GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

CRESCIMENTO E ANÁLISE NUTRICIONAL DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS EM SUBSTRATO CONTAMINADO POR HERBICIDAS LIXIVIÁVEIS

Rebecca de Araújo Fiore José Barbosa Dos Santos Evander Alves Ferreira Cássia Michelle Cabral Israel Marinho Pereira About the authors

ABSTRACT

Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga), Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu), Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo), Jacaranda puberula (carobinha), Cedrela fissilis (cedro), Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin), Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha), Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira), Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro), Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna), Terminalia argêntea (capitão) and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna)] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control), with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

Keywords:
Inga marginata; Tolerance; Phytoremediation

RESUMO

A contaminação de ecossistemas por resíduos de defensivos agrícolas, especial atenção deve ser dada para os herbicidas passíveis de lixiviação. O objetivo foi selecionar espécies arbóreas para a rizodegradação de ambientes contaminados por resíduos de 2,4-D e atrazine, e para recomposição de mata ciliar aos campos agrícolas e, consequentemente, diminuir riscos de contaminação de cursos hídricos. Foram avaliados 36 tratamentos compostos pela combinação de 12 espécies florestais: [inga- Inga marginata Willd, guapuruvu - Schizolobium parahyba (Vell), ipê amarelo- Handroanthus serratifolius (A.H.Gentry) S.Grose, carobinha - Jacaranda puberula Chan, cedro- Cedrela fissilis Vell, landin -Calophyllum brasiliense Camb, goiabinha- Psidium myrsinoides Berg, quaresmeira-Tibouchina granulosa Cogn, pau-ferro - Caesalpinia ferrea Mart, sibipiruna - Caesalpinia pluviosa DC, capitão -Terminalia argentea Mart & Zucc e braúna- Schinopsis brasiliensis Enge S.F.Blacke] e três soluções simulando o composto lixiviado (atrazine, 2,4-D e água - controle), com quatro repetições cada. Foram mensuradas a altura da planta, o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas, a área foliar e o acúmulo de biomassa seca e a nutrição foliar. A maioria das espécies apresentou increaseo em macronutrientes mesmo submetidas à aplicação dos herbicidas, sendo que o inga apresentou maior tolerância em relação as análise de crescimento. Assim, recomenda-se a utilização das espécies mais tolerantes aos herbicidas Atrazine e 2,4-D em experimentos de campo para confirmar os resultados preliminares desta simulação.

Palavras-chave:
Inga marginata; Tolerância; Fitorremediação

1. INTRODUCTION

Leachable herbicide has been the subject of researches and discussions around the world, since their molecules movement on soil may reach superficial zones or the water table (LAVORENTI; REGITANO, 2003LAVORENTI, F.P.; REGITANO, J.B. Comportamento de pesticidas em solos. Tópicos em Ciência do Solo, v.3, p.231-394, 2003.). The more time the product is in a soil without being absorbed, degraded or mineralized, the higher is the possibility of leaching (PIRES et al., 2003PIRES, F.R.; SOUZA, C.M.; SILVA, A.A.; PROCÓPIO, S.O.; FERREIRA, L.R. Fitorremediação de solos contaminados por herbicidas. Planta Daninha, v.21, p.335-341, 2003.), this way the intensity depends on physical-chemical characteristics of compounds as type of soil, organic matter content, saturation, rain, irrigation, besides plants presence (PIRES et al., 2003PIRES, F.R.; SOUZA, C.M.; SILVA, A.A.; PROCÓPIO, S.O.; FERREIRA, L.R. Fitorremediação de solos contaminados por herbicidas. Planta Daninha, v.21, p.335-341, 2003.; BICALHO, 2007BICALHO, S.T.T. As matas ciliares na dinâmica dos pesticidas. Rio de Janeiro, 2007.162f. Tese (Doutorado em Ciências - Microbiologia) - Instituto de Microbiologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2007.).

Among herbicides with high potential of groundwater contamination and persistent on environment, they are the triazines, group from which atrazine (6-cloro-N-etil-N'-(1-metiletil)-1, 3,5-triazina-2,4-diamina) takes part. It is found in superficial and ground water in North America, and in some European countries, (STRUTHERS et al., 1998STRUTHERS, J.K.; JAYACHANDRAN, K.; MOORMAN, T.B. Biodegradation of atrazine by Agrobacterium radiobacter J14 and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil. Applied Environmental Microbiology, v.64, p.3368-3375, 1998.), and its aquatic ecological effects cause preoccupation on regulatory communities. Auxinic herbicides also shows leaching potential, highlighting 2,4-D (acid 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic), that is highly used in this country, being detected in water courses mainly in the South. (PRIMEL et al., 2005PRIMEL, E.G.; ZANELLA, R.; KURZ, M.H.S.; GONÇALVES, F.F.; MACHADO, S.D.O.; MARCHEZAN, E. Poluição das águas por herbicidas utilizados no cultivo do arroz irrigado na região central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: predição teórica e monitoramento. Química Nova, v.28, n.4, p.605-609, 2005.).

Following this sense, it becomes priority in the area of environmental sustainability to develop researches on alternatives of herbicide use together techniques to accelerate degradation. One of the alternatives is the phytoremediation that consists in using plants and their microbiota, on removing or immobilize metabolites, or turning them inoffensive to ecosystem (PIRES et al., 2003PIRES, F.R.; SOUZA, C.M.; SILVA, A.A.; PROCÓPIO, S.O.; FERREIRA, L.R. Fitorremediação de solos contaminados por herbicidas. Planta Daninha, v.21, p.335-341, 2003.).

As regards leachable herbicides, a potential proposal would be the use of tree species developed downstream from agricultural areas, preferable at near barriers or in riparian areas, in which, phytoremediation mechanisms as rhizofiltration would be used, on adsorption or precipitation of the contaminate in the aqueous media.(GRATÃO et al.,2005GRATÃO, P.L.; PRASAD, M.N.V.; CARDOSO, P.F.; LEA, P.J.; AZEVEDO, R.A. Phytoremediation: green technology for the cleanup of toxic metals in the environment. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, v.17, n.1, p.53-64, 2005.). In this case, choosing the tree species is important. Relevant factors to this study include area characterization, estimates of time to phytoremediation basing on the characteristics of the area and of the vegetal specie and the destination of the contaminant and its metabolites on the plant (MARQUES et al., 2011MARQUES, M.; AGUIAR, C.R.C.; SILVA, J.J.L.S. Desafios técnicos e barreiras sociais, econômicas e regulatórias na fitorremediação de solos contaminados. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, v.35, n.1, p.1-11, 2011.).

Under this hypothesis, species that are tolerant to those products and with capacity to decrease their residue could avoid or at least reduce the effective quantity of the compounds on water courses.

This study objective was to evaluate the potential of Forest species to remediate substrates contaminated with atrazine and 2,4-D, simulating contamination conditions of groundwater.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in a protected environment at Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, in Diamantina-MG. Native vegetal species used were acquired at Horto do Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF) de Diamantina-MG, being around six or eight months old, at initial growth stage, standardized height and approximated number of leaves.

They were evaluated 36 treatments compounded by the combination of 12 forest species [Inga marginata (inga), Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu), Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo), Jacaranda puberula (carobinha), Cedrela fissilis (cedro), Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin), Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha), Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira), Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro), Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna), Terminalia argêntea (capitão) and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna)] and three solutions that simulated the leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control), with four replicates, arranged in a randomized block design.

Plants of native vegetal species were sowed under appropriate conditions and developed for eight months at Horto do Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF) de Diamantina-MG. Later, they were selected bu height and leaves number aiming the standardization. Then, they were planted in pots of polietilene with capacity of 8 dm3 and an area of 0.0314 m2. Pots had as substrate samples of Red yellow latosol, of Sandy-clay texture from UFVJM, collected at 0-20 cm depth, in areas that were not cultivated nor had history of herbicide contamination. Fertilization was done according to soil necessity, observed through chemical analysis that consisted of applying 8.0 kg/m3 of P2O5 as simple superphosphate, 0.8 kg/m3 of N as ammonium sulphate and 0.4 kg/m2 of K2O with potassium chloride (CANTARUTTI et al, 2007CANTARUTTI, R.B.; BARROS, N.F.; MARTINEZ, H.E.P.; NOVAIS, R.F. Avaliação da fertilidade do solo e recomendação de fertilizantes. In: NOVAIS, R.F.; ALVAREZ V. V.H.; BARROS, N.F.; FONTES, R.L.F.; CANTARUTTI, R.B.; NEVES, J.C.L. (Ed.). Fertilidade do solo. Viçosa, MG: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 2007. p.769-850.).

The proposed total rate of the herbicide was divided into three applications at each 20 days (60, 80 and 100 days seedlings planting), being each application equivalent to half commercial rate of Primóleo® (1.25 kg ha-1 of atrazine), and half of commercial rate of DMA 806 BR® (0.4 kg ha-1 de 2,4-D). This division was in order to simulate these herbicide leaching (CERDEIRA et al., 2005CERDEIRA, A.L.; PESSOA, M.C.P.Y.; SANTOS, N.A.G.; LANCHOTE, V.L. Lixiviação de atrazina em solo em área de recarga do aquífero guarani. Revista Brasileira de Herbicidas, v.4, n.1, p.99-101, 2005.; D'ANTONINO et al., 2009D'ANTONINO, L.; SILVA, A.A.; FERREIRA, L.R.; CECON, P.R.; QUIRINO, A.L.S. FREITAS, L.H.L. Efeitos de culturas na persistência de herbicidas auxínicos no solo. Planta Daninha, v.27, n.2, p.371-378, 2009.) downstream application area. Applications were done by using a manual micropipette guiding aliquot directly in plates that catch water under de pots in order to simulate contaminated water absorption by roots. Also to the irrigation during the experiment water was catch in the plates, up to field capacity.

After 60 days of third herbicide application (14th month after sowing), growth characteristics were evaluated: plant height (PH) (measured with a ruler from the plant base to the last leaf insertion); stem diameter (SD) (measured with a caliper at 2cm from the soil); leaves number (LN) and foliar area (FA). Vegetal matter was collected separately and later dehydrated in a forced air green house at 65º C, up to have constant matter to determine dry matter. To measure dry weight it was used a semi analytical balance. To determine foliar area the blades were scanned and analyzed by using a software of image processing and advanced measurement ANATI QUANTI 2.0.

Data about growth was turned into percentage in relation to the control, once they were different species, so with different development characteristics. Later, variance was analyzed, being the significant mea ns grouped according to Scott-Knott, at 5% of probabilty of error.

Samples were submitted to sulphuric digestion followed by distillation and titulation in order to quantify nitrogen content and nitro-perchloric digestion, being phosphorus determined by colorimetry with spectrophometer through the method of vitamin C (BRAGA & DEFELIPO, 1974BRAGA, J.M.; DEFELIPO, B.V. Determinação espectofotométrica de fósforo em extratos de solos e plantas. Revista Ceres, v.21, p.73-85, 1974.), and potassium by flame photometric method according to Malavolta (1980). Results were understood by calculating content, total content and relative content of nutrients in the shoot part of the plant. It was done analysis of variance and the significant means among species grouped according to Scott-Knott at 5% of probabilty of error and the means among herbicide compared according to Tukey at 5% of probabilty of error.

3. RESULTS

After analyzing atrazine effects on plant behavior, mean showed that most plants height was 15% smaller when compared to the controls. However, inga, ipê amarelo, carobinha, landin and pau-ferro showed significant increase (p< 0,05) of 9%, (Table 1). The effect of 2,4-D in, inga (22,15%) and carobinha (14,75%) was significant. The other species showed smaller PH, mean of 14% (Table 1).

Table 1
Plant height (PH %) and stem diameter (SD %) of forest species under the application of atrazine and 2.4-D compared to their respective control (100%).
Tabela 1
Altura de planta (AP %) e diâmetro do caule (DC %) de espécies florestais submetidas à aplicação dos herbicidas atrazine e 2,4-D comparadas a sua respectiva testemunha (100%).

For SD there were no significant differences when compared to each specie behavior after herbicide application (Table 1). For the treatment with atrazine, most plants showed smaller SD, mean of 18. 4% when compared to the controls. Guapuruvu, carobinha, pau-ferro and sibipiruna showed increase in SD, mean of 9%. Under 2,4-D effect braúna, pau--ferro, goiabinha, landin, cedro and ipê amarelo showed smaller SD, around 18% (Table 1). Some species also showed significant increase as guapuruvu (9.6%), carobinha (4.97%), quaresmeira (6.48%) and sibipiruna (25.01 %).

Number of leaves varied among plants under herbicide action. Under effect of atrazine 50% of the species showed increase on leaf number, mainly for carobinha and pau-ferro that showed an increase superior to 100% in relation to the controls. Other species showed smaller values, mean of 49%. The smaller FA was remarkable in almost all species submitted to atrazine, varying from 18% to 78% less.

Most of the species showed low values of LN when under 2,4-D effect, with mean of 6% for the less affected and 95% to the most affected. Cedro, goiabinha, quaresmeira and sibipiruna had a mean increase of 22% for LN (Table 2) and carobinha around 260% in relation to the control. As LN, the parameter FA was also significantly smaller for almost all species when submitted to 2,4-D, except for guapuruvu that showed 56% superior to the control.

Table 2
Number of leaves (LN %) and foliar area (FA %) of forest species submitted to the application of atrazine and 2,4-D compared to their respective control (100%).
Tabela 2
Número de folhas (NF %) e área foliar (AF %) de espécies florestais submetidas à aplicação dos herbicidas atrazine e 2.4-D comparadas a sua respectiva testemunha (100%).

Species showed smaller values of leaves dry biomass when under atrazine action, being ipê amarelo (92%) and cedro (78%) the most affected. Under 2,4-D action, braúna was the most affected losing every single leaf (Table 3). Species that were negatively affected showed smaller values of biomass of the shoot area, varying from 33 to 70%.

Table 3
Dry matter of leaves (LDM). stem dry weight (SDW). dry weight of root (RDM) and total dry matter (TDM) of forest species tested submitted to application of atrazine and 2,4-D compared to their respective control (100%).
Tabela 3
Massa seca de folhas (MSF). Massa seca de caule (MSC). Massa seca de raiz (MSR) e Massa seca total (MST) de espécies florestais submetidas à aplicação dos herbicidas atrazine e 2.4-D comparadas a sua respectiva testemunha (100%).

Stem dry matter (SDM) showed significant differences between the two herbicides to the species: landim, quaresmeira, pau-ferro and sibipiruna (Table 3). Under atrazine action it was observed value 75% smaller for cedro. Inga, guapuruvu and pau-ferro showed significant increase (p<0,05) 19%, 21% and 32%, respectively. 2,4-D did not allowed accumulation of SDM on cedro, with a value 75% smaller. Inga and guapuruvu showed increases of 11 and 7 %, respectively which indicates their potential to tolerate the two herbicides.

Regarding roots dry matter (RDM) it was observed that the species showed a diversified behavior under herbicides action (Table 3). Inga and carobinha had increased in both treatments. Quaresmeira and capitão showed smaller value of RDM under atrazine action, however, under 2,4-D action the values increased. Results for pau-ferro and braúna were exact the opposite. The other species showed smaller RDM values in a similar way under both herbicide action.

Inga, carobinha and pau-ferro increased values of total dry matter (TDM) around 7.54% when under atrazine action and inga and quaresmeira around 8% under 2,4-D action (Table 3). To the other species values of TDM were smaller in 52% under atrazine action and 32% under 2,4-D action.

Total N (Table 4) had significant differences among treatments. Herbicide application caused decrease on N accumulation in carobinha, sibipiruna while capitão showed higher N accumulation under both atrazine and 2,4D.

Table 4
Total Content (mg / plant) of macronutrients shoots of forest species grown in pots under the effect of absorption of atrazine and 24-D herbicides, and without the effect (Control).
Tabela 4
Conteúdo Total (mg/ planta) de macronutrientes da parte aérea de espécies florestais, cultivadas em vasos, sob o efeito da absorção dos herbicidas atrazine e 2,4-D, e sem o efeito (Controle).

Carobinha and brauna showed smaller P accumulation on treatments submitted to herbicides action (Table 4). Capitão showed higher P accumulation on treatments with herbicide while to the other species there were no differences.

Carobinha, sibipiruna and brauna had smaller K accumulation on treatments with herbicide (Table 4). For Ipê amarelo K accumulation was smaller when submitted to atrazine, while to capitão this accumulation was higher for treatments with herbicides. To the other species there were no significant differences.

The relative content of macronutrients (Table 5) showed that in most species N, P and K increased in relation to their controls.

Table 5
Relative Content of macronutrients shoots of forest species grown in pots under the effect of absorption of atrazine and 2,4-D compared to control.
Tabela 5
Conteúdo Relativo de macronutrientes da parte aérea de espécies florestais, cultivadas em vasos, sob o efeito da absorção dos herbicidas atrazine e 2.4-D, em relação ao controle.

4. DISCUSSION

Analyzing height and diameter some species were more tolerant than others. The factor ecological group may not justify the effects observed because even pioneer and secondary species showed increase for PH and SD with both atrazine and 2,4-D herbicide.

Regarding leaf number, the production is determined by an allocation of resources involved in a relation of compensation (LONNIE, 2012LONNIE. W. A. Reducing size to increase number: a hypothesis for compound leaves. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution,cv.5, n.1-5, 2012.). This relation can be observed even in the treatments with atrazine as the ones with 2,4-D. Both herbicides action provided adverse situations what makes some species to invest more in leaf number than in area, or vice verse, in order to have a better use of resources. Among species considered pioneers with higher tolerance to direct radiation, inga showed an increasing only under atrazine action and the guapuruvu showed lower increase of LN in both treatments. On the other hand, plants from the group initial secondary, as goiabinha and carobinha, and from the group later secondary sibipiruna showed more leaves then the other with both herbicides. It indicates that the ecological group can not relate with the observed results.

Reduction of foliar dry matter showed by all species with atrazine can be related to the inhibition or the reduction of the photosynthetic apparatus on photosystem II of the seedlings (ALADESANWA et al., 2001ALADESANWA, R.D.; ADENAWOOLA, A.R.; OLOWOLAFE, O.G. Effects of atrazine residue on the growth and development of celosia (Celosia argentea) under screenhouse conditions in Nigeria. Crop Protection, v.20, n.4, p.321-324, 2001.), cause of this herbicide action.

Brauna phenology, the most negatively affected in leaves dry matter with 2,4-D, may explain the total lost of leaves because it is a deciduous facultative specie and it can also lost leaves during dry period or because of other physiological disturbance (BARBOSA et al., 1989BARBOSA, D.C.A.; ALVES, J.L.H.; PRAZERES, S.M.; PAIVA, A.M.A. Dados fenológicos de 10 espécies arbóreas de uma área de caatinga (Alagoinha - PE). Acta Botanica Brasilica, v.3, n.2, p.109-117, 1989.).

Inga and carobinha showed increase of roots under both herbicide actions what may be favored by the ecological group which they take part, according to Budowski classification (1965)BUDOWSKI, G. Distribution of tropical american rain forest species in the light of successional processes.Turrialba, v.15, n.1, p.40-42, 1965., cause studies have confirmed that pioneers have radicular system more developed (GONÇALVES et al.,1992GONÇALVES, J.L.M.; KAGEYAMA, P.Y.; FREIXÊDAS, V.M.; GONÇALVES, J.C.; GERES W.L.A. Capacidade de absorção e eficiência nutricional de algumas espécies arbóreas tropicais. In: CONGRESSO NACIONAL SOBRE ESSÊNCIAS NATIVAS, 2., São Paulo, 1992. Anais... São Paulo: Instituto Florestal, 1992. p.463-468.). The increase of roots showed under 2,4-D action can be explained by a disorganized cells growth promoted by it, so roots are shorter and thicker (AMARANTE JUNIOR et al., 2002AMARANTE JUNIOR, O.P.; SANTOS, T.C.R.; BRITO N.M.; RIBEIRO, M.L. Revisão das propriedades, usos e legislação do ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-d). Cadernos Pesquisa, v.13, n.1, p.60-70, 2002.). Assuming that the mechanism of action comes from increasing the production of enzymes and proteins, probable positive effect to plants can come when in tolerant rates.

After analyzing growth parameters, it was observed that the specie inga excelled. Analyzing species development in soil with mining residue, some authors (CORRÊA, 2006CORRÊA, R.S. Recuperação de áreas degradadas pela mineração no Cerrado - Manual para revegetação. Brasília: Universa, 2006. 187p.; SILVA and CORRÊA, 2008SILVA, L.C.R.; CORRÊA, R.S. Sobrevivência e crescimento de seis espécies arbóreas submetidas a quatro tratamentos em área minerada no Cerrado. Revista Árvore, v.32, n.4, p.731-740, 2008.; STARR, 2009STARR, C.R. Avaliação da sucessão ecológica e do desenvolvimento de árvores em uma lavra de cascalho revegetada no Distrito Federal, DF, Brasil. 2009.78f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Florestais) - Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2009.) observed that inga grew up more and it is a specie with ability to develop under adverse conditions. This observation together its high use in projects of riparian recovery praises the interest in studying this specie as a potential of phytoremediation in studies of environmental decontamination.

Regarding N accumulation increase in plants treated with herbicides from the group triazine, this effect has been noticed in some studies that had used subrates of atrazine (MOHANADAS et al., 1978MOHANADAS, S.; WALLACE, W.; NICHOLAS, D.J.D. Effects of atrazine on assimilation of inorganic nitrogen in cereals. Phytochemistry, v.17, n.6, p.1021-1028.1978.; KLEPPER, 1979KLEPPER, L.A. Effects of certain herbicides and their combination on nitrate and nitrite reduction. Plant Physiology, v.64, n.2, p.273-275, 1979.). One way for plants acquiring nitrogen is by absorbing nitrate through the roots. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite, and then into ammonia, cause of nitrate and nitrite reducing enzymes (DÉLU-FILHO et al., 1998DÉLU-FILHO, N.; OLIVEIRA, L.E.M.; ALVES, J.D.; PURCINO, A.A.C. Redução de nitrato e assimilação de amônio em plantas jovens de Hevea brasiliensis cultivadas sob níveis crescentes de nitrato. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, v.10, n.3, p.185-190, 1998.). Fleck et al. (2001)FLECK, N.G.; RIZZARDI, M.A.; NEVES, R.; AGOSTINETTO, D. Ação dos herbicidas atrazine e glufosinate de amônio no aproveitamento de nitrogênio pelas plantas de milho. Planta Daninha, v.19, n.2, p.235-245, 2001. when analyzing atrazine effect on nitrogen utilization by corn plants observed that the herbicide, depending on nitrogen source, favors N content on phytomass, being that because metabolism action of plant is associated to energy supply to nitrate and nitrite enzymes.

Capitão specie showed higher P content and it confirms the synthesis that Pioneer species have more nutritional efficiency to P than the ones with more advance successional stages (DUBOC, 2005DUBOC, N. Desenvolvimento inicial e nutrição de espécies arbóreas nativas sob fertilização, em plantios de recuperação de áreas de cerrado degradado. 2005.173f. Tese (Doutorado em Agronomia) - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Botucatu, 2005.). Santos et al. (2008)SANTOS, J.Z.L.; RESENDE, A.V.; FURTINI NETO, A.E.; CORTE, E.F. Crescimento, acúmulo de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em mudas de sete espécies arbóreas nativas. Revista Árvore, v.32, n.5, p.799-807, 2008. evaluated both Pioneer and secondary species behavior on P absorption and they also verified that, in general, the tendency is pioneers showing higher capacity of P absorption.

Most species showed increases on N, P and K comparing to the controls, as observed on values of relative content of macronutrients. It is interesting because those seedlings were submitted to herbicides action and they still obtained a better nutritional use.

In general it is observed that species on initial successional stages have higher capacity of absorbing nutrients than on other stages, characteristic that is related to growth potential, higher development and thin roots density, and higher potential in the rate of biomass synthesis (GONÇALVES et al., 1992GONÇALVES, J.L.M.; KAGEYAMA, P.Y.; FREIXÊDAS, V.M.; GONÇALVES, J.C.; GERES W.L.A. Capacidade de absorção e eficiência nutricional de algumas espécies arbóreas tropicais. In: CONGRESSO NACIONAL SOBRE ESSÊNCIAS NATIVAS, 2., São Paulo, 1992. Anais... São Paulo: Instituto Florestal, 1992. p.463-468.; FURTINI NETO et al., 2000FURTINI NETO, A.E.; SIQUEIRA, J.O.; CURI, N.; MOREIRA, F.M.S. Fertilização em reflorestamentos com espécies nativas. In: GONÇALVES, J.L.M.; BENEDETTI, V. (Ed). Nutrição e fertilização florestal. Piracicaba: IPEF, 2000. p.351-383.).

Ipê amarelo and cedro were more susceptible to products. Both belong to the ecological group of secondary (BUDOWSKI, 1965BUDOWSKI, G. Distribution of tropical american rain forest species in the light of successional processes.Turrialba, v.15, n.1, p.40-42, 1965.; CARVALHO, 2003CARVALHO, P.E.R. Espécies arbóreas brasileira. Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica, 2003. v.1. p.1035.), what could be one of the reasons of low tolerance, because they are plants of later growth and spend more time to establishing themselves (GOMIDE, 1997GOMIDE, G.L.A. Estrutura ë dinâmica de crescimento de florestas tropicais primária e secundária no estado do Amapá. 1997.181f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Florestais)-Setor de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, 1997.). On the other hand, inga and carobinha had positive answer to herbicides application, which can be explained by the fact that they belong to the Pioneer group and have a faster growth, radicular system more developed and higher potential of absorbing nutrients than the ones from secondary group (POGGIANI; SCHUMACHER, 2004POGGIANI, F.; SCHUMACHER, M.V. Nutrient cycling in native forests. In: GONÇALVES, J.L.M.; BENEDETTI, V. (Org.). Forest nutrition and fertilization. Piracicaba: Instituto de Pesquisas Florestais e Estudos Florestais, 2004. p.285-305.), what ensured better performance in the first months.

5. CONCLUSION

  1. Inga showed higher tolerance to herbicide in relation to growth analyzes, mainly because of the increase on roots dry matter.

  2. Ipê amarelo and cedro were the most sensitive species to herbicide application.

  3. It was observed an increase of macronutrients for most species, even submitted to herbicide application.

  4. It is recommended using species that are more tolerant to the herbicides atrazine and 2,4-D in filed experiments to confirm the previous results of this simulation. Other factors need to be included as evaluation of rhizosphere right after herbicide application and also some months later when species have radicular system more developed, and also evaluating residue effects.

6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

To Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais- FAPEMIG, CNPq and CAPES by the financial support.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jul-Aug 2016

History

  • Received
    09 July 2014
  • Accepted
    30 May 2016
Sociedade de Investigações Florestais Universidade Federal de Viçosa, CEP: 36570-900 - Viçosa - Minas Gerais - Brazil, Tel: (55 31) 3612-3959 - Viçosa - MG - Brazil
E-mail: rarvore@sif.org.br