Acute coronary syndrome in a patient with severe coronary artery disease after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perioperative myocardial ischemia is rare, being frequently related with tachycardia and/or hypotension in patients with severe coronary artery disease. CASE REPORT: A male patient, 71 years old, with diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, cisatracurium, and remifentanil and maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. During closure of the abdominal wall, the patient became hypotensive without ECG changes. The rate of remifentanil infusion was increased and, after five minutes, the patient developed complete atrioventricular block and reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP). After the administration of 1.0 mg of atropine and 0.1 mg of adrenaline, the patient developed temporary tachycardia and MAP returned to normal. He was transferred to the ICU awake and after being extubated; after 12 hours, the patient complained of chest pain and the ECG demonstrated depression of the ST segment from V4 to V6. The echocardiogram demonstrated good systolic function without segmental changes. The CPK-MB curve was normal. The patient was treated with the protocol for unstable angina. CONCLUSIONS: The patient presented a high risk for postoperative ischemia and underwent a surgical procedure with important hemodynamic changes. It is known that perioperative hemodynamic instability in patients with coronary artery disease increase the risk of postoperative coronary syndrome, which may happen up to 72 hours after the procedure and, in the majority of the cases, it is silent. The preoperative administration of beta-blockers and, more recently, statins have proved to be effective in reducing perioperative ischemia in these patients.


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