Abstract in English:Sapindus saponaria (soapberry) is a species that presents a great diversity of chemical compounds, such as saponins; however, few studies have examined the allelopathic effect of this species. Therefore, this study provides an evaluation of the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts of the roots and mature leaves of S. saponaria on the germination of diaspores and seedlings growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and onion (Allium cepa). The aqueous extract was prepared in the proportion of 100 g of dry plant material in 1,000 mL of distilled water (a concentration of 10% w v-1), and diluted with distilled water to 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5% concentrations. The mature leaf extracts caused delay and decrease in the germination process of the lettuce and onion diaspores, with inhibitory effect concentration-dependent, while the root extracts showed no allelopathic effects on the germination process. Both extracts caused abnormalities and inhibited the growth of shoot and root seedlings.
Abstract in English:The present work examined the germination and morphology of the fruits and seeds of the cactus Pilosocereus gounellei (xique-xique) and describeb the different stages of seedling growth. Germination tests examined the effects of combinations of two illumination regimes (a 12 hour photoperiod and total darkness) and three temperature regimes (25, 30, and 20-30 ºC) on the seeds of this species. Germination counts were made daily until the 16th day after sowing and the germination percentage and velocity index, and average germination time were evaluated. Descriptions of seed morphology considered both their external and internal aspects. The processes of germination and seedling growth were evaluated during 150 days and eight developmental stages were identified based on morphological changes. The fruits of the xique-xique cactus are 40.67 ± 4.40 mm long and 48.09 ± 3.23 mm in diameter, weigh 53.85 ± 10.03 g, and contain 3713 ± 689.50 seeds. Alternating temperatures of 20-30 ºC together with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light resulted in the highest seed germination rate. The seeds are positively photoblastic and germination is epigeal and fanerocotyledonary. Seedling growth is slow, but at 150 days after sowing the plants had developed epicotyls, large numbers of thorns, and the whole plant averaged 59.56 mm in height.
Abstract in English:A floristic survey of the class Euglenophyceae in Panati Lake (7º11'14" S and 36º49'52" W) is presented. The samples were collected between November 2005 and April 2007 along the margins of the lake, and a total of 29 taxa were collected, described, and illustrated, comprising 11 specifics and 18 infraspecifics, with five typical and 13 non-typical varieties. The genus Trachelomonas showed the greatest richness (13 taxa), followed by the genus Lepocinclis (seven taxa). All of the 29 taxa cataloged had been previously reported for Brazil, most with wide geographical distributions, but all were new records for Paraíba State, and 25 new for northeastern Brazil - reflecting the need for more taxonomic studies of the Euglenophyceae in these locations.
Abstract in English:Considering the great ecological importance of the cyanobacteria and the need for more detailed information about these organisms in Brazilian waters, this paper provides taxonomic information about the unicellular cyanobacteria flora in lagoon systems along the coastal plains of Rio Grande do Sul State. Sampling was performed in different freshwater bodies along the eastern (Casamento Lake area) and western (near the city of Tapes) banks of the Patos Lagoon (30º40' S-30º10' S and 50º30' W-51º30' W). The samples were collected once in the rainy season and once in the dry season (from May 2003 to December 2003) using a plankton net (25 µm mesh) in pelagic and littoral zones, and by squeezing the submerged parts of aquatic macrophytes. Thirty one species belonging to the families Synechoccocaceae (7 taxa), Merismopediaceae (12 taxa), Chamaesiphonaceae (1 taxon), Microcystaceae (4) and Chroococcaceae (7 taxa) were identified. Among these species, five are reported for the first time in Rio Grande do Sul State: Chamaesiphon amethystinus (Rostafinski) Lemmermann, Chroococcus minimus (Keissler) Lemmermann, Coelomoron pusillum (Van Goor) Komárek, Coelosphaerium kuetzingeanum Naegeli, and Cyanodictyon tubiforme Cronberg.
Abstract in English:The Cactaceae have morphological and physiological adaptations associated with their life histories that are reflected in different modes of reproduction and multiplication. The reproductive phenology, preferential reproductive mode, and the sexual and asexual multiplication of Opuntia monacantha were investigated between 2003 and 2006 in two restinga (sandy coastal) environment in Southern Brazil to determine the adaptive values of its reproduction modes. Flowering was annual and occurred continuous for approximately 100 days between the months of September and January, with a few flowers opening per day per individual (but many in the whole population). Facultative xenogamy was identified as the preferential sexual system, with the highest levels of fruit and seed formation following natural pollination. The seeds are recalcitrant and have high germinative capacities under laboratory conditions. Seedling recruitment and establishment in the field was extremely reduced. The skins of the fruits and the cladodes have high capacities for regeneration and clonal multiplication because of their areolas.
Abstract in English:The structure and histochemistry of colleters found on the vegetative and floral apices of Odontadenia lutea are described. Colleters occur on vegetative apices starting at the fourth node, with 68 to 80 colleters being found at each node. Each leaf primordium has only one colleter of axillary origin, 3-5 intra-petiolar, and 12-16 inter-petiolar (intra-stipular). There are four types of colleters: standard, bipartite standard, sessile, and bipartite sessile. Colleters on the reproductive apices alternate with the sepals and are sessile, reduced sessile, tripartite laminar sessile, or asymmetrical. All of the colleters have a central nucleus of parenchymatous cells covered by a palisade uniseriate secretory epidermis and a thin cuticle. Secretory idioblasts were observed in the parenchymatous axis. Vascularization was observed only in standard axillary and laminar colleters. Crystals were observed in the parenchyma of the axillary colleter. Histochemical tests demonstrated that there was no rupturing or distension of the cuticle during the secretion process. Mucilage was identified using the PAS reaction as well as by Mayer's reagent and Ruthenium red staining. The calycine colleters had two distinct secretory phases, the first synthesizing mucilage and the second producing phenolic compounds.
Abstract in English:The present work characterized and compared the anatomical structures of the leaves of Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) plants grown under different cultivation conditions (in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo) with the goal of identifying the origins of the difficulties encountered in acclimatizing micro-plants. The Quant program was used to determine leaf tissue thicknesses and areas, and histochemical tests were performed on leaf sections and analyzed using light microscopy. Stomatal and trichome densities were determined using the epidermal impression method and by scanning electronic microscopy. Our results indicated that there were no discernible alterations of the anatomical characteristics of the leaves of micro-plants cultivated under differing conditions and that the thickening of the mesophyll and the vascular fibers indicated adaptive responses to ex vitro conditions. As such, the observed difficulties in acclimatizing peach palm micro-plants to ex vitro conditions cannot be attributed to plant anatomical characteristics acquired during in vitro cultivation.
Abstract in English:Pollen analyses were performed on honey and beebread from hives in apiaries located in two distinct mangrove areas dominated by Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaernt. One apiary was located at the edge of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, and the other near Maranguá Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. We investigated the contribution of nectar and pollen from mangrove vegetation to Apis mellifera L. honey and beebread stocks. Intensive visitation to this plant species by honeybees and the presence of its pollen grains in honey and beebread confirmed the importance of Laguncularia racemosa as a polliniferous and nectariferous species.
Abstract in English:The subtribe Saccharinae belongs to the tribe Andropogoneae and comprises ca. 140 species in 13 genera, including Eriochrysis, Imperata and Saccharum. This work presents a survey of the species of these three genera in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Intensive field collections were made in different physiographic regions of the state, as well as studies in several herbaria. The occurrence of three native species of each genus was confirmed in Rio Grande do Sul, in addition to sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) that is cultivated in the region. Based on the material examined, Eriochrysis villosa is reported for the first time in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Identification keys for the species, descriptions, data on their geographical distributions, habitats and flowering and fruiting periods, as well as illustrations of important taxonomic characters are provided.
Abstract in English:This paper presents a taxonomic study of taxa of the red algae genus Herposiphonia (Ceramiales) occurring on Maracajaú Reef in the Coral Reefs Environmental Protection Area (CREPA - Área de Proteção Ambiental dos Recifes de Corais) in Rio Grande do Norte State, along the northeastern coast of Brazil. The CREPA comprises coastline and continental shelf areas of the municipalities of Touros, Rio do Fogo, and Maxaranguape and includes sand dunes, coastal lagoons, and the adjacent shoreline and offshore reefs. Detailed morphological studies were made, considering recent taxonomic criteria for species delimitation of Herposiphonia, and five species were identified: H. delicatula, H. nuda, H. parca, H. secunda, and H. tenella, thus increasing the number of species in the genus from three to six. Herposiphonia delicatula and H. parca represent new occurrences for Brazil, and H. nuda is reported for the first time for the Atlantic Ocean.
Abstract in English:Three new species of Sloanea L. are recognized based on specimens collected in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve. These new species are morphologically distinct from other Sloanea in the Neotropics in terms of their vegetative and reproductive characters. The Ducke Reserve contains a total of 18 species of Sloanea, and the species closest to these new taxa occur there. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, together with comments concerning morphological similarities with other species, as well as their geographic distributions and their phenologies.
Abstract in English:The species Pterobryopsis stolonacea (Müll. Hal.) Broth. had been cited as occurring in southern South America but had not been previously reported for Brazil. This is an important finding in terms of the Brazilian bryophyte flora. Descriptions and illustrations are presented.