Resumo em Inglês:The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field to standardize how to conduct, and to assist in the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided by this project must be critically evaluated by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical condition of each patient.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Long-term ocular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the long-term effects of adalimumab use on neural tissue of the anterior visual pathways using optical coherence tomography in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. METHODS: This was a single-center, open-label, cross-sectional study conducted at the Giresun University Faculty of Medicine, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, between November 2019 and August 2020. This study included 26 ankylosing spondylitis patients receiving adalimumab for at least 1 year and 21 healthy controls. All subjects underwent a full ophthalmological examination and optical coherence tomography examination with the following measurements: peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, peripapillary retinal thickness, peripapillary choroidal thickness, ganglion cell complex thickness, and the optic head properties. RESULTS: Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retinal thickness measurements were lower in the adalimumab group. In addition, ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly lower and the cup-to-disc ratio was significantly higher in the adalimumab group (p<0.05). However, the two groups did not differ in terms of peripapillary choroidal thickness and disc area (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors have some favorable effects on the ocular involvement of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, they may also have paradoxical detrimental effects as evidenced by structural changes observed by optical coherence tomography. Future studies with better design, probably including a large number of patients with a range of rheumatological diseases and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, are warranted.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Positive attitudes and motivation on the part of medical students concerning organ donation and transplantation are very important in terms of the growing need for these. This study aimed to evaluate the willingness and attitudes of medical students toward organ donation and transplantation. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed at a state university in Turkey in February–March 2020. The questionnaire investigated sociodemographic characteristics and willingness toward organ donation and transplantation and contained the Organ Donation Attitude Scale. RESULTS: A total of 309 medical students participated, of which 71.2% were willing to donate their organs. Medical students’ willingness to donate organs increased depending on gender, academic year, receipt of education on the subject, discussing donation with family and friends, possession of an organ donation card, knowledge of the organ donation system, and willingness to receive organ donation if necessary. Positive attitudes toward organ donation increased after discussing the subject with family and friends, possessing an organ donation card, and knowing the path to be followed for organ donation. CONCLUSION: Medical students exhibited high willingness and positive attitudes regarding organ donation and transplantation. However, education on the subject of organ donation and transplantation is needed.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of PD-L1, PTEN, PHH3, and Ki-67 immunohistochemical stain expressions with prognostic clinicopathological parameters in breast cancer. METHODS: Lumpectomy and mastectomy materials from 85 patients operated at the Department of Pathology, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Faculty of Medicine between 2014 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. PD-L1, PTEN, PHH3, and Ki-67 expressions were examined. Immunohistochemical staining results were compared with clinicopathological parameters and found to be associated with prognosis. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation was found between PD-L1 and large tumor size, high histological grade, multifocality, and lymphovascular invasion. A statistically significant correlation was found between the loss of PTEN and large tumor size and histological grade. There was a statistically significant correlation between PHH3 and advanced age, large tumor size, and high histological grade. A statistically significant correlation was found between Ki-67 and large tumor size, high histological grade, and lymphovascular invasion. CONCLUSION: PD-L1, PTEN, PHH3, and Ki-67 are regarded as potential biomarkers that can be used to predict the prognosis of breast cancer and to develop targeted therapies.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriatic arthritis using ultrasound radiofrequency data technology. METHODS: In all, 29 psoriatic arthritis patients and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness measurements were performed in bilateral common carotid arteries using ultrasound radiofrequency data technology in all participants. RESULTS: In psoriatic arthritis patients, the mean carotid intima-media thickness, α and β stiffness indices, and pulsed wave velocity value were significantly higher than those in the control group (542.3 (81.3) vs. 487.9 (64.1), 9.3 (6.3) vs. 3.9 (0.1), 18.7 (17.7) vs. 8.04 (4.2), and 10.2 (3.8) vs. 6.4 (1.5), p<0.05). The mean distensibility coefficient and compliance coefficient values of the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (0.014 (0.01) vs. 0.03 (0.01) and 0.57 (0.33) vs. 1.02 (0.4), p<0.05). No significant correlation was found between carotid artery hemodynamic parameters and symptom duration, duration of diagnosis and treatment, disease activity ındex for psoriatic arthritis scores, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: In the results of our study, evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis has been detected in psoriatic arthritis patients without clinically evident cardiovascular disease or traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the influencing factors of preterm twin pregnancy. METHODS: In total, 602 twin-pregnant women delivered from February 2016 to February 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. According to whether the pregnant women were preterm or not, they were divided into preterm group (n=363) and term group (n=239). Baseline information, such as maternal age, address, and education level of the pregnant women, were collected. The clinical information of pregnant women, such as chorionic, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature rupture of membranes, abnormal fetal position, and fetal weight, were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the risk factors. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the preterm group, monochorionic diamniotic comorbidities were significantly higher compared with the control group (p<0.05). Higher risks of preterm group have lower education (p<0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that education, preeclampsia, and premature rupture of membranes were risk factors for preterm twin pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth in twin pregnancy is associated with many risk factors, such as education, preeclampsia, and premature rupture of membranes. Pregnancy supervision and prenatal guidance for twin pregnancy should be strengthened. Furthermore, early detection and diagnosis of comorbidities can improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of varicose vein stripping in Brazil’s largest city, São Paulo. METHODS: Open and anonymous data regarding varicose vein surgeries between 2008 and 2018 were evaluated from the TabNet platform of the Municipal Health Secretary of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: Most patients were female and adults. A total of 66,577 varicose vein surgeries were performed in public hospitals and outpatient clinics in São Paulo, with a statistically significant increase for both unilateral (p=0.003) and bilateral (p<0.001) procedures. Since 2016, unilateral procedures have been performed more frequently than bilateral procedures. Most procedures were associated with same-day (54.8%) or next-day (32%) discharge. The in-hospital mortality rate was 0.0045%. The total amount reimbursed was $20,693,437.94, corresponding to a mean value of $310.82 per procedure. CONCLUSION: Surgeries to treat chronic vein disease totaled 66,577 in 11 years, demanding $20,693,437.94 from the public health system. The majority of treated patients were female, over 40 years of age, and local residents. Procedure rates have increased over the years. The in-hospital mortality rate was very low (0.0045%).
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the value of next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of Streptococcus suis meningitis. METHODS: Patients with meningitis in the Department of Neurology of the Hainan General Hospital were recruited and divided into a next-generation sequencing group and a control group. In the next-generation sequencing group, we used the next-generation sequencing method to detect the specific pathogenic bacteria in the patients. In the control group, we used the cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture method to detect the specific pathogenic bacteria in the patients. RESULTS: A total of 28 participants were recruited for this study, with 14 participants in each group. The results showed similarities in both the average age and average course of the disease between the two groups (p>0.05). The white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, and level of C-reactive protein in the next-generation sequencing group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). There were similarities in both the temperature and intracranial pressure between the two groups (p>0.05). In the next-generation sequencing group, all patients (100%) were detected as having had the S. suis meningitis infection by next-generation sequencing, while only 6 (43%) patients in the control group had been detected as having the S. suis meningitis infection by cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture. CONCLUSIONS: The positive detection rate of S. suis by the next-generation sequencing method was significantly higher compared with using a cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture. Therefore, the next-generation sequencing method is valuable for the diagnosis of S. suis meningitis and is worthy of clinical application.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disease and most cases are asymptomatic. Currently, in a hypercalcemic patient, the first laboratory investigation is serum primary hyperparathyroidism measurement. However, the primary hyperparathyroidism level cannot be measured in many primary healthcare centers in our country. In addition, serum calcium levels are normal in normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism patients, even if most centers have serum calcium levels measured. Therefore, a simple and inexpensive laboratory biochemical marker is required for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Recently, the calcium/phosphorus ratio has been proposed as a suitable tool for diagnosing primary hyperparathyroidism. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of serum calcium/phosphorus ratio in primary hyperparathyroidism screening. METHODS: A total of 462 patients followed in our clinic with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed in this retrospective study. Out of these patients, 148 with normal levels of serum parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus were selected as the control group. Serum calcium, corrected calcium, phosphorus, albumin, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and creatinine were evaluated. The diagnostic accuracy of the calcium/phosphorus ratio was investigated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: There were 404 (87.4%) females and 58 (12.6%) males in the primary hyperparathyroidism group. Calcium, parathyroid hormone, and calcium/phosphorus ratio were significantly higher in primary hyperparathyroidism than in controls (p<0.001 for each). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified a cutoff value of 2.59 (3.35 if calcium and phosphorus are measured in mg/dL) for the calcium/phosphorus ratio, with a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 93.2% (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The calcium/phosphorus ratio is a simple and inexpensive method for primary hyperparathyroidism screening when a cutoff value of 2.59 is used.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Brazil ranks second in gross numbers of kidney and liver transplantations, but deceased organ donation is still far below the national demand for organs. Apart from a high family refusal rate, another significant barrier is healthcare workers’ inappropriate knowledge concerning organ donation and transplantation. Since most of them have recently graduated from university, this study aimed to evaluate the awareness and attitudes of medical students concerning organ donation. METHODS: Between August and September 2021, a web-based survey with 10 overlapping questions was sent to medical students from several Brazilian universities after advertisements on social media. RESULTS: A total of 391 (60% female, mean age: 23 [17–41] years) students answered the survey. Most of them (91%) would like to donate organs in case of death, and 75% have already notified their family. The main reasons for not becoming a donor were fear of body manipulation (n=3) or family reaction (n=2) and religious reasons (n=2). When inquired, 54% were unaware of brain death criteria, and half of them claimed to have never discussed the topic in medical classes. Except for Glasgow coma scale (97%), pupillary (72%), and corneal (53%) reflexes, less than 25% knew other reflexes required for brain death diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Most medical students declared themselves as organ donors, and most informed their families. However, many students have never learned about crucial steps toward organ donation, which may impact their adequate recognition of potential organ donors later in life.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of immature granulocyte count, immature granulocyte percentage, and total bilirubin value in predicting complicated and perforated appendicitis in patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of appendicitis. METHODS: In this study, 84 patients, aged 65 years and older, who had appendectomy demographic information, preoperative white blood cell count, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, immature granulocyte count and immature granulocyte percentage, operation findings, and pathology results were collected retrospectively. They were grouped into 4 categories: complicated, non-complicated, perforated, and non-perforated, according to the data and surgical findings. RESULTS: Total bilirubin and immature granulocyte count were found to be statistically significant in predicting complicated and perforated appendicitis in patients aged 65 years and older with a diagnosis of appendicitis. The total bilirubin was found to have the following values in differentiating complicated appendicitis: area under the curve=0.883, sensitivity=78.3%, and specificity=88.5%. Total bilirubin had the highest discrimination power with area under the curve=0.804 in differentiating perforation. CONCLUSION: The immature granulocyte percentage and total bilirubin count are the fast, inexpensive, and reliable parameters that can be used to predict complicated and perforated appendicitis in patients aged 65 years and older.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: There are very few studies about total knee arthroplasty biomechanical and biochemical effects in the early postoperative period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of total knee arthroplasty on pain intensity, knee joint valgus angle, malalignment, functional status, knee joint position sense, and cytokine levels. METHODS: A total of 29 patients (female/male: 24/5) who underwent total knee arthroplasty were included in the late-stage knee osteoarthritis group, and 22 patients (female/male: 13/9) with grade 4 osteoarthritis were included in the early-stage knee osteoarthritis group. The visual analog scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index were used to evaluate the pain intensity and functional status. Alignment and knee position sense measurements were also calculated. Systemic venous blood samples were taken to evaluate the interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta cytokine levels. RESULTS: In the study group, there were positive improvements in pain intensity, functional status, valgus angle, malalignment, amount of joint position sense deviation at 70° knee flexion angle parameters, and interleukin-6 of patients at the postoperative 6th week compared to the preoperative period (p<0.05). The patients in the study group had similar or better results in pain intensity, functional status, valgus angle, malalignment, amount of joint position sense deviation at 35°, 55°, and 70° knee flexion angles parameters, and in interleukin-6, compared to the control group at postoperative 6th week. CONCLUSION: Total knee arthroplasty provides improvements in pain, function, valgus angle, joint position sense, and interleukin-6 in the early postoperative period.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia measured from pectoralis muscles is a risk factor for long-term mortality in left ventricular assist device patients. METHODS: Patients aged >18 years implanted with a left ventricular assist device in a single center between 2013 and 2019 were retrospectively included. Patients without a thoracic computed tomography scan performed within 3 months of left ventricular assist device implantation and without computed tomography scans appropriate for pectoralis muscle measurement were excluded. Pectoralis muscle measurements were made on thoracic computed tomography slices, and pectoralis muscle indices were calculated for each patient. Sarcopenia was defined as being in the gender-specific lowest tertile of pectoralis muscle index. Survival was compared between patients with and without sarcopenia. RESULTS: The study was conducted on 64 left ventricular assist device patients who met the inclusion criteria. Notably, 21 (32.8%) of the study patients were sarcopenic. Diabetes mellitus and sarcopenia were more common in patients with 2-year mortality in our cohort. Patients with sarcopenia had a worse 2-year survival (p<0.001). Sarcopenia had an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–12.02, p=0.012), while diabetes mellitus was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.14 (95%CI 1.17–8.39, p=0.023). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia defined by low pectoralis muscle index increases the risk for 2-year mortality in left ventricular assist device patients.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants and verify the association of iron deficiency with nutritional status. METHODS This cross-sectional and observational study included 104 infants aged between 7 and 9 months, assisted from August to September 2021 by the Family Health Strategy program in Sousa municipality (Paraíba, Brazil). Clinical and anthropometric data were collected, and a 24-h food recall questionnaire was applied using the DietPro software (version 5.0) in order to verify food consumption and assess iron intake. Variables associated with iron deficiency (p<0.05) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Anemia and IDA were observed in 40.4% and 19.2% of infants, respectively. Only one infant was taking prophylactic supplementation (ferrous sulfate). Infants with IDA presented reduced hemoglobin (p<0.001) and ferritin (p<0.001) and increased Z-scores of body mass index-for-age (Z-BMI) (p=0.027), weight-for-height (p=0.007), and weight-for-age (p=0.032). All Z-scores were inversely correlated with ferritin (Z-BMI [rho: -0.37; p<0.001], weight-for-height [rho: -0.37; p<0.001], and weight-for-age [rho: -0.29; p=0.002]). Ferritin was also directly correlated with daily iron intake (rho: 0.22; p=0.018). Finally, multiple logistic regression showed a significant and direct association of iron deficiency with weight-for-height Z-score (odds ratio: 2.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.38–5.64; p=0.004). CONCLUSION About 60% of infants presented anemia or IDA. Iron deficiency was associated with the weight-for-height Z-score, showing the vulnerability of infants during the introduction of complementary feeding.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Numerous physiological changes occur during pregnancy, which affect both the mother and the fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnesium, calcium, phosphate, parathormone (PTH), and vitamin D levels in each trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: In this study, 30 pregnant women in the first trimester, 30 pregnant women in the second trimester, 30 pregnant women in the third trimester, and 30 healthy, non-pregnant women (control) in the same age group were included. The serum magnesium, calcium, phosphate, PTH, and vitamin D levels were measured in all the participants. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in the PTH and phosphate levels within the groups. In contrast, a significant difference was found in the vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium levels (p<0.001 for all). By analyzing the differences between the groups, the vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium levels were found to decrease with increase in the gestational weeks. CONCLUSION: For maintaining a healthy pregnancy and fetus, we recommend vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium levels to be included in routine follow-ups for each trimester and supplemented in case of deficiency.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate the techno-stress questionnaire proposed by Ragu Nathan et al into Brazilian Portuguese and to culturally adapt and validate it. For this, 4 of the 11 original questionnaires’ domains were used. METHODS: The questionnaires’ domains translated and adapted were as follows: techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, and job satisfaction. Initially, the techno-stress questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese language according to international standards, followed by cultural adaptations. Validation for feasibility and psychometric properties of translated questionnaire was performed on 138 gynecologists and obstetricians who use message applications to communicate with patients. The physicians were divided into groups according to the weekly messaging application usage time for communication with patients: <2 h (GI, n=89), 2–5 h (GII, n=29), and >5 h (GIII, n=23). The questionnaire was applied to all participants twice on the same day, overseen by two different interviewers, at a 15-min interval. After 15 days, it was readministered. The discriminant validity and reliability were calculated to validate the instrument. RESULTS: Techno-stress subscales showed statistically significant differences between the groups. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the techno-stress questionnaire was >0.80, showing good internal consistency. No differences were observed in the test-retest comparison of the techno-stress questionnaire, and the intraclass correlation coefficient results showed excellent reproducibility (³0.75). CONCLUSION: The techno-stress questionnaire was adequately translated into Brazilian Portuguese, with good discriminant validity, good internal consistency, and adequate test-retest results.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonographic temporal muscle thickness measurement has recently emerged as a promising method of nutritional assessment in various conditions; hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between temporal muscle thickness and mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Adult patients who were on a regular in-center hemodialysis program for ≥3 months were included, and patients with severe nonrenal organ failure or any recent significant disease inception were excluded. Baseline demographic; clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric data, including malnutrition inflammation score; and outcomes data were collected using a standardized form. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients (32 males, diabetes prevalence: 26.6%) who met the eligibility criteria participated in the study, with a mean follow-up of 33.3±11.5 months, a median age of 66.5 (interquartile range 52.7–74) years, time on hemodialysis of 36 months, and a body mass index of 25.9 kg/m². Infections and cardiovascular events were the most common causes of overall mortality that occurred in 41.6% of the patients. Temporal muscle thickness was significantly lower in nonsurvivors (8.8 vs. 10.6 mm, p<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis involving age, albumin, spKt/V, and malnutrition inflammation score revealed that temporal muscle thickness was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio=0.740, p=0.035). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis has shown 68% of sensitivity and 81.8% of specificity for a cutoff value of 9.4 mm (p<0.001). Temporal muscle thickness was weakly or mildly correlated with hemodialysis vintage, body mass index, albumin, and malnutrition inflammation score and moderately correlated with age (r=−0.536, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Ultrasonographic temporal muscle thickness has been found as a significant predictor of mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients. Temporal muscle thickness could be a novel marker of nutritional status and predictor of mortality; hence, further studies are warranted.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans and high blood pressure in children and adolescents from low-income families, and to verify the association of elevated blood pressure with nutritional status and the presence of acanthosis nigricans. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and controlled study with 232 children and adolescents from an institution for low-income families. Pubertal stage, body mass index Z-score, waist-to-height circumference ratio (increased waist-to-height circumference ratio >0.5), the presence of acanthosis nigricans, and blood pressure were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of excess weight and the change in waist-to-height circumference ratio was 37.9%. Acanthosis nigricans and increased blood pressure occurred in 20.3 and 34.8%, respectively. The prevalence of acanthosis nigricans and hypertension was higher in individuals with excess weight (p<0.001; p<0.001) and with an increased waist-to-height circumference ratio (p=0.009; p<0.001). Logistic regression showed a significant and independent association of body mass index Z-score (OR 2.35; 95%CI 1.52–3.65; p<0.001) and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (OR 2.43; 95%CI 1.12–5.23; p=0.023) with elevated blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Acanthosis nigricans and elevated blood pressure occurred in one-fifth and one-third of the individuals in an institution for children from low-income families. Overweight and the presence of acanthosis nigricans increased the risk of high blood pressure more than twofold.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for admission to the emergency department in the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to investigate the diseases frequently detected in elderly patients diagnosed with acute abdomen in the emergency department, the imaging methods used in the diagnostic processes of these diseases, and the prognosis of the patients. METHODS: In all, 175 patients who visited the emergency department due to abdominal pain and were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute abdomen were evaluated. The patients were categorized into seven groups according to their diagnosis as biliary diseases, pancreatitis, appendicitis, gastrointestinal system perforation, ileus, mesenteric ischemia, and atypical causes. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 76.3±7.7 years (range 65–93), and 96 (54.9%) were women. The most common causes of acute abdomen were biliary diseases and pancreatitis. Ultrasonography (88.6%) was the most frequently preferred imaging method in the emergency department, and it was most frequently used for biliary diseases. Notably, 20 (11.4%) patients were treated in the intensive care unit, and 9 (5.1%) patients died. CONCLUSION: The most common causes of acute abdomen in the geriatric population were biliary diseases and pancreatitis, and ultrasonography imaging was the most common choice for the diagnosis of these diseases. In elderly patients with abdominal pain, rapid and accurate diagnosis and selection of the correct imaging method are extremely important.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between hospital admission potentially inappropriate medications use (PIM) and in-hospital mortality of COVID-19, considering other possible factors related to mortality. METHODS: The Turkish inappropriate medication use in the elderly (TIME) criteria were used to define PIM. The primary outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We included 201 older adults (mean age 73.1±9.4, 48.9% females). The in-hospital mortality rate and prevalence of PIM were 18.9% (n=38) and 96% (n=193), respectively. The most common PIM according to TIME to START was insufficient vitamin D and/or calcium intake per day. Proton-pump inhibitor use for multiple drug indications was the most prevalent PIM based on TIME to STOP findings. Mortality was related to PIM in univariate analysis (p=0.005) but not in multivariate analysis (p=0.599). Older age (hazards ratio (HR): 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.13; p=0.005) and higher Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) scores were correlated with in-hospital mortality (HR: 1.29; 95%CI 1.00–1.65; p=0.042). CONCLUSION: Mortality was not associated with PIM. Older age and malnutrition were related to in-hospital mortality in COVID-19.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate postmenopausal women to determine whether an anogenital index (AGI) is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) based on the hypothesis that the effects of menopause are similar for both. METHODS: A total of 338 generally healthy postmenopausal women who were referred for a routine annual check and 140 women who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Based on the menopausal status, the women were classified into natural menopause and surgical menopause. AGI was calculated by dividing anogenital distance by body mass index. The BMD of the femoral neck, body of the femur, and lumbar spine (L1 and L2) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant and same-directional correlation between age and AGI for all cases (r=0.234 and p=0.005). The AGI level decreased as the parity increased (r=-0.582 and p<0.001). The AGI level decreased significantly as the menopause duration was prolonged (r=0.288 and p<0.001). While there was no statistically significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and AGI (p=0.128), as the femur and femoral neck BMD levels increased, the AGI level increased statistically significantly (r=0.330 and p<0.001, r=0.292 and p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The AGI levels in healthy postmenopausal women give preliminary information about their BMD status. A decrease in AGI levels may predict lower BMD in postmenopausal women. Further larger and well-controlled studies may be required to determine the relationship between AGI and BMD in the future.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels after 6 months of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative but assumed to be COVID-19 positive cases to investigate the relationship between IgG levels and thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings. METHODS: This was a single-center study that included patients whose PCR test results were negative at least three times using nasopharyngeal swabs but had clinical findings of COVID-19 and thoracic CT findings compatible with viral pneumonia. Six months after discharge, the IgG antibodies were analyzed. The cutoff value for negative and positive serology was defined as <1.4 (index S/C) and ≥1.4 (index S/C), respectively. In addition, the patients were categorized according to their thoracic CT findings as high (typical) and low (atypical). Also, the patients were grouped into classes as <5% lung involvement versus ≥5% lung involvement. RESULTS: The patients’ mean age was 49.78±12.96 years. PCR was negative, but patients with COVID-19 symptoms who had SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive were 81.9% (n=95). The antibody titer and lung involvement ≥5% were statistically significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive cases (p<0.001 and p=0.021). Age and chest CT findings were the risk factors for lung involvement (OR=1.08, p<0.001 and OR=2.19, p=0.010, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is valuable because increasing severity (≥5%) of lung involvement appears to be associated with high and persistent IgG antibody titers. In probable cases of COVID-19, even if the PCR test is negative, high IgG titers 6 months after discharge can predict the rate of lung parenchymal involvement.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of preoperative pulmonary hypertension (PHT) on postoperative early mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: A total of 1107 patients undergoing elective first-time off-pump CABG between January 2011 and April 2022 were included in this retrospective observational cohort study. The patients were categorized into two groups according to their preoperative systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) values. The PHT group (n=104) consisted of patients with a SPAP value >30 mmHg, while the non-PHT group (n=1003) consisted of patients with a SPAP value ≤30 mmHg. Patients’ preoperative demographics and clinical features, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded and then compared between the groups. RESULTS: In the PHT group, the median age was significantly higher (66 vs. 63 years, p=0.001) and the median left ventricular ejection fraction level was significantly lower (45 vs. 50%, p=0.045) as compared to the non-PHT group. Additionally, the PHT group included a significantly greater percentage of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (22.1 vs. 7.4%, p=0.019). As perioperative early-term outcomes, complications, and mortality were considered, the groups were statistically similar, and there were no significant differences between the groups, except for the development of atrial fibrillation. CONCLUSION: For the first time in the literature, this study revealed that mild PHT (mean SPAP=38.9±8.7 mmHg) did not significantly affect early-term outcomes of off-pump CABG.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop high muscle weakness. The objective of this study was to analyze the physical fitness of post-COVID-19 patients and its relationship with dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). METHODS: This observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted between October and November 2021 in the Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain), with 32 post-COVID-19 patients aged 63.2 (14.1) years. Muscle strength, aerobic capacity, maximal respiratory mouth pressures, dyspnea, and HrQoL were analyzed 6–12 months after discharge for COVID-19. To analyze the relationship between continuous variables, Spearman’s correlation test and Pearson’s correlation test were performed. RESULTS: The participants had a mean handgrip strength of 22.1 (9.0) kg and very poor HrQoL. Negative moderate correlations were found between handgrip strength and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay (r=−0.37; p=0.002). In addition, muscle strength was negatively correlated with dyspnea (r=−0.37; p=0.008) and HrQoL, and moderate-large negative correlations were found between dyspnea and HrQoL. CONCLUSION: Higher handgrip strength was associated with lower COVID-19 severity and less sequelae. Therefore, either the patients with severe COVID-19 suffered greater muscle breakdown, or higher muscle strength acted as a mitigating factor for the disease. It is suggested that post-COVID-19 rehabilitation programs should focus on increasing muscle strength. Also, adequate physical fitness could mitigate the physical and mental post-COVID-19 sequelae.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the effects of therapeutic ultrasound and paraffin with or without vacuum massage on the biomechanical properties of grafted skin after a burn. METHODS: A total of 44 patients with deep second- and third-degree burns, with a mean age of 35.89 (±11.53) years, who visited the Hospital Burn Unity, were included in the study. The therapeutic interventions were randomly defined by drawing lots, with a crossover design (crossover), and a minimum interval of 7 days (washout) between interventions. Skin biomechanical parameters such as distensibility (R0) and viscoelasticity (R6) were noninvasively evaluated by Cutometer before and after 0, 10, 20, and 30 min of intervention with therapeutic ultrasound and paraffin alone, as well as associated with negative pressure therapy of the skin (vacuum therapy). In this study, all groups showed increased distensibility (R0) in the period immediately after the application of the resources and a progressive reduction in the effects in the consecutive tests. Participants with skin grafts showed a decrease in viscoelasticity (R6) in all groups, except therapeutic paraffin and therapeutic ultrasound and vacuum massage. CONCLUSION: The biomechanical properties of grafted skin after a burn are altered after therapeutic intervention with ultrasound alone or associated with vacuum massage, such as intervention with paraffin associated with vacuum massage, for both parameters evaluated, skin distensibility (R0) and skin viscoelasticity (R6). However, the same did not occur for the intervention with isolated paraffin. There was no significant difference between the interventions therapeutic ultrasound and therapeutic paraffin.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: In the beginning of the pandemic, measures, such as social distancing, lockdown strategies, and restrictions on mobility, as well as the fear of transiting through health facilities, raised concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on women’s ability to continue using contraceptives. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, which evaluated reports of medication distribution spreadsheets in Bauru – SP, from January 2019 to June 2021. RESULTS: Our study showed that the municipal dispensation of contraceptives in the SUS was markedly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, suffering reductions that can impact on an increase in unplanned pregnancy rates. It is possible to note a significant decrease in the distribution of combined oral contraceptives (44.18%), combined injectable contraceptives (47.58% reduction), and medroxyprogesterone acetate (13.98%). This fact may be associated with the reduction in offers of face-to-face consultations in gynecology, due to the social isolation necessary at the time of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Ensuring access to contraceptives during health emergencies should be a public health policy priority. Thus, it is essential to draw up strategic plans to encourage full access to reproductive planning services even in times of health emergency, so that the occurrence of unplanned pregnancies can be adequately prevented.
Resumo em Inglês:SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to monitor the time-dependent change by evaluating the antibody levels at the 4th, 7th, 10th, 13th, and 16th weeks after the second dose of the CoronaVac vaccine. METHODS: The study group (n=65) were between 21 and 60 years old and received two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine. Blood samples were collected after 4th, 7th, 10th, 13th, and 16th weeks of the second dose of the vaccine administration. There was a coronavirus disease 2019 recovered group (n=29) who were SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR test result positive before the vaccination period, and no coronavirus disease 2019 history group (n=36). Age, BMI, gender, smoking, comorbidity, coronavirus disease 2019 contact history, and working in the coronavirus disease 2019 service history of the individuals were recorded. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in the descriptive findings of the individuals according to coronavirus disease 2019 recovered group and no coronavirus disease 2019 history group. It was observed that antibody levels in the coronavirus disease 2019 recovered group were found to be higher for each period of serum collection compared to the no coronavirus disease 2019 history group, which were statistically significant. The distribution curves of the antibody levels according to the timing of blood collection in coronavirus disease 2019 recovered group, no coronavirus disease 2019 history group, and total subjects were extrapolated, and it was observed that the estimated time for the antibodies to reach the threshold value of the test was 214, 145, and 166 days after vaccination. CONCLUSION: It is important to make booster doses, as the CoronaVac vaccine will lose its effect after the fifth month due to the decrease in Ab levels. In addition, since the antibody levels decrease later in those who have a history of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and are vaccinated, individuals who have no previous history of coronavirus disease 2019 should be given priority for vaccination.