• Animal experimentation: A look into ethics, welfare and alternative methods EDITORIAL

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi; Pedroso, Aline Ribeiro
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia: laser prostatectomy (PVP) GUIDELINES IN FOCUS

    ,; Nunes, RLV; Oliveira, RRM; Carneiro, A; Neto, AM; Antunes, AA; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Silvinato, Antônio
  • Fulminant myocarditis in children. Continuous renal replacement therapy to the rescue? COMMENTARY

    Honore, Patrick M.; Spapen, Herbert D.
  • Human polyomavirus infection: Cytological and molecular diagnosis POINT OF VIEW

    Assis, Patricia Gioia de; Carvalho, Maria da Glória da Costa

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Poucos estudos comparam diretamente a citologia urinária com métodos moleculares para detecção de poliomavírus BK e JC. A reativação da infecção por BKV é o principal fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de nefropatia em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. A limitação do método citológico pode ser atribuída ao estágio em que a célula infectada não possui características morfológicas específicas e suficientes para um diagnóstico conclusivo, podendo ser facilmente interpretada como alteração degenerativa. Além do mais, morfologicamente, não é possível diferenciar os dois tipos virais. A reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR), além de ser um método sensível, permite diferenciar os tipos virais sem quantificá-los, não sendo, portanto, indicativa de nefropatia. Segundo a American Society of Nephrology, a PCR em tempo real seria o padrão-ouro para indicar nefropatia, pois permite quantificar o número de cópias virais.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Few studies directly compare urinary cytology with molecular methods for detecting BK and JC polyomaviruses. Reactivation of BKV infection is the main risk factor for the development of nephropathy in immunocompromised individuals. The limitation of the cytological method can be attributed to the stage where the infected cell does not have specific and sufficient morphological characteristics for a conclusive diagnosis and can be easily interpreted as degenerative alteration. Moreover, morphologically, it is not possible to differentiate the two types of viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only is a sensitive method, but also allows differentiation of viral types without quantification, and therefore is not indicative of nephropathy. According to the American Society of Nephrology, real-time PCR would be the gold standard to indicate nephropathy because it allows quantifying the number of viral copies.
  • Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty in Chiari surgery: A technical note POINT OF VIEW

    Sabba, Marcelo Ferreira; Renor, Beatriz Souza; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; Joaquim, Andrei Fernandes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo A malformação de Chiari (MC) é a malformação craniocervical congênita sintomática mais comum e prevalente. O diagnóstico radiológico é definido quando as tonsilas cerebelares estão localizadas pelo menos 5 mm abaixo do nível do forame magno na ressonância magnética (RM). Quando há hérnia tonsilar sintomática, siringomielia ou hidrocefalia, o tratamento cirúrgico é indicado. O principal tratamento cirúrgico para MC sem instabilidade craniocervical (como a luxação atlantoaxial) é a descompressão da fossa posterior com ou sem duroplastia. Os autores descrevem detalhadamente a abordagem cirúrgica de pacientes com MC realizada na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, enfatizando nuances técnicas para minimizar os riscos relacionados ao procedimento e melhorar os resultados pós-operatórios.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Chiari malformation (CM) is the most common and prevalent symptomatic congenital craniocervical malformation. Radiological diagnosis is established when the cerebellar tonsils are located 5 mm or more below the level of the foramen magnum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical treatment is indicated whenever there is symptomatic tonsillar herniation or syringomyelia/hydrocephalus. The main surgical treatment for CM without craniocervical instability (such as atlantoaxial luxation) is posterior fossa decompression, with or without duraplasty. The authors describe in details and in a stepwise fashion the surgical approach of patients with CM as performed at the State University of Campinas, emphasizing technical nuances for minimizing the risks of the procedure and potentially improving patient outcome.
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma in a patient presenting with urinary system symptoms IMAGE IN MEDICINE

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Karatag, Ozan; Uysal, Fatma; Ozturk, Muhsin

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a rare tumor. It is most commonly seen in individuals between the fifth and seventh decades of life, in extremities, and less frequently in the retroperitoneum. Although its etiology is not clearly known, radiotherapy, chemical agents, previous history of surgery, trauma and fracture, and Hodgkin lymphoma have been blamed. Leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in differential diagnosis. It is seen on computed tomography as a mass lesion with irregular borders and density similar to that of the surrounding muscle tissue. Necrotic and hemorrhagic components in the mass are characterized as heterogeneous low density areas. Fluid-fluid levels can be detected by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Clinical correlation of biopsy results in patients with temporal arteritis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Yuksel, Volkan; Guclu, Orkut; Tastekin, Ebru; Halici, Umit; Huseyin, Serhat; Inal, Volkan; Canbaz, Suat

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Objective: Temporal arteritis is systemic vasculitis of medium and large sized vessels. The lowest incidence rates were reported in Turkey, Japan and Israel. We aimed to investigate the results of patients with biopsy-proven temporal arteritis and those classified according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria from a low-incidence region for temporal arteritis. The results of our study are noteworthy, since there is limited data on pathologic diagnosis of temporal arteritis in Turkey. Method: We studied the medical records, laboratory findings such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels, biopsy results, and postoperative complications of all the patients operated for temporal artery biopsy at our clinic. We used the computerized laboratory registry that keeps all records of 42 consecutive temporal artery biopsy results from January 2011 to December 2016. Results: The mean age was 66±12.5 years. The most common manifestations on admission were temporal headache, optic neuritis and jaw claudication, respectively. Temporal artery biopsy results confirmed tempoal arteritis in eight out of 42 (19%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference between biopsy-positive and biopsy-negative groups in terms of sex, age, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and biopsy length. Conclusion: We were not able to find a correlation between the analysis of biopsy results and clinical evaluation of patients with temporal arteritis. We suggest that diagnosis of temporal arteritis depends on clinical suspicion. Laboratory examination results may not be helpful in accurate diagnosis of tempoal arteritis.
  • Environmental factors can influence dengue reported cases ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Carneiro, Marco Antonio F.; Alves, Beatriz da C. A.; Gehrke, Flávia de Sousa; Domingues, José Nuno; Sá, Nelson; Paixão, Susana; Figueiredo, João; Ferreira, Ana; Almeida, Cleonice; Machi, Amaury; Savóia, Eriane; Nascimento, Vânia; Fonseca, Fernando

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Objetivo: As alterações globais que têm ocorrido interferem no ambiente natural, influenciando diretamente no crescimento da transmissão de doenças ocasionadas por vetores, das quais se destaca a dengue. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender as consequências da variabilidade temporal das condições climáticas em relação à ocorrência de dengue na população da região metropolitana de São Paulo, constituída por sete municípios. Método: A caracterização da tendência temporal da dengue foi realizada por meio da análise dos números de casos de dengue notificados nos anos de 2010 a 2013, de dados meteorológicos (umidade e temperatura) e dados de concentração de poluentes (PM10). Resultados: Observou-se que os meses de janeiro a abril (de 2010 a 2013) foram os que apresentaram maior número de casos notificados de dengue, com associação estatística entre a umidade e PM10 com os casos de dengue notificados. Conclusão: Embora a temperatura não assuma, estatisticamente, uma associação com os casos de dengue registrados, foi possível verificar que os picos de temperatura coincidem com os picos epidêmicos de dengue. Seriam interessantes futuros estudos referentes à poluição ambiental e a sua influência no desenvolvimento do mosquito Aedes aegypti em todas as suas fases do ciclo de vida e definição de estratégias para melhor monitoração, campanhas e vigilância.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Introduction: Global climate changes directly affect the natural environment and contribute to an increase in the transmission of diseases by vectors. Among these diseases, dengue is at the top of the list. The aim of our study was to understand the consequences of temporal variability of air temperature in the occurrence of dengue in an area comprising seven municipalities of the Greater São Paulo. Method: Characterization of a temporal trend of the disease in the region between 2010 and 2013 was performed through analysis of the notified number of dengue cases over this period. Our analysis was complemented with meteorological (temperature) and pollutant concentration data (PM10). Results: We observed that the months of January, February, March, April and May (from 2010 to 2013) were the ones with the highest number of notified cases. We also found that there is a statistical association of moisture and PM10 with the reported cases of dengue. Conclusion: Although the temperature does not statistically display an association with recorded cases of dengue, we were able to verify that temperature peaks coincide with dengue outbreak peaks. Future studies on environmental pollution and its influence on the development of Aedes aegypti mosquito during all stages of its life cycle, and the definition of strategies for better monitoring, including campaigns and surveillance, would be compelling.
  • Economic assessment of postoperative pain control strategies for treatment of adult patients with cancer ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Santos, Rafael Freitas dos; Bliacheriene, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia Mori

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Objetivo: O artigo apresenta uma avaliação econômica de opioides atualmente utilizados no controle de dor pós-operatória relacionada ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer (fentanil e sufentanil) no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde. Método: A avaliação baseou-se na perspectiva do governo, de forma a colaborar na promoção da efetividade das políticas públicas de saúde e melhorar a alocação de recursos públicos em saúde. Uma análise custo-efetividade foi realizada a partir de dados coletados no Sistema Único de Saúde e de informações provenientes de revisão da literatura para construção de uma árvore de decisão contendo alternativas para controle de dor pós-operatória relacionada ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer entre pacientes adultos. Os desfechos considerados foram: efetividade da analgesia pós-operatória e ocorrência de náusea e vômito no período de 48 horas após cirurgia e em ciclos adicionais de 24 horas de seguimento do paciente. Uma análise de sensibilidade univariada foi conduzida para verificar a robustez do modelo estimado. Resultados: Na revisão de literatura, um número limitado de estudos efetuou comparação direta entre fentanil e sufentanil no controle de dor pós-operatória. A adoção de sufentanil (custo = U$ 25,72 / desfecho = 1,6 pontos VAS) foi dominante em relação ao uso do fentanil (custo = U$ 32,58 / desfecho = 2,6 pontos VAS). O modelo estimado demonstrou robustez em relação a mudanças nos parâmetros analisados. Conclusão: O sufentanil apresentou razão custo-efetividade superior em relação ao fentanil no controle de dor pós-operatória em cirurgias relacionadas ao tratamento de câncer entre pacientes adultos no Sistema Único de Saúde.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Objective: The authors performed an economic assessment of opioids currently being used for control of postoperative pain relating to the surgical treatment of cancer (fentanyl and sufentanil) within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym). Method: The assessment was based on the perspective of the government, in order to collaborate with the promotion of effectiveness in public policies of health, and to optimize the allocation of public resources into health. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data collected from the Brazilian Unified Health System and information from literature review, in order to build a decision tree on the alternatives for control of postoperative pain related to cancer treatment among adult patients. The outcomes considered were: effectiveness of postoperative analgesia and occurrence of nausea and vomit in the 48 hour period after surgery, and additional 24-hour cycles in patient follow-up. A univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to verify robustness of the model estimated. Results: Literature review showed a limited number of studies directly comparing fentanyl and sufentanil for control of postoperative pain. The adoption of sufentanil (cost = U$ 25.72 / outcome = 1.6 VAS points) was dominant in relation to the use of fentanyl (cost = U$ 32.58 / outcome = 2.6 VAS points). The estimated model showed robustness in relation to changes in the parameters analyzed. Conclusion: Sufentanil presented higher cost-effectiveness ratio in relation to fentanyl for control of postoperative pain in surgeries related to cancer treatment among adult patients in the Brazilian Unified Health System.
  • Association between the RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) -374T/A gene polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy in T2DM ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Tao, Dan; Mai, Xuancheng; Zhang, Tiesong; Mei, Yan

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Objective: Interaction between advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in cells could affect both extracellular and intracellular structure and function, which plays a pivotal role in diabetic microvascular complications. The results from previous epidemiological studies on the association between RAGE gene -374T/A polymorphism and diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk were inconsistent. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to summarize the possible association between RAGE -374T/A polymorphism and DR risk. Method: We searched all relevant articles on the association between RAGE -374T/A polymorphism and DR risk from PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Wanfang, VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) web databases up to August 2016. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess those associations. All analyses were performed using the Review Manager software. Results: Nine case-control studies, including 1,705 DR cases and 2,236 controls were enrolled, and the results showed that the A allele of RAGE -374T/A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased DR risk in dominant model (TA/AA vs. TT: OR=1.22, 95CI 1.05-1.41, p=0.006) and heterozygote model (TA vs. TT: OR=1.26, 95CI 1.07-1.47, p=0.005). The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that significantly increased DR risk was found in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Conclusion: This meta-analysis reveals that the A allele of RAGE -374T/A polymorphism probably increase DR risk.
  • What clinical, functional, and psychological factors before treatment are predictors of poor quality of life in cancer patients at the end of chemotherapy? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Mangia, Ariella Sebastião; Coqueiro, Nara Lisiane de Oliveira; Azevedo, Fernanda Cabral; Araujo, Hiago Tomaz da Silva; Amorim, Elizandra de Oliveira; Alves, Cibelli Navarro Rodrigues; Camargo, Calvino; Fonseca, Allex Jardim da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Objetivo: Correlacionar nível de atividade física (NAF), capacidade funcional, estado psicológico com qualidade de vida (QdV) de pacientes com câncer em tratamento quimioterápico (QT). Método: Estudo de coorte observacional. Pacientes (n=121) com qualquer sítio primário de câncer, com indicação de quimioterapia com intuito paliativo ou curativo foram avaliados em three momentos: 1) admissão do paciente (semana 0), antes da quimioterapia; 2) semana 8; 3) ao término da QT. Foram coletados dados sobre QdV, NAF, dados clínicos, testes de capacidade funcional (teste de curta distância de caminhada, teste de sentar/levantar, força de preensão manual isométrica) e testes de ansiedade e depressão. Resultados: Houve melhora significativa ao término da QT para: nível de atividade física; teste de caminhada (> 500 metros); teste de sentar e levantar (> 20x). Notou-se redução significativa da prevalência de depressão moderada/grave. A prevalência de QdV elevada apresentou aumento significativo na avaliação 3 (42,4% vs. 40,0% vs. 59,2%; p=0,02). Escolaridade até nível médio, baixo NAF, caminhar < 300 metros, sentar e levantar < 20 vezes, ter depressão do humor (moderado a grave) e QdV não elevada no início do tratamento (semana 0) foram fatores de risco para baixa qualidade de vida na semana 16. Inversamente, estadiamento precoce, intuito de quimioterapia curativo, baixa escala de sintomas foram fatores de proteção. Conclusão: Realizar menos de 20 movimentos no teste de sentar e levantar e possuir baixo NAF no início do tratamento quimioterápico representam fatores de riscos independentes para baixa qualidade de vida ao fim da quimioterapia.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Objective: To correlate physical activity level (PAL), functional capacity and psychological state with quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT). Method: Observational cohort study. Patients (n=121) with any primary cancer site with indications of chemotherapy with palliative or curative intent were evaluated at three moments: 1) patient admission (week 0), before chemotherapy; 2) week 8; 3) end of CT. Data were collected regarding QoL, PAL, clinical data, functional capacity (short walking distance test, sitting-rising test, isometric manual gripping force), and anxiety and depression tests. Results: There was significant improvement at the end of CT for: level of physical activity; walk test (> 500 meters); sitting-rising test (> 20x). There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of moderate/severe depression. The prevalence of high QoL showed a significant increase in evaluation 3 (42.4% vs. 40.0% vs. 59.2%, p=0.02). Education up to high school level, low PAL, walking < 300 meters, sitting and rising < 20 times, having depression (moderate to severe) and QoL that was not high at the start of treatment (week 0) all proved to be risk factors for low quality of life at week 16. Conversely, early staging, curative intent chemotherapy and low-grade symptoms were shown to be protective factors. Conclusion: Performing less than 20 movements in the sitting-rising test and low PAL at the start of chemotherapy represent independent risk factors for low quality of life at the end of chemotherapy.
  • The analysis on the expression of gasotransmitters in early trauma patients ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Wang, Zhiyong; Fang, Mignxing; Guo, Jianying; Yang, Yong; Tian, Fengjun

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Objective: Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were endogenously-generated molecules gas. They owned important biological activity and participated in many pathophysiological processes. This study aimed to examine the levels of three gasotransmitters in the early phase of trauma patients. Method: Blood samples were collected from 60 trauma patients and ten healthy volunteers. Concentration of serum iNOS and HO-1 were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and plasma H2S was determined by colorimetric method. Meanwhile, the occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was also monitored. Results: The levels of iNOS, HO-1 and endogenous H2S in the patients group were significantly different from the healthy control group, and the difference was more obvious with the increase of ISS score. iNOS levels were positively correlated with ISS scores and blood lactic acid values, and HO-1 and endogenous H2S were negatively correlated with ISS scores and blood lactic acid values. Of 60 trauma patients, eight (13.33%) developed MODS. The level of iNOS in the MODS group was higher than that in non-MODS group, while HO-1 and H2S were significant lower in the MODS group. Conclusion: The three gasotransmitters participated in systemic inflammatory responses during early trauma and could be used as important indicators for trauma severity. Their measurements were meaningful for evaluating the severity and prognosis of trauma.
  • Update on antiphospholipid antibody syndrome REVIEW ARTICLE

    Lopes, Michelle Remião Ugolini; Danowski, Adriana; Funke, Andreas; Rêgo, Jozelia; Levy, Roger; Andrade, Danieli Castro Oliveira de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo A síndrome antifosfolipídide (APS) é uma doença autoimune caracterizada por tromboses e morbidade gestacional associadas à positividade de antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). A maioria das manifestações da APS está diretamente relacionada aos eventos trombóticos, que podem afetar pequenos, médios ou grandes vasos. Outras manifestações como trombocitopenia, nefropatia, valvulopatia, disfunção cognitiva e úlceras cutâneas (chamadas de manifestações não critérios) agregam significativa morbidade e muitas vezes são refratárias ao tratamento convencional. Embora tenha sido inicialmente descrita em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), a síndrome antifosfolípide também pode ocorrer em pacientes sem outras doenças autoimunes associadas. Apesar do caráter autoimune dessa síndrome, o tratamento da APS ainda é baseado na anticoagulação e na antiagregação plaquetária.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity. Most APS events are directly related to thrombotic events, which may affect small, medium or large vessels. Other clinical features like thrombocytopenia, nephropathy, cardiac valve disease, cognitive dysfunction and skin ulcers (called non-criteria manifestations) add significant morbidity to this syndrome and represent clinical situations that are challenging. APS was initially described in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but it can occur in patients without any other autoimmune disease. Despite the autoimmune nature of this syndrome, APS treatment is still based on anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy.
  • Mirror therapy: A potential intervention for pain management REVIEW ARTICLE

    Wittkopf, Priscilla G.; Johnson, Mark I.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary The consequences of chronic pain and associated disabilities to the patient and to the health care system are well known. Medication is often the first treatment of choice for chronic pain, although side effects and high costs restrict long-term use. Inexpensive, safe and easy to self-administer non-pharmacological therapies, such as mirror therapy, are recommended as adjuncts to pain treatment. The purpose of this review is to describe the principles of use of mirror therapy so it can be incorporated into a health care delivery. The physiological rationale of mirror therapy for the management of pain and the evidence of clinical efficacy based on recent systematic reviews are also discussed. Mirror therapy, whereby a mirror is placed in a position so that the patient can view a reflection of a body part, has been used to treat phantom limb pain, complex regional pain syndrome, neuropathy and low back pain. Research evidence suggests that a course of treatment (four weeks) of mirror therapy may reduce chronic pain. Contraindications and side effects are few. The mechanism of action of mirror therapy remains uncertain, with reintegration of motor and sensory systems, restored body image and control over fear-avoidance likely to influence outcome. The evidence for clinical efficacy of mirror therapy is encouraging, but not yet definitive. Nevertheless, mirror therapy is inexpensive, safe and easy for the patient to self-administer.
  • Pilates for breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis REVIEW ARTICLE

    Espíndula, Roberta Costa; Nadas, Gabriella Barbosa; Rosa, Maria Inês da; Foster, Charlie; Araújo, Florentino Cardoso de; Grande, Antonio Jose

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo Introdução: O câncer de mama é o principal tipo de câncer que causa morte em mulheres em todo o mundo. Estima-se que a doença cresça em razão do envelhecimento da população e dos fatores de risco relacionados ao comportamento e estilo de vida. Considerando o estilo de vida das mulheres com câncer de mama antes ou após a cirurgia, o exercício de pilates pode ser uma intervenção complementar, além do tratamento padrão. Objetivo: Analisar a eficácia do pilates em relação a outros exercícios e a nenhum exercício para mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer de mama. Método: Buscamos em Medline via Pubmed, Embase via Ovid, Amed via EBSCO, Biosis via Ovid, Lilacs e Cochrane Library publicações relevantes até março de 2017. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram pilates e “câncer de mama”; apenas ensaios clínicos randomizados foram incluídos. A avaliação crítica foi feita com a ferramenta Risk of Bias e escore GRADE para avaliar a qualidade da evidência. Resultados: Um total de cinco estudos foi incluído nesta revisão. Nossos resultados demonstram que pilates ou exercícios feitos em casa são melhores do que a ausência de exercícios em cada estudo individual. Observamos melhorias significativas no grupo de pilates em comparação com exercícios em casa. Adicionalmente, nos estudos individuais observamos melhorias na amplitude de movimento, dor e fadiga. Conclusão: A evidência mostra que pilates ou exercícios em casa devem ser encorajados a mulheres com câncer de mama.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer causing death in women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is expected to grow worldwide due to the aging of the population and risk factors related to lifestyle behaviors. Considering the lifestyle of women with breast cancer before or after surgery, pilates exercise may be a complementary intervention additionally to standard treatment. Objective: To analyze the efficacy of pilates compared to other exercises and to no exercise for women with breast cancer diagnosis. Method: We searched Medline via Pubmed, Embase via Ovid, Amed via EBSCO, Biosis via Ovid, Lilacs and the Cochrane Library for relevant publications until March 2017. The keywords used were pilates and “breast cancer,” and only randomized controlled trials were included. Critical appraisal was done using Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE score for assessing the quality of evidence. Results: A total of five studies were included in our review. Our results demonstrate that pilates or home-based exercises are better than no exercise in each individual study. We observed significant improvements in the pilates groups compared to home-based exercises. Additionally, in the individual studies, we observed improvements in range of motion, pain and fatigue. Conclusion: The evidence shows that pilates or home-based exercise should be encouraged to women with breast cancer.
  • Approach to concurrent coronary and carotid artery disease: Epidemiology, screening and treatment REVIEW ARTICLE

    Reis, Patrícia Feitosa Frota dos; Linhares, Pedro Vieira; Pitta, Fábio Grunspun; Lima, Eduardo Gomes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo A concomitância entre doença arterial coronária e doença carotídea é conhecida e já bem documentada. Fato é, porém, que, a despeito dos métodos de rastreio dessas condições e da evolução do tratamento cirúrgico, pouco se tem conseguido em termos de redução de risco de complicações no perioperatório. As publicações são escassas, sendo em sua maior parte compostas por relatos ou séries de caso. Há pouco consenso sobre qual a melhor abordagem terapêutica inicial (revascularização miocárdica versus carotídea), bem como sobre a melhor técnica a ser empregada (cirurgia com ou sem uso de circulação extracorpórea, tratamentos híbridos, etc.). Os autores realizaram uma revisão da evidência nesse cenário clínico, pontuando questões pragmáticas que ajudem na decisão terapêutica.

    Abstract in English:

    Summary The concomitance between coronary artery disease and carotid artery disease is known and well documented. However, it is a fact that, despite the screening methods for these conditions and the advances in surgical treatment, little has been achieved in terms of reducing the risk of complications in the perioperative period. Publications are scarce, being mostly composed of reports or case series. There is little agreement on the best initial therapeutic approach (myocardial versus carotid revascularization) or the best technique to be used (surgery with or without extracorporeal circulation, hybrid treatments, etc.). The authors performed a review of the evidence in this clinical scenario, raising pragmatic questions that help in the therapeutic decision.
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