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Adiponectin levels and sleep deprivation in patients with endocrine metabolic disorders

SUMMARY

BACKGROUND:

Sleep abnormalities are frequent in patients with endocrine metabolic disorders (EMD) such as arterial hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Adiponectin is a peptide largely secreted by adipocytes and has various properties e.g. anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, pro-angiogenic, vasoprotective and insulin-sensitizing. Adiponectin inversely relates to body weight and when its concentration decreases, the resistin concentration increases resulting in greater insulin resistance.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing adiponectin levels in a population with EMD.

METHODS:

This was a cross-sectional evaluation of 332 patients (18 to 80y) presenting arterial hypertension, pre-diabetes, diabetes, and/or obesity. Investigation included clinical evaluation of comorbidities, general blood tests and adiponectin measures (ELISA). Chronic sleep deprivation was determined if habitual sleep was <6 hours >4 days/week.

RESULTS:

Arterial hypertension (78.5%), type-2 diabetes (82.3%), and overweight (45.0%)/obesity (38.8%) were frequent. Patients with type-2 diabetes tended to have more chronic sleep deprivation (p=0.05). Adiponectin levels increased with age and were inversely correlated with sagittal abdominal diameter (p=0.04) and fasting insulin (p=0.001). Chronic sleep deprivation was associated with higher adiponectin concentration [OR=1.34; CI=1.13-1.58; p<0.005] and this was maintained after adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, menopause, arterial hypertension, American Diabetes Association classification and physical exercise levels [OR=1.38; 0=1.14-1.66: p=0.001].

CONCLUSION:

In patients with EMD, adiponectin is influenced not only by obesity but also by age and sleep deprivation. The latter finding may be explained by a compensatory effect or a counter regulation to minimize the harmful effects of sleep deprivation.

KEYWORDS:
Sleep deprivation; Diabetes; Hypertension; Adiponectin; Obesity

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO:

Problemas de sono são frequentes em pacientes com distúrbios endócrino-metabólicos (DEM), como hipertensão arterial, diabetes e obesidade. A adiponectina é um peptídeo segregado por adipócitos e apresenta diversas propriedades, como por exemplo, anti-inflamatória, antioxidante, antiaterogênica, pró-angiogênica e vasoprotetora. A adiponectina relaciona-se inversamente com o peso corporal.

OBJETIVO:

Examinar os fatores que influenciam os níveis de adiponectina em uma população com DEM.

MÉTODOS:

Trata-se de uma avaliação transversal com 332 pacientes (18 a 80 anos) apresentando hipertensão arterial, pré-diabetes, diabetes e/ou obesidade. A investigação incluiu avaliação clínica de comorbidades, exames de sangue e medidas de adiponectina (Elisa). A restrição crônica do sono foi determinada com o sono habitual <6 horas >4 dias/semana.

RESULTADOS:

Doenças como hipertensão arterial (78,5%), diabetes tipo 2 (82,3%) e sobrepeso (45,0%)/obesidade (38,8%) foram frequentes. Pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 apresentaram uma tendência na restrição crônica do sono (p=0,05). Os níveis de adiponectina aumentaram com a idade e foram inversamente correlacionados com o diâmetro abdominal sagital (p=0,04) e com a insulina em jejum (p=0,001). A restrição crônica do sono foi associada à maior concentração de adiponectina [OR=1,34; CI=1,13-1,58; p<0,005] e isso foi mantido após ajuste por gênero, idade, índice de massa corporal, menopausa, hipertensão arterial, classificação dos níveis da American Diabetes Association e exercício físico [OR=1,38; CI=1,14-1,66: p=0,001].

CONCLUSÕES:

Em pacientes com DEM, a adiponectina é influenciada não apenas pela obesidade, mas também pela idade e pela restrição de sono. O último achado pode ser explicado por um efeito compensatório ou por um regulamento contrário para minimizar os efeitos nocivos da restrição do sono.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE:
Restrição do sono; Diabetes; Hipertensão; Adiponectina; Obesidade

INTRODUCTION

The frequent clustering of arterial hypertension, diabetes and obesity is potentially aggravated by factors such as old age, smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, among others. Chronic sleep deprivation occurs in various endocrine-metabolic disorders further aggravating a cascade of harmful effects 11 Brum MC, Filho FF, Schnorr CC, Bottega GB, Rodrigues TC. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome. 2015;7:45,22 Broussard JL, Chapotot F, Abraham V, Day A, Delebecque F, Whitmore HR, Tasali E. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men. Diabetologia. 2015;58:791-798.

A recent review suggests that sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation33 Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carroll JE. Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep deprivation. Biological psychiatry. 2016;80:40-52. Evidence suggests that sleep deprivation induces harmful effects on metabolic abnormalities, in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and ultimately weight gain44 Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss: A novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2005;99:2008-2019, In fact, an explanation for the biological changes found in patients with short or long sleep duration remains obscure. For instance, in healthy adults, sleep deprivation is associated with cognitive, neurophysiologic and endocrine changes, despite increased regional brain activity. These apparently paradoxical findings may be explained by adaptive behaviour or a compensatory effect 55 Klumpers UM, Veltman DJ, van Tol MJ, Kloet RW, Boellaard R, Lammertsma AA, Hoogendijk WJ. Neurophysiological effects of sleep deprivation in healthy adults, a pilot study. PloS one. 2015;10:e0116906.

The adipose tissue secretes several bioactive molecules, known as adipokines that are influential to whole-body homeostasis and serve as a measure of adipose tissue activity66 Check JH. The interrelationship of sleep, biologic clocks, neurotransmitters, gonadotropins and pubertal development. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology. 2013;40:7-14. Adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine and has a regulatory effect on the metabolism of glucose and lipid77 Faraj M, Lu HL, Cianflone K. Diabetes, lipids, and adipocyte secretagogues. Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire. 2004;82:170-190,88 Tao C, Sifuentes A, Holland WL. Regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis by adiponectin: Effects on hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells and adipocytes. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 2014;28:43-58. High adiponectin levels have been associated with positive cardiovascular benefits; whereas low values of adiponectin are connected to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidaemia99 Davis SK, Gebreab SY, Xu R, Riestra P, Khan RJ, Sumner AE, Hickson D, Bidulescu A. Association of adiponectin with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in african american men and women: The jackson heart study. BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2015;15:13. Previously, female diabetic showed higher adiponectin levels than male indicating a gender effect1010 Aleidi S, Issa A, Bustanji H, Khalil M, Bustanji Y Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society. 2015;23:250-256. Furthermore, higher adiponectin levels are inversely related to body weight and to insulin resistance1010 Aleidi S, Issa A, Bustanji H, Khalil M, Bustanji Y Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society. 2015;23:250-256. All this evidence indicates that a complex set of variables influence adiponectin concentration.

The objective of the present study is to investigate factors influencing adiponectin expression in a population with endocrine-metabolic disorders.

METHODS

Study design and patients

This is a cross sectional evaluation of 332 patients with endocrine-metabolic disorders. We consecutively recruited patients from an outpatient clinic at Centro Integrado de Diabetes e Hipertensão (CIDH) in Fortaleza, Brazil. Initially, 400 subjects from the central database were examined. Sixty-eight were excluded due to difficulty of posterior examination (N=34), severe associated comorbidities (N=23) or refusal to participate in the study (N=11). Three-hundred and thirty-two of them attended the eligible criteria for the desired analyses. Plasma adiponectin levels were obtained in a subsample of 120 patients. The study involved individuals of both genders, aged from 18 to 80 years old, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) from 18.5-45.0 kg/m2. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, investigation of comorbid disorders and blood tests. None had severe heart disease, renal insufficiency, stroke, dementia, severe depression, gastrointestinal and/or liver dysfunction or previous diagnosis of cancer. In this study, patients with type 1 diabetes and/or on use of insulin or glucocorticoids were not included. The local Research Ethics Committee (HUWC-CEP 031-04-09) approved the protocol and all included patients provided written informed consent.

Assessments

Three previously trained health workers assessed demographic and clinical information using a face-to-face interview. Endocrine-metabolic disorders were investigated. Arterial hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90mm Hg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications1111 Alpert B, McCrindle B, Daniels S, Dennison B, Hayman L, Jacobson M, Mahoney L, Rocchini A, Steinberger J, Urbina E, Williams R. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in human and experimental animals; part 1: Blood pressure measurement in humans. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979). 2006;48:e3; author reply e5. American Diabetic Association (ADA) classification rated patients as normal, with glucose intolerance or diabetes. The presence of a fastening ≥126mg/dl, post-prandial glucose concentration ≥200mg/dl, or diabetes symptoms and a plasmatic glucose concentration (last mealtime independent) ≥200mg/dl defined diabetes1212 Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, Bruns DE, Horvath AR, Kirkman MS, Lernmark A, Metzger BE, Nathan DM. Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Clinical chemistry. 2011;57:e1-e47. Intermediate plasma glucose levels situated between those considered normal and those considered diabetic characterized impaired glucose tolerance. A fasting blood glucose level of above 6.0 mmol/L or a blood glucose level of over 7.8 mmol/L 2 hours after consuming 75g of glucose established impaired glucose tolerance. Overweight was considered if Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity if BMI &≥30 kg/m2. Hyperlipidaemia was defined as an alteration in lipid profile, in which the Low Density Cholesterol (LDL) ≥100mg/dl, High Density Cholesterol (HDL) <40mg/ dl and/or triglycerides >150mg/dl1313 Fletcher B, Berra K, Ades P, Braun LT, Burke LE, Durstine JL, Fair JM, Fletcher GF, Goff D, Hayman LL, Hiatt WR, Miller NH, Krauss R, Kris-Etherton P, Stone N, Wilterdink J, Winston M. Managing abnormal blood lipids: A collaborative approach. Circulation. 2005;112:3184-3209. Chart review confirmed the clinical information.

Questionnaires investigated sleep duration, physical exercise and comorbidities. Patients were questioned about how many hours of sleep they usually get during the week and during the weekend. Less than six hours of sleep per day occurring at least four days per week defined the presence of chronic sleep deprivation. Less than 30 minutes of exercise per day and/ or the absence of heavy physical exertion at home or at work, namely cleaning, hand washing clothes or other defined physical inactivity.

Biochemical analyses

Blood sampling and laboratory measurements were obtained in all patients. Samples were taken for biochemical investigations in blood collection tubes (Vacutainer - Vacuum II ®). Blood was drawn from an antecubital vein with the participants in a sitting position and was collected between 7:00 am and 9:30 AM, without stasis; the serum was separated after centrifugation for 10 minutes and stored at −70 degrees Celsius for the analyses. Adiponectin levels were determined by ELISA using commercial kits (Kit Assay Designs Cortisol ELISA, Michigan, USA®).

Statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics are presented as mean (standard deviation), range and frequency (percentage values). Fisher exact tests for categorical variables, Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables and Student's t test for normally distributed data with equal variances compared between groups. Patients were grouped as having or not <6 hours of sleep. Adiponectin and variables were correlated (Pearson test). A logistic regression analysis model examined the associations of variables with reduced hours of sleep (<6h). In this model, gender, age, menopause, BMI, arterial hypertension, ADA classification and physical exercise level were all included. In this regression model all variables were included in a single step (enter). Statistical analysis used SPSS for Windows, version 21.0 and p < 0.05 was required for the statistical significance.

RESULTS

The majority of patients had arterial hypertension (78.5%), type 2 diabetes (82.3%), and overweight (45.0%) or obesity (38.8%). Menopause affected half of the women (50.6%). Patients with arterial hypertension frequently had type 2 diabetes (83.4%), were older (60.1±10.6 vs 51.2±11.2, p<0.005) and had higher BMI (29.8±5.3 kg/m2 vs 27.9±4.1 kg/m2, p=0.007). Table 1 depicts general characteristics of patients in the entire group of patients and according to the presence of chronic insufficient sleep (<6h). Reduced sleep time tended to be more frequent in patients with reduced glucose tolerance (ADA classification, p=0.05).

TABLE 1
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS ACCORDING TO THE PRESENCE/ABSENCE OF SIX HOURS OF SLEEP

In this population, adiponectin levels were inversely to sagittal abdominal diameter (Pearson Exact Test: r=-0.176, p=0.04) and to fasting insulin levels (Pearson Exact Test: r=-0.226, p=0.008) (Figure 1A and 1B). Adiponectin levels were higher in patients with chronic sleep deprivation (4.2±2.7) than in those without (2.5±2.0) (Students’ t test, p=0.001) (Figure 2). Older age [OR=1.02; CI=1.00-1.05; p=0.03] and increased adiponectin levels [OR=1.34; CI=1.13-1.58; p<0.005] were associated with reduced hours of sleep (<6h). Adiponectin concentration remained associated with sleep deprivation after adjustment for gender, age, menopause, BMI, arterial hypertension, ADA classification and physical exercise level [OR=1.38; CI=1.14-1.66: p=0.001] (Table 2).

FIGURE 1
ADIPONECTIN LEVELS WERE INVERSE TO SAGITTAL ABDOMINAL DIAMETER (A) AND TO FASTING INSULIN LEVELS (B).
FIGURE 2
EFFECTS OF SLEEP RESTRICTION ON ADIPONECTIN LEVELS.
TABLE 2
LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED HOURS OF SLEEP (<6H)

DISCUSSION

This study shows that in patients with endocrine metabolic disorders, adiponectin levels are higher in older patients and are negatively related to sagittal abdominal diameter and fasting insulin. These findings are in agreement with previous reports demonstrating higher adiponectin levels with increasing age in both genders, regardless of the presence of obesity1414 Schautz B, Later W, Heller M, Peters A, Muller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A. Impact of age on leptin and adiponectin independent of adiposity. The British journal of nutrition. 2012;108:363-370. The role of increased adiponectin with increasing age is unclear. Kizer et al. suggest that age-related homeostatic dysregulation explains high adiponectin levels over time in long-lived adults. These higher values have been associated with greater physical disability and mortality1515 Kizer JR, Arnold AM, Strotmeyer ES, Ives DG, Cushman M, Ding J, Kritchevsky SB, Chaves PH, Hirsch CH, Newman AB. Change in circulating adiponectin in advanced old age: Determinants and impact on physical function and mortality. The cardiovascular health study all stars study. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 2010;65:1208-1214.

Previous studies confirm that adiposity is negatively related to adiponectin levels1616 Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, May S. Sex-specific determinants of serum adiponectin in older adults: The role of endogenous sex hormones. International journal of obesity (2005). 2007;31:457-465,1717 Cohen SS, Gammon MD, Signorello LB, North KE, Lange EM, Fowke JH, Hargreaves MK, Cai Q, Zheng W, Blot WJ, Matthews CE. Serum adiponectin in relation to body mass index and other correlates in black and white women. Annals of epidemiology. 2011;21:86-94. In this work, only sagittal abdominal diameter was inversely related to adiponectin concentration indicating that this measure is a reliable predictor of visceral adiposity1818 Pajunen P, Rissanen H, Laaksonen MA, Heliovaara M, Reunanen A, Knekt P. Sagittal abdominal diameter as a new predictor for incident diabetes. Diabetes care. 2013;36:283-288,1919 Hoenig MR. Mri sagittal abdominal diameter is a stronger predictor of metabolic syndrome than visceral fat area or waist circumference in a high-risk vascular cohort. Vascular health and risk management. 2010;6:629-633. Similar to our findings, high fasting insulin was associated with lower levels of adiponectin. More precisely, increased resistin has been associated with lower adiponectin2020 Siddiqui K, George TP. Serum adipokines (adiponectin and resistin) correlation in developing gestational diabetes mellitus: Pilot study. 2017:1-5. Our findings confirm that low values of adiponectin are connected to adiposity and high fasting insulin.

Presently, sleep deprivation was independently associated with elevated adiponectin levels. We hypothesize that the latter findings can be explained by a compensatory mechanism to limit the harmful effects of sleep deprivation. In agreement, a counter-regulatory effect mitigating further damage was previously suggested2121 Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Cuzzola F, Tripepi G, Cutrupi S, Parlongo S, Tanaka S, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y Adiponectin in essential hypertension. Journal of nephrology. 2002;15:507-511. To the best of our knowledge, to date, no study reported a relationship between chronic sleep deprivation and adiponectin levels in a population with endocrine-metabolic disorder. Previous studies relating adiponectin levels with chronic sleep alterations show controversial results. In healthy young volunteers, Robertson et al. described no changes of adiponectin levels after three weeks of reduced daily sleep duration2121 Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Cuzzola F, Tripepi G, Cutrupi S, Parlongo S, Tanaka S, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y Adiponectin in essential hypertension. Journal of nephrology. 2002;15:507-511. Simpson et al. reported differential effects according to gender and ethnicity2222 Robertson MD, Russell-Jones D, Umpleby AM, Dijk DJ. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2013;62:204-211. Taheri et al. described, in a population of recruited volunteers, no change in adiponectin levels in relation to chronic sleep deprivation2424 Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS medicine. 2004;1:e62. In obese subjects, plasma low adiponectin level was associated with obstructive sleep apnea2525 Zeng F, Wang X, Hu W, Wang L. Association of adiponectin level and obstructive sleep apnea prevalence in obese subjects. Medicine. 2017;96:e7784. In partial agreement with the latter study, low adiponectin levels, increased levels of inflammatory markers, and atherogenic lipid profiles were found in association with obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensive patients2626 Abdel-Fadeil MR, Abedelhaffez AS, Makhlouf HA, Al Qirshi GA. Obstructive sleep apnea: Influence of hypertension on adiponectin, inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia. Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology. 2017. In opposition to the previous studies, an increase of adiponectin levels was associated with sleep apnea2525 Zeng F, Wang X, Hu W, Wang L. Association of adiponectin level and obstructive sleep apnea prevalence in obese subjects. Medicine. 2017;96:e7784,2727 Wolk R, Svatikova A, Nelson CA, Gami AS, Govender K, Winnicki M, Somers VK. Plasma levels of adiponectin, a novel adipocyte-derived hormone, in sleep apnea. Obesity research. 2005;13:186-190 Furthermore, adiponectin also shows a circadian pattern2828 Gomez-Abellan P, Gomez-Santos C, Madrid JA, Milagro FI, Campion J, Martinez JA, Ordovas JM, Garaulet M. Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2010;151:115-122. Regrettably, in the present work, sleep apnoea and circadian rhythm were not investigated. Together, all this evidence indicates that adiponectin levels are influenced by a range of factors.

In this study, patients with diabetes tended to have more sleep deprivation. Both, short and long sleep duration, and poor glucose control are reported in patients with type 2 diabetes2929 Alnaji A, Law GR, Scott EM. The role of sleep duration in diabetes and glucose control. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2016;75:512-520,3030 Daniele TM, Bruin VM, Oliveira DS, Pompeu CM, Forti AC. Associations among physical activity, comorbidities, depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2013;57:44-50. In our study, no gender effect was found2323 Simpson NS, Banks S, Arroyo S, Dinges DF. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women. Physiology & behavior. 2010;101:693-698. In opposition to our findings, higher levels of adiponectin were found in women3131 Kern PA, Di Gregorio GB, Lu T, Rassouli N, Ranganathan G. Adiponectin expression from human adipose tissue: Relation to obesity, insulin resistance, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Diabetes. 2003;52:1779-1785,3232 Bottner A, Kratzsch J, Muller G, Kapellen TM, Bluher S, Keller E, Bluher M, Kiess W Gender differences of adiponectin levels develop during the progression of puberty and are related to serum androgen levels. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2004;89:4053-4061. In hypertensive patients, gender and renal function influenced adiponectin levels2121 Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Cuzzola F, Tripepi G, Cutrupi S, Parlongo S, Tanaka S, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y Adiponectin in essential hypertension. Journal of nephrology. 2002;15:507-511.

Interestingly, in this population, adiponectin measures did not correlate with anthropometric measures or to Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) measures. Hsieh et al. showed that low serum adiponectin level may precipitate hepatic steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes3333 Hsieh CJ, Wang PW, Hu TH. Association of adiponectin gene polymorphism with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes. PloS one. 2015;10:e0127521. Another data supported a role for low circulating adiponectin in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fat liver disorder3434 Pagano C, Soardo G, Esposito W, Fallo F, Basan L, Donnini D, Federspil G, Sechi LA, Vettor R. Plasma adiponectin is decreased in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. European journal of endocrinology. 2005;152:113-118.

Limitations must to be acknowledged. In this study, chronic sleep deprivation was evaluated only by questionnaires and objective sleep measures were not recorded. Nonetheless, the strength of the present study is that it is the first to examine adiponectin levels in relation to sleep deprivation in patients with multiple endocrine-metabolic disorders.

In summary, we show that chronic sleep deprivation affects approximately 1/4 of patients with endocrine-metabolic disorders. Patients with type 2 diabetes tended to have more chronic sleep deprivation. Adiponectin levels increased with age and higher values were independently associated with chronic sleep deprivation. Increased sagittal abdominal diameter and fasting insulin levels were negatively correlated with adiponectin levels. These findings reinforce the concept that low adiponectin levels have an obnoxious effect, and multiple factors and counter-regulatory effects may influence adiponectin levels.

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank MCT/CNPq for supporting this study.

REFERENCES

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    Brum MC, Filho FF, Schnorr CC, Bottega GB, Rodrigues TC. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders. Diabetology & metabolic syndrome. 2015;7:45
  • 2
    Broussard JL, Chapotot F, Abraham V, Day A, Delebecque F, Whitmore HR, Tasali E. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men. Diabetologia. 2015;58:791-798
  • 3
    Irwin MR, Olmstead R, Carroll JE. Sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and experimental sleep deprivation. Biological psychiatry. 2016;80:40-52
  • 4
    Spiegel K, Knutson K, Leproult R, Tasali E, Van Cauter E. Sleep loss: A novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2005;99:2008-2019
  • 5
    Klumpers UM, Veltman DJ, van Tol MJ, Kloet RW, Boellaard R, Lammertsma AA, Hoogendijk WJ. Neurophysiological effects of sleep deprivation in healthy adults, a pilot study. PloS one. 2015;10:e0116906
  • 6
    Check JH. The interrelationship of sleep, biologic clocks, neurotransmitters, gonadotropins and pubertal development. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology. 2013;40:7-14
  • 7
    Faraj M, Lu HL, Cianflone K. Diabetes, lipids, and adipocyte secretagogues. Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire. 2004;82:170-190
  • 8
    Tao C, Sifuentes A, Holland WL. Regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis by adiponectin: Effects on hepatocytes, pancreatic beta cells and adipocytes. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 2014;28:43-58
  • 9
    Davis SK, Gebreab SY, Xu R, Riestra P, Khan RJ, Sumner AE, Hickson D, Bidulescu A. Association of adiponectin with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in african american men and women: The jackson heart study. BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2015;15:13
  • 10
    Aleidi S, Issa A, Bustanji H, Khalil M, Bustanji Y Adiponectin serum levels correlate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society. 2015;23:250-256
  • 11
    Alpert B, McCrindle B, Daniels S, Dennison B, Hayman L, Jacobson M, Mahoney L, Rocchini A, Steinberger J, Urbina E, Williams R. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in human and experimental animals; part 1: Blood pressure measurement in humans. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979). 2006;48:e3; author reply e5
  • 12
    Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, Bruns DE, Horvath AR, Kirkman MS, Lernmark A, Metzger BE, Nathan DM. Guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Clinical chemistry. 2011;57:e1-e47
  • 13
    Fletcher B, Berra K, Ades P, Braun LT, Burke LE, Durstine JL, Fair JM, Fletcher GF, Goff D, Hayman LL, Hiatt WR, Miller NH, Krauss R, Kris-Etherton P, Stone N, Wilterdink J, Winston M. Managing abnormal blood lipids: A collaborative approach. Circulation. 2005;112:3184-3209
  • 14
    Schautz B, Later W, Heller M, Peters A, Muller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A. Impact of age on leptin and adiponectin independent of adiposity. The British journal of nutrition. 2012;108:363-370
  • 15
    Kizer JR, Arnold AM, Strotmeyer ES, Ives DG, Cushman M, Ding J, Kritchevsky SB, Chaves PH, Hirsch CH, Newman AB. Change in circulating adiponectin in advanced old age: Determinants and impact on physical function and mortality. The cardiovascular health study all stars study. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 2010;65:1208-1214
  • 16
    Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, May S. Sex-specific determinants of serum adiponectin in older adults: The role of endogenous sex hormones. International journal of obesity (2005). 2007;31:457-465
  • 17
    Cohen SS, Gammon MD, Signorello LB, North KE, Lange EM, Fowke JH, Hargreaves MK, Cai Q, Zheng W, Blot WJ, Matthews CE. Serum adiponectin in relation to body mass index and other correlates in black and white women. Annals of epidemiology. 2011;21:86-94
  • 18
    Pajunen P, Rissanen H, Laaksonen MA, Heliovaara M, Reunanen A, Knekt P. Sagittal abdominal diameter as a new predictor for incident diabetes. Diabetes care. 2013;36:283-288
  • 19
    Hoenig MR. Mri sagittal abdominal diameter is a stronger predictor of metabolic syndrome than visceral fat area or waist circumference in a high-risk vascular cohort. Vascular health and risk management. 2010;6:629-633
  • 20
    Siddiqui K, George TP. Serum adipokines (adiponectin and resistin) correlation in developing gestational diabetes mellitus: Pilot study. 2017:1-5
  • 21
    Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Cuzzola F, Tripepi G, Cutrupi S, Parlongo S, Tanaka S, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y Adiponectin in essential hypertension. Journal of nephrology. 2002;15:507-511
  • 22
    Robertson MD, Russell-Jones D, Umpleby AM, Dijk DJ. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. 2013;62:204-211
  • 23
    Simpson NS, Banks S, Arroyo S, Dinges DF. Effects of sleep restriction on adiponectin levels in healthy men and women. Physiology & behavior. 2010;101:693-698
  • 24
    Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS medicine. 2004;1:e62
  • 25
    Zeng F, Wang X, Hu W, Wang L. Association of adiponectin level and obstructive sleep apnea prevalence in obese subjects. Medicine. 2017;96:e7784
  • 26
    Abdel-Fadeil MR, Abedelhaffez AS, Makhlouf HA, Al Qirshi GA. Obstructive sleep apnea: Influence of hypertension on adiponectin, inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia. Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology. 2017
  • 27
    Wolk R, Svatikova A, Nelson CA, Gami AS, Govender K, Winnicki M, Somers VK. Plasma levels of adiponectin, a novel adipocyte-derived hormone, in sleep apnea. Obesity research. 2005;13:186-190
  • 28
    Gomez-Abellan P, Gomez-Santos C, Madrid JA, Milagro FI, Campion J, Martinez JA, Ordovas JM, Garaulet M. Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2010;151:115-122
  • 29
    Alnaji A, Law GR, Scott EM. The role of sleep duration in diabetes and glucose control. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2016;75:512-520
  • 30
    Daniele TM, Bruin VM, Oliveira DS, Pompeu CM, Forti AC. Associations among physical activity, comorbidities, depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2013;57:44-50
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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Dec 2018

History

  • Received
    16 May 2018
  • Accepted
    27 May 2018
Associação Médica Brasileira R. São Carlos do Pinhal, 324, 01333-903 São Paulo SP - Brazil, Tel: +55 11 3178-6800, Fax: +55 11 3178-6816 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
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