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Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Volume: 70, Issue: 2, Published: 2024
  • Oral probiotics and vaginal microbiome in post-menopause women: an opinion for the improvement of natural therapies in gynecology Editorial

  • Artificial intelligence and the scientific writing of non-native English speakers Letter To The Editor

    Daungsupawong, Hinpetch; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
  • Evaluation of the injuries in earthquake victims with computed tomography Letter To The Editor

    Daungsupawong, Hinpetch; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
  • Log odds of positive nodes as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer: a retrospective study Original Article

    Yavuz, Aydin; Buyukkasap, Cagri; Altiner, Saygin; Kurtoglu, Berra; Koyuncuoglu, Can; Gobut, Huseyin; Dikmen, Kursat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yuksel, Osman

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Rectal cancer is an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the log odds of positive nodes system is a better indicator than tumor node metastasis and lymph node ratio systems to determine rectum cancer prognosis, which is an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients with rectum adenocarcinoma followed at Gazi University Hospital. The clinicopathological data of 128 patients with rectum adenocarcinoma who underwent low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection between January 2010 and December 2018 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients with rectum adenocarcinoma as the first and only primary diagnosis, which was confirmed by histopathological examination, than those who had undergone complete curative resection via low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection were included. Those with familial adenomatous polyposis or Lynch syndrome, those under 18 years of age, with a synchronous tumor, peritoneal spread, or metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, and those with <12 lymph nodes dissected from the resection material were excluded from the study. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, age, perineural invasion, tumor node metastasis stage, lymph node ratio stage, and log odds of positive nodes stage were found to be independent prognostic factors (p<0.05). LODDS2 patients’ mortality rates were 9.495 times higher than LODDS0 patients [hazard ratio=9.495, (95%CI 4.155–21.694), p<0.001] while LNR2 stage patients’ mortality rates were 7.016 times higher than LNR0 stage patients [hazard ratio=7.016, (95%CI 3.123–15.765), p<0.001] and N2 stage patients had a 5.135 times higher risk of mortality than those who were in N0 stage [hazard ratio=5.135 (95%CI 2.451–10.756), p<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Log odds of positive nodes is a more valuable prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients than tumor node metastasis and lymph node ratio systems to determine rectum cancer prognosis.
  • Caregiver burden, family adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve, anxiety levels, and perceived social support in relatives of patients with open heart surgery Original Article

    Dolapoglu, Nazan; Dolapoglu, Ahmet; Altunöz, Sinan

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between caregiver burden, family adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve score, anxiety levels, and the perceived social support of the relatives of patients who had open heart surgery. METHODS: Volunteers among the relatives of patients who had open heart surgery in our cardiovascular surgery clinic and were followed up in the first 3 months were included in the study. The cardiovascular surgeons recorded the sociodemographic data of the relatives of the patients and directed them to a psychiatry clinic for further evaluation. The caregiver burden scale, family adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve scale, anxiety level scale, and perceived social support scale were applied to the relatives of the patients who participated in the study. RESULTS: Within the scope of the study, a total of 51 individuals, 29.4% (n=15) men and 70.6% (n=36) women, were included in the evaluation. The participants’ ages ranged from 32 to 68 years, with an average age of 48 years. There was a statistically significant relationship between the caregiving burden scale score and the scale scores other than age (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of caregiving burden scale score, working status, physical and psychological problems, changes in home life, and changes in family relationships (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The fact that the need for security and intimacy is related to anxiety and depression can be interpreted as the caregiving problems of the relatives of the patients who think that their patients are safe and feel closer to the intensive care personnel will decrease. Their depression and anxiety levels will also decrease.
  • Prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test in a Brazilian sample of rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritis patients Original Article

    Lemes, Beatriz Silva; Roberto, Carina Albuquerque; Busanello, André Rochinski; Kahlow, Bárbara Stadler; Skare, Thelma; Nisihara, Renato

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of infections, especially tuberculosis. In this study, we aimed to recognize the positivity rate of tuberculosis skin test in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis and the characteristics of the patients with positive results. METHODS: Retrospective study of tuberculosis skin test results in patients followed from 2004 to 2021 in a single rheumatology unit. Data related to clinical and epidemiological features, along with treatment information referring to the period in which the tuberculosis skin test was performed, were collected from patients’ charts. RESULTS: A total of 723 tests were identified (448 tests in 269 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 275 in 174 spondyloarthritis patients). In the rheumatoid arthritis sample, 31/275 (11.5%) individuals had positive tests, and in the spondyloarthritis, 38/174 (21.8%) had positive tests. In the rheumatoid arthritis sample, patients with positive tuberculosis skin tests used a higher dose of methotrexate than those with negative results (median of 25 mg/week versus median of 20 mg/week respectively; p=0.02). In the spondyloarthritis sample, tuberculosis skin test positivity was associated with alcohol ingestion (13.1% versus 2.9% in users and non-users respectively; p=0.02) and sulfasalazine use (15.7% of positivity in users versus 5% in non-users; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The tuberculosis skin test-positive prevalence in rheumatoid arthritis was lower than in the spondyloarthritis sample. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a higher dosage of methotrexate or with spondyloarthritis using sulfasalazine had more frequency of tuberculosis skin test positivity and should be carefully followed by the attending physician in order to avoid the appearance of full-blown tuberculosis.
  • Epilepsy’s effect on cardiac rhythm and the autonomic nervous system Original Article

    Demir, Tulin Gesoglu; Gungoren, Fatih; Ethemoglu, Ozlem Uzunkaya; Agircan, Dilek

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is the most common cause of death in young patients with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in interictal electrocardiogram parameters and sympathetic skin responses as markers of autonomic dysfunction in patients with epilepsy and to determine their effects on the type and duration of epilepsy, frequency of seizures, and responses to treatment. METHODS: A total of 97 patients with epilepsy and 94 healthy controls were recruited. We recorded their clinical and demographic characteristics and analyzed sympathetic skin response latency and amplitude, electrocardiogram recordings, and seven cardiac rhythm parameters: P-wave duration, PR segment, QRS duration, QT interval, QT interval distribution, Tpe duration, and Tpe/QT interval ratio. RESULTS: P-wave durations, T-wave durations, QT and QT interval durations, and Tpe and sympathetic skin response latency were significantly longer among patients with epilepsy than the controls, and their heart rate was significantly lower. However, sympathetic skin response latency and heart rate were negatively correlated, and T-wave duration, QT duration, QT interval duration, and Tpe were positively correlated. CONCLUSION: Our results from interictal electrocardiograms indicate clinically significant arrhythmias among patients with epilepsy and the correlation of such arrhythmias with sympathetic skin responses. Thus, noninvasive tests that evaluate the autonomic system should be used to predict the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy among patients with epilepsy.
  • The effect of music on menopausal symptoms, sleep quality,and depression: a randomized controlled trial Original Article

    Ugurlu, Meltem; Şahin, Meryem Vural; Oktem, Oznur Hayat

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of music on menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, and depression levels in menopausal women. METHODS: This randomized controlled study was carried out between August and December 2022. The study sample consisted of 61 menopausal women (intervention: 30 and control: 31). The intervention group listened to music twice a day for 5 weeks, with a total of 70 sessions. The control group received only routine care. Menopause symptoms, depression levels, and sleep quality were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study using the Menopausal Symptoms Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: The post-test Menopausal Symptoms Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index scores of the menopausal women were found to be lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p=0.011, p=0.001, and p=0.006, respectively). When the pre-test and post-test mean scores were compared, the mean menopausal symptoms and depression levels decreased, and sleep quality increased significantly in the intervention group. No significant difference was observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: This study shows that music may have an effect on reducing the level of menopausal symptoms and depression levels and also increasing the sleep quality of menopausal women.
  • Olfactory and taste disorders in COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in primary health care Original Article

    Ferreira, Assel Muratovna Shigayeva; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Travassos, Letícia de Carvalho Palhano; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of self-reported olfactory and taste disorders in non-hospitalized Brazilian adults who presented severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 infection symptoms and attended primary health care. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on a routine standardized diagnostic screening questionnaire applied in a Brazilian primary care facility. The olfactory and taste disorder occurrence was compared between severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-positive and severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-negative cases and described by age and sex. RESULTS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-positive patients had a higher proportion of self-reported olfactory and taste disorders, as compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome-negative (50.7%, vs. 20.6%, p<0.0001). Of all individuals with self-reported olfactory and taste disorder cases, 69% presented both olfactory and taste impairments, 13% olfactory only, and 17% taste only. In severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-positive cases, the frequency of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly higher among females as compared with males (71% vs. 34%). Additionally, people with olfactory and taste disorders were significantly younger in the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-positive group. CONCLUSION: Self-reported olfactory and taste disorders are highly common among non-hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2-positive Brazilian people who attended the Family Health Care Unit. The co-occurrence of both self-reported olfactory and taste disorders was more frequent than self-reported olfactory or taste disorders alone.
  • Analysis of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 ® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on underweight and malabsorption in premature infants Original Article

    Xing, Meng; Li, Xuran; Zhang, Yinzhu

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore and analyze the therapeutic effect of the combination of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on underweight and malabsorption in premature infants. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. The clinical data of 68 premature infants admitted to Beijing United Family Hospital (Private Secondary Comprehensive Hospital, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China) from January 2016 to January 2022 were analyzed retrospectively. Preterm infants less than 37 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were included in the study. Patients with intestinal malformations, necrotizing enterocolitis, etc., who require long-term fasting were excluded. A telephone follow-up was performed 3-6 months after discharge. They were classified as treatment groups A and B according to the treatment plan. The treatment group A included parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, etc. In treatment group B, based on treatment group A, the premature infants were treated with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. The time to regain birthweight and the weight on day 30 were compared between the two groups, as was the duration of transition from parenteral nutrition to total enteral nutrition. RESULTS: The time of weight regain birthweight in group B was shorter than that in group A (t=-2.560; t=-4.287; p<0.05). The increase of weight on day 30 in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (t=2.591; t=2.651; p<0.05). The time from parenteral nutrition to total enteral nutrition in group B was shorter than that in group A (z=-2.145; z=-2.236; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In the treatment of premature infants, the combination of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can have a better therapeutic effect on the underweight and malabsorption of premature infants, and this treatment method can be popularized in clinics.
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