in late post-menopause? The focus of prevention, or better, of health promotion is the identification of individuals at risk, that is, with low bone mass and risk factors, in order to prevent fractures.1818 Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention? J Bone Metab. 2014; 21(1):21-8.

The risk of osteoporosis and fracture increases with age and involves other risk factors for low bone mineral density and fractures such as: female gender, low body weight (<50 kg) or weight loss, smoking, family history, habits and behaviors such as alcohol and caffeine, low intake of calcium and vitamin D. In addition, secondary causes of osteoporosis include use of corticosteroids, transplant recipients, use of antiretroviral drugs and anticonvulsants.1818 Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention? J Bone Metab. 2014; 21(1):21-8.,1919 Bolland MJ, Grey A, Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis? Climacteric. 2015; 18(Suppl 2):22-31. Bone densitometry is a relevant examination in climacteric women, since there is significant deterioration in bone mineral density over the years of menopause, as well as low body mass index. This observation is relevant because it allows establishing preventive and therapeutic measures that will undoubtedly improve the quality of life of older women.1010 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Soares JM Jr, Jacob Filho W, Baracat EC. Envelhecimento Feminino. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2015.

In the case of populations with no risk of fracture due to fragility or secondary causes, subjects could have a different course of evaluation, without screening before the age of 65 years. There are some gaps in tracking patients using bone densitometry, for example in black populations, and the maximum age at which to perform the scan. To date, a consensus or evidence has not been achieved, and there seems to be no benefit in screening patients over 85 years.1919 Bolland MJ, Grey A, Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis? Climacteric. 2015; 18(Suppl 2):22-31.

Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in postmenopausal women has always been the focus of guidance of health professionals. Supplementation of calcium for women after menopause has been encouraged for many years.2020 Maeda SS, Borba VZ, Camargo MB, Silva DM, Borges JL, Bandeira F et al. Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabology (SBEM) for the diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014; 58(5):411-33.

Currently, an adequate intake of calcium mainly through food (dairy products, green vegetables, sesame, and sunflower seeds among others) and supplementation for patients who are treated with anti-absorptive medications and those knowingly at risk are indicated. Calcium supplementation is associated with common side effects, such as gastric symptoms, irritability, poor digestion and flatulence and urinary symptoms such as renal lithiasis. These symptoms are not always connected, even in diets with high levels of calcium. Cardiovascular events such as coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction have been demonstrated in some studies with a larger number of events in individuals undergoing supplementation.1818 Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention? J Bone Metab. 2014; 21(1):21-8.,2121 Lewis JR, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Rejnmark L, Chen JS, Simpson JM, Lappe JM et al. The effects of calcium supplementation on verified coronary heart disease hospitalization and death in postmenopausal women: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Res. 2015; 30(1):165-75.

Vitamin D is highly recommended for older sedentary patients with restrictions and little daily sun exposure. Also, supplementation is indicated for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and low bone mineral density, obese and on medications that interfere with vitamin D metabolism such as anticonvulsants and antiretrovirals. Vitamin D supplementation should not be adopted for the general population.2020 Maeda SS, Borba VZ, Camargo MB, Silva DM, Borges JL, Bandeira F et al. Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabology (SBEM) for the diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014; 58(5):411-33.,2121 Lewis JR, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Rejnmark L, Chen JS, Simpson JM, Lappe JM et al. The effects of calcium supplementation on verified coronary heart disease hospitalization and death in postmenopausal women: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Res. 2015; 30(1):165-75.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women should always have a personalized indication. Before the prescription of HRT, the intensity of the symptoms and risks should be considered to determine the dose and the best treatment regimen. HRT is indicated to relieve vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes and sweating), which also has an effect in the improvement of sleep (decreasing insomnia) and reduces joint pain, myalgia, melancholy and other psychological symptoms. Moreover, it has an effect on the trophism of mucous membranes, skin and appendages affecting the urogenital system, and can also reduce bone resorption and increase bone formation, which reduces the loss of bone mass in many women during this period.1717 Shifren JL, Gass ML, NAMS Recommendations for Clinical Care of Midlife Women Working Group. The North American Menopause Society recommendations for clinical care of midlife women. Menopause. 2014; 21(10):1038-62.,2222 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.

According with the North American Menopause Society and the Brazilian Society of Climacteric, the following recommendations apply: the dose and duration of HRT should be consistent with treatment goals and individualized; studies suggest that HRT with micronized progesterone carries a lower risk of breast cancer with

short-term use; local estrogen therapy is preferred for women whose symptoms are limited to vaginal dryness or discomfort associated with intercourse; estrogens should be given in small doses. Progestins derivatives should be used for endometrial protection; and, when HRT is introduced in the first 10 years after menopause, benefits are greater.1717 Shifren JL, Gass ML, NAMS Recommendations for Clinical Care of Midlife Women Working Group. The North American Menopause Society recommendations for clinical care of midlife women. Menopause. 2014; 21(10):1038-62.,2323 Sobrac. Consenso "TH e câncer de mama". [Viewed in march 2015]. Available from: http://www.sobrac.com.br
http://www.sobrac.com.br...

Before the start of this therapy, its contraindications should be considered, including: multiple myeloma, tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangiomyomatosis, and breast, lung, liver, bone, pancreas and kidney carcinomas.2222 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.Non-hormonal treatment aims to relieve the symptoms and not to improve the general state of the patient. The agents best suited to reduce hot flashes are: antidepressants, cinnarizine, clonidine, gabapentin, benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepines, psychoactive drugs and acupuncture.2222 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.

Treatment can also be done with phytoestrogens, compounds that are found in plants, fruits, vegetables and grains and which have some properties and chemical structure similar to estrogen, binding to its receptor.2222 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.,2424 Moraes AB, Haidar MA, Soares JM Jr, Simões MJ, Baracat EC, Patriarca MT. The effects of topical isoflavones on postmenopausal skin: double-blind and randomized clinical trial of efficacy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009; 146(2):188-92. Phytoestrogens have less effect compared to estrogen to tackle severe vasomotor symptoms, but they can be an alternative for patients with phobia of classical hormonal therapy, even after explanations of the risks and benefits.

Prevention of diseases by vaccination is also important. MMR is recommended, as well as hepatitis A and B, varicella, influenza, double or triple bacterial, meningococcal C conjugated, pneumococcal and herpes zoster. Yellow fever vaccine is indicated for those who live or commute to risk areas.2222 Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.

Summing up, female aging is a process in which hypoestrogenism time should be correlated with the individual impact of each woman and what we can do as experts, or even general practitioners, to reduce morbidity and provide quality of life to women, respecting their habits, culture and beliefs, as well as perspectives in their lives.

  • Study conducted by the Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

References

  • 1
    Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Azevedo e Silva G, Menezes AM, Monteiro CA, Barreto SM et al. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: burden and current challenges. Lancet. 2011; 377(9781):1949-61.
  • 2
    Aguiar LB, Baccaro LF, de Souza Santos Machado V, Pinto-Neto AM, Costa Paiva L. Disability and multimorbidity in women older than 50 years: a population-based household survey. Menopause. 2015; 22(6):660-6.
  • 3
    Lui Filho JF, Baccaro LF, Fernandes T, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, Pinto Neto AM. Factors associated with menopausal symptoms in women from a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil: a population-based household survey. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2015; 37(4):152-8.
  • 4
    Baccaro LF, Conde DM, Costa-Paiva L, de Souza Santos Machado V, Pinto Neto AM. Cancer in women over 50 years of age: a focus on smoking. Cancers (Basel). 2015; 7(1):450-9.
  • 5
    Sorpreso IC, Vieira LH, Haidar MA, Nunes MG, Baracat EC, Soares JM. Multidisciplinary approach during menopausal transition and postmenopause in Brazilian women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 37(4):283-6.
  • 6
    Chedraui P, Blümel JE, Baron G, Belzares E, Bencosme A, Calle A et al. Impaired quality of life among middle aged women: a multicentre Latin American study. Maturitas. 2008; 61(4):323-9.
  • 7
    Da Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Azevedo RS, Couto Ede B Jr, Soares JM Jr et al. Impact of age and body mass on the intensity of menopausal symptoms in 5968 Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(2):116-8.
  • 8
    Esposito Sorpreso IC, Laprano Vieira LH, Longoni Calió C, Abi Haidar M, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Health education intervention in early and late postmenopausal Brazilian women. Climacteric. 2012; 15(6):573-80.
  • 9
    Calio CL, Sorpreso IC, Abi Haidar M, Maciel GA, Baracat EC, Soares JM Jr. Physiotherapeutic approach in early and late post-menopausal Brazilian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2013; 29(7):670-3.
  • 10
    Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Soares JM Jr, Jacob Filho W, Baracat EC. Envelhecimento Feminino. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2015.
  • 11
    Davis SR, Castelo-Branco C, Chedraui P, Lumsden MA, Nappi RE, Shah D et al. Understanding weight gain at menopause. Climacteric. 2012; 15(5):419-29.
  • 12
    Bagnoli VR, Fonseca AM, Arie WM, Das Neves EM, Azevedo RS, Sorpreso IC et al. Metabolic disorder and obesity in 5027 Brazilian postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014; 30(10):717-20.
  • 13
    Blümel JE, Chedraui P, Aedo S, Fica J, Mezones-Holguín E, Barón G et al. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015; 80(1):100-5.
  • 14
    Sánchez-Borrego R, Manubens M, Navarro MC, Cancelo MJ, Beltrán E, Duran M et al. Position of the Spanish Menopause Society regarding vaginal health care in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2014; 78(2):146-50.
  • 15
    Sartori MG, Feldner PC, Jarmy-Di Bella ZI, Aquino Castro R, Baracat EC, Rodrigues de Lima G et al. Sexual steroids in urogynecology. Climacteric. 2011; 14(1):5-14.
  • 16
    Feldner PC Jr, Sartori MG, Nader HB, Dietrich CP, Rodrigues de Lima G, Baracat EC et al. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans of periurethral tissue in pre and postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008; 139(2):252-5.
  • 17
    Shifren JL, Gass ML, NAMS Recommendations for Clinical Care of Midlife Women Working Group. The North American Menopause Society recommendations for clinical care of midlife women. Menopause. 2014; 21(10):1038-62.
  • 18
    Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium supplements for osteoporosis prevention? J Bone Metab. 2014; 21(1):21-8.
  • 19
    Bolland MJ, Grey A, Reid IR. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis? Climacteric. 2015; 18(Suppl 2):22-31.
  • 20
    Maeda SS, Borba VZ, Camargo MB, Silva DM, Borges JL, Bandeira F et al. Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabology (SBEM) for the diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014; 58(5):411-33.
  • 21
    Lewis JR, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Rejnmark L, Chen JS, Simpson JM, Lappe JM et al. The effects of calcium supplementation on verified coronary heart disease hospitalization and death in postmenopausal women: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Res. 2015; 30(1):165-75.
  • 22
    Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Souza MA, Moraes SDTA, Soares JM Jr, Baracat EC. Tratamento da mulher climatérica. Rev Bras Med. 2012; 69:2-7.
  • 23
    Sobrac. Consenso "TH e câncer de mama". [Viewed in march 2015]. Available from: http://www.sobrac.com.br
    » http://www.sobrac.com.br
  • 24
    Moraes AB, Haidar MA, Soares JM Jr, Simões MJ, Baracat EC, Patriarca MT. The effects of topical isoflavones on postmenopausal skin: double-blind and randomized clinical trial of efficacy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009; 146(2):188-92.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Nov-Dec 2015

History

  • Received
    20 Oct 2015
  • Accepted
    23 Oct 2015
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