• Reflections Editorials

    Ishikawa, Walther
  • The virus-drug-host dynamics in the tomographic charaterization of pulmonary influenza A (H1N1) infection – a clinical-radiological-pathological view Editorials

    Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e
  • Reply Letter to the Editor

    Koifman, Ana Célia Baptista
  • Which is your Diagnosis? Which is your Diagnosis?

    Ligabô, Amanda Nogueira de Sá Gonçalves; Indiani, João Maurício Canavezi; Martin, Marcelo Fontalvo; Bruno, Rodrigo Ciotola; Bruno, Paulo Maurício Chagas; Nacif, Marcelo Souto
  • Evaluation of preoperative computed tomography angiography in association with conventional angiography versus computed tomography angiography only, in the endovascular treatment of aortic diseases* Original Articles

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Novero, Eduardo Rafael; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Linhares, Frederico Augusto; Almeida, Bruno Lorenção de; Barbato, Heraldo Antônio; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Kambara, Antonio Massamitsu

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre angiografia (AG) e angiotomografia (ATG) pré-intervenção, comparada apenas à ATG, no tratamento de doenças aórticas. Materiais e Métodos Estudo retrospectivo, envolvendo pacientes submetidos a tratamento endovascular de doenças aórticas, no período de janeiro de 2009 a julho de 2010, com o uso de AG + ATG pré-operatória ou apenas ATG. Os pacientes foram divididos em: G1 – doenças da aorta torácica; G2 – doenças da aorta abdominal. O G1 foi subdividido em 1A (submetidos a AG + ATG pré-operatória) e 1B (ATG pré-operatória). O G2 foi subdividido em 2C (ATG + AG) e 2D (ATG). Resultados Foram analisados 156 pacientes. Nos subgrupos 1A e 1B, o sucesso técnico foi 100% e 94,7% (p = 1,0) e o sucesso terapêutico de 81% e 58%(p = 0,13). Foram observadas mais complicações no subgrupo 1B (p = 0,057). A precisão do cálculo da prótese foi maior no subgrupo 1A (p = 0,065). Por sua vez, nos subgrupos 2C e 2D, o sucesso técnico foi 92,3% e 98,6% (p = 0,17) e o sucesso terapêutico foi 73% e 98,6% (p = 0,79). Conclusão A AG diagnóstica deve ser reservada aos casos em que a ATG não é capaz de fornecer todas as informações necessárias no planejamento de uma intervenção terapêutica.

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To evaluate the association of conventional angiography (AG) with computed tomography angiography (CTA) as compared with CTA only, preoperatively, in the treatment of aortic diseases. Materials and Methods Retrospective study involving patients submitted to endovascular treatment of aortic diseases, in the period from January 2009 to July 2010, with use of preoperative CTA + conventional AG or CTA only. The patients were divided into two groups, namely: G1 – thoracic aortic diseases; and G2 – abdominal aortic diseases. G1 was subdivided into 1A (preoperative AG + CTA) and 1B (preoperative CTA). G2 was subdivided into 2C (CTA + AG) and 2D (CTA only). Results The authors evaluated 156 patients. In subgroups 1A and 1B, the rate of technical success was, respectively, 100% and 94.7% (p = 1.0); and the rate of therapeutic success was, respectively, 81% and 58% (p = 0.13). A higher number of complications were observed in subgroup 1B (p = 0.057). The accuracy in the calculation of the prosthesis was higher in subgroup 1A (p = 0.065). In their turn, the rate of technical success in subgroups 2C and 2D was, respectively, 92.3% and 98.6% (p = 0.17). The rate of therapeutic success was 73% and 98.6% (p = 0.79). Conclusion Preoperative conventional AG should be reserved for cases where CTA cannot provide all the information in the planning of a therapeutic intervention.
  • The role of ultrasonography in the measurement of subcutaneous and visceral fat and its correlation with hepatic steatosis* Original Articles

    Eifler, Roberto Velloso

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To evaluate the sonographic measurement of subcutaneous and visceral fat in correlation with the grade of hepatic steatosis. Materials and Methods In the period from October 2012 to January 2013, 365 patients were evaluated. The subcutaneous and visceral fat thicknesses were measured with a convex, 3–4 MHz transducer transversely placed 1 cm above the umbilical scar. The distance between the internal aspect of the abdominal rectus muscle and the posterior aortic wall in the abdominal midline was considered for measurement of the visceral fat. Increased liver echogenicity, blurring of vascular margins and increased acoustic attenuation were the parameters considered in the quantification of hepatic steatosis. Results Steatosis was found in 38% of the study sample. In the detection of moderate to severe steatosis, the area under the ROC curve was 0.96 for women and 0.99 for men, indicating cut-off values for visceral fat thickness of 9 cm and 10 cm, respectively. Conclusion The present study evidenced the correlation between steatosis and visceral fat thickness and suggested values for visceral fat thickness to allow the differentiation of normality from risk for steatohepatitis.
  • Role of Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of superior mesenteric artery flow volume in the assessment of Crohn's disease activity* Original Articles

    Martins, Fabiana Paiva; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Ferrari, Maria de Lourdes Abreu; Torres, Henrique Osvaldo da Gama; Leite, Juliana Brovini; Cunha, Aloísio Sales da

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To investigate superior mesenteric artery flow measurement by Doppler ultrasonography as a means of characterizing inflammatory activity in Crohn's disease. Materials and Methods Forty patients were examined and divided into two groups – disease activity and remission – according to their Crohn's disease activity index score. Mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was calculated for each group and correlated with Crohn's disease activity index score. Results The mean superior mesenteric artery flow volume was significantly greater in the patients with active disease (626 ml/min ± 236 × 376 ml/min ± 190; p = 0.001). As a cut off corresponding to 500 ml/min was utilized, the superior mesenteric artery flow volume demonstrated sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease activity. Conclusion The present results suggest that patients with active Crohn's disease have increased superior mesenteric artery flow volume as compared with patients in remission. Superior mesenteric artery flow measurement had a good performance in the assessment of disease activity in this study sample.
  • Suggestion of a national diagnostic reference level for 18F-FDG/PET scans in adult cancer patients in Brazil* Original Articles

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Sá, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Alonso, Thêssa Cristina; Silva, Teógenes Augusto da

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To suggest a national value for the diagnostic reference level (DRL) in terms of activity in MBq.kg–1, for nuclear medicine procedures with fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in whole body positron emission tomography (PET) scans of adult patients. Materials and Methods A survey on values of 18F-FDG activity administered in Brazilian clinics was undertaken by means of a questionnaire including questions about number and manufacturer of the installed equipment, model and detector type. The suggested DRL value was based on the calculation of the third quartile of the activity values distribution reported by the clinics. Results Among the surveyed Brazilian clinics, 58% responded completely or partially the questionnaire; and the results demonstrated variation of up to 100% in the reported radiopharmaceutical activity. The suggested DRL for 18F-FDG/PET activity was 5.54 MBq.kg–1 (0.149 mCi.kg–1). Conclusion The present study has demonstrated the lack of standardization in administered radiopharmaceutical activities for PET procedures in Brazil, corroborating the necessity of an official DRL value to be adopted in the country. The suggested DLR value demonstrates that there is room for optimization of the procedures and 18F-FDG/PET activities administered in Brazilian clinics to reduce the doses delivered to patients. It is important to highlight that this value should be continually revised and optimized at least every five years.
  • Construction of an index of information from clinical practice in Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis based on text mining and thesaurus* Original Articles

    Serapião, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Honório, Rogério; Santos, Marcelo Alexandre; Santos, Luiz Ricardo Albano dos; Moraes, José Carlos Bueno de; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo

    Abstract in English:

    Objective To construct a Portuguese language index of information on the practice of diagnostic radiology in order to improve the standardization of the medical language and terminology. Materials and Methods A total of 61,461 definitive reports were collected from the database of the Radiology Information System at Hospital das Clínicas – Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (RIS/HCFMRP) as follows: 30,000 chest x-ray reports; 27,000 mammography reports; and 4,461 thyroid ultrasonography reports. The text mining technique was applied for the selection of terms, and the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 standard was utilized to construct the index based on a thesaurus structure. The system was created in *html. Results The text mining resulted in a set of 358,236 (n = 100%) words. Out of this total, 76,347 (n = 21%) terms were selected to form the index. Such terms refer to anatomical pathology description, imaging techniques, equipment, type of study and some other composite terms. The index system was developed with 78,538 *html web pages. Conclusion The utilization of text mining on a radiological reports database has allowed the construction of a lexical system in Portuguese language consistent with the clinical practice in Radiology.
  • Computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection* Review Article

    Amorim, Viviane Brandão; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi rever os aspectos encontrados nas tomografias computadorizadas de alta resolução do tórax de pacientes infectados pelo vírus influenza A (H1N1). Os principais achados tomográficos são opacidades em vidro fosco, áreas de consolidação ou uma combinação destes dois padrões. Alguns pacientes apresentam também espessamento das paredes brônquicas, nódulos do espaço aéreo, padrão de pavimentação em mosaico, espessamento perilobular, aprisionamento aéreo e achados relacionados a pneumonia em organização. As alterações são frequentemente bilaterais, com distribuição subpleural. Apesar de inespecíficos, é importante reconhecer os principais aspectos tomográficos de pacientes acometidos pelo vírus H1N1, a fim de incluir esta possibilidade no diagnóstico diferencial, caracterizar complicações e contribuir no seguimento evolutivo, principalmente nos casos mais graves da doença.

    Abstract in English:

    The present study aimed to review high resolution computed tomography findings in patients with H1N1 influenza A infection. The most common tomographic findings include ground-glass opacities, areas of consolidation or a combination of both patterns. Some patients may also present bronchial wall thickening, airspace nodules, crazy-paving pattern, perilobular opacity, air trapping and findings related to organizing pneumonia. These abnormalities are frequently bilateral, with subpleural distribution. Despite their nonspecificity, it is important to recognize the main tomographic findings in patients affected by H1N1 virus in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis, characterize complications and contribute in the follow-up, particularly in cases of severe disease.
  • Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis* Iconographic Essay

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natália Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffémond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Revisão da literatura e ensaio iconográfico foram realizados com o objetivo de discutir a importância do conhecimento das principais características e localizações da otosclerose à tomografia computadorizada multidetectores (TCMD). Foi feita avaliação retrospectiva de casos de otosclerose diagnosticados em nosso serviço, em equipamento multidetectores com técnica de alta resolução. A otosclerose é uma displasia da cápsula ótica, caracterizada pelo desarranjo metabólico de sua camada endocondral. É uma importante causa de perda auditiva neurossensorial, com incidência de cerca de 7% a 10% da população geral. O diagnóstico usualmente é clínico, porém os métodos de imagens são de grande valia para o detalhamento anatômico, diagnóstico diferencial, planejamento cirúrgico e avaliação de complicações pósoperatórias. Dentre esses métodos, deve-se ressaltar o importante papel da TCMD. Os radiologistas devem estar familiarizados com as características da otosclerose, assim como com a anatomia do osso temporal à TCMD, para auxiliar no manejo clínico adequado desta doença.

    Abstract in English:

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease.
  • Brain metastasis as initial presentation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung: case report* Case Reports

    Bispo, Irving Gabriel Araújo; Nascimento, Diego Teixeira; Ferreira, Karina Oliveira; Fakhouri, Ricardo; Godinho, Atilano Salvador; Ferrão, Thiago de Oliveira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Os autores descrevem um caso de paciente de 33 anos de idade com história de crises convulsivas isoladas sem qualquer antecedente, sendo diagnosticadas metástases cerebrais tendo como sítio primário um adenocarcinoma papilífero de pulmão. É enfatizada a investigação diagnóstica para metástase cerebral e avaliação prognóstica do adenocarcinoma papilífero de pulmão, além de realizar breve revisão sobre essas doenças.

    Abstract in English:

    The authors describe the case of a 33-year-old patient with history of seizures alone without any previous symptom, being diagnosed with brain metastases from primary papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Emphasis is given to the diagnostic investigation for brain metastasis and prognostic evaluation of papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung, and a brief literature review on such diseases is performed.
  • Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature* Case Reports

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark; Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antônio Soares; Júnior, Arthur Soares Souza; Marchiori, Edson

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    O enfisema intersticial pulmonar é uma condição rara que acomete, em geral, recém-nascidos pré-termos de baixo peso submetidos a ventilação mecânica. O prognóstico é variável e dependente do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces, ressaltando-se a importância do radiologista neste cenário. Os autores relatam um caso de enfisema intersticial pulmonar persistente, abordando as principais características desta entidade.

    Abstract in English:

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.
  • Spontaneous perforation of gallbladder with intrahepatic biloma formation: sonographic signs and correlation with computed tomography* Case Reports

    Hollanda, Erick Sabbagh de; Torres, Ulysses dos Santos; Gual, Fabiana; Oliveira, Eduardo Portela de; Cardoso, Luciana Vargas; Criado, Divanei Aparecida Bottaro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A perfuração espontânea da vesícula biliar é uma complicação grave e pouco frequente da colecistite aguda, que exige diagnóstico rápido e preciso; a formação concomitante de coleções intra-hepáticas nesses casos é rara. O presente relato enfatiza a importância dos exames de imagem nesse contexto, demonstrando sinais ultrassonográficos e tomográficos típicos para o diagnóstico.

    Abstract in English:

    Spontaneous perforation of gallbladder is a severe and infrequent complication of acute cholecystitis that requires early and accurate diagnosis. Concomitant development of intrahepatic collections is rarely observed in such cases. The present report emphasizes the relevance of imaging studies in this setting, describing the typical sonographic and tomographic findings for the diagnosis of such condition.
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