Abstract in English:We investigated the effectiveness of Nitroxin inoculation on lead (Pb) and nutrient uptakes by little seed canary grass. The factors tested included inoculation (or not) with Nitroxin and different soil concentrations of Pb (0, 200, 400 and 800mgPbkg-1 soil). Increasing soil concentrations of Pb decreased stem, leaf and root dry weights. Shoot phosphorus concentrations increased in parallel with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Nitroxin inoculation did not alter the phosphorus concentration of the roots. The Pb translocation factor was >1 in inoculated treatments in the Pb soil concentration range of 200 to 400mgkg-1; the translocation factor for 800mgPbkg‑1 with no inoculation of Nitroxin was, however, <1. Our results indicated that the Pb bioaccumulation factor for little seed canary grass was <1, indicating that it is a Pb excluding plant.
Abstract in English:We examined the relationships between environmental variations in lotic ecosystems with the seasonal dynamics of macroalgae communities at different spatial scales: drainage basin of two rivers (Rio das Pedras and Rio Marrecas), shading (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitat (riffles and pools), and microhabitats. Data collections were made on a monthly basis between January and December/2007. A total of 16 taxa were encountered (13 species and 3 vegetative groups). All of the biotic parameters (richness, abundance, diversity, equitability, and dominance) were found to be highly variable at all of the spatial scales evaluated. On the other hand, abiotic variables demonstrated differences only at mesohabitat (in terms of current velocity) and shaded habitat (in terms of irradiance) scales. The seasonality of the macroalgae community structure was strongly influenced by microhabitat variables (current velocity, substrate H', and irradiance), demonstrating their importance over time and at different scales. Regional variables (temperature, oxygen saturation, specific conductance, pH, and turbidity) were found to have little influence on the temporal dynamics of the macroalgae communities evaluated.
Abstract in English:The present study analyzed the influence of edaphic variables on the floristic compositions and structures of the arboreal and shrub vegetation of typical cerrado (TC) and rocky outcrop cerrado (RC) communities in the Serra Negra mountain range in Piranhas Municipality, Goiás State, Brazil. Ten 20×50m plots were established in each community, and all individuals with minimum diameters ³5cm measured at 30cm above soil level were sampled. Composite soil samples were collected at 0-20cm depths in each plot for physical and chemical analyses. The proportions of above-ground rock cover work also estimated in each RC plot. A total of 2,009 individuals (83 species, 69 genera, and 34 families) were recorded. Qualea parviflora was the only species consistently among the 10 most structurally important taxa in both communities, and was considered a generalist species. The observed and estimated species richnesses were greater in RC than in TC, although plant basal areas and heights did not differ between them. There were positive correlations between rock cover×plant density and rock cover×basal areas. TWINSPAN and PCA analysis separated the TC and RC plots, and three RC habitat specialist species (Wunderlichia mirabilis, Norantea guianensis, and Tibouchina papyrus) were identified. Soil variables were found to have greater effects on the species compositions of the TC and RC sites than the geographic distances between sampling plots. According to CCA analysis, the exclusive (or more abundant species) of each community were correlated with soil variables, and these variables therefore determined the selection of some species and influenced the differentiation of the vegetation structures of the communities studied.
Abstract in English:We examined the ecological distribution of macroalgal communities in streams using species groups (taxonomic units = algal phyla, and morphological = morphological types) with similar structures and functions instead of the species themselves. The study was conducted from June to July/2007 in two drainage basins located in mid-southern region of Paraná State , Brazil. Evaluations of macroalgal communities took into consideration the following spatial scales: the drainage basin (the Pedras river and Marrecas river basins), shading regime (open and shaded stream segments), mesohabitats (riffles and pools), and microhabitats (sampling units of 0.05m2). A total of 29 taxa (23 subgeneric, one generic, and five vegetative groups) were identified. On these, 12 taxa belong to Chlorophyta, 11 to Cyanobacteria, four to Heterokontophyta, and two to Rhodophyta. The proportions of morphological types were: 24% free filaments, 17.25% mats, tufts, gelatinous colonies, and gelatinous filaments, 7% crusts. In terms of spatial scales, we observed a predominance of Chlorophyta in open stream segments and Cyanobacteria in shaded stream segments, reflecting the loss of competitive advantage of green algae in sites with low energy availability. In the mesohabitats, the morphological types recorded in pools were predominantly poorly adapted to fast currents (free filaments), while those found in riffles (mats, tufts and gelatinous filaments) were highly resistant to fast water flows. As such, the use of species groupings based on algal taxonomy associated with morphological characteristics proved to be useful to understanding the distributions of these organisms in lotic environments.
Abstract in English:We describe the floristic composition of the tree-shrub vegetation in 10 areas of rocky outcrop cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil. Ten 20×50m plots (totaling 1ha) were established and all of the individuals with diameters at 30cm above soil level (DB30) ³5cm were included in the sampling. Comparative analyses of the flora were realized using similarity indices (Sørensen and Czekanowski), classification analysis (TWINSPAN), and the Mantel test. A total of 13,041 tree-shrub individuals were sampled, distributed among 219 species, 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae was the most well-represented family, followed by Myrtaceae, Melastomataceae, Vochysiaceae, Malphigiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Fully 42.3% of the comparisons evaluated by the Sørensen index were >0.50, while all the values were <0.50 for the Czekanowski index, with the exception of Jaraguá and Mara Rosa areas. The TWINSPAN classification generated four divisions and, in general, only the differences in the size of the population were responsible for the groupings. The Mantel test indicated that there was no relationship between floristic similarity and the distances between the areas (r=0.32, P=0.05). It therefore appears that the areas of rocky outcrop cerrado in Goiás State are relatively floristically homogeneous and that they are principally distinguished by the differences in the sizes of the populations of their dominant species, and the presence of exclusive species in certain areas.
Abstract in English:Wetland vegetation typically includes aquatic macrophytes with high primary production capacities. The present study investigated how hydrological variations affect biomass allocation and primary productivity in the emergent macrophyte Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult. Eleocharis acutangula ramets were collected from the Campelo Lagoon flood plain (21°39'S, 41°12'W and 21°37S, 41°11'W) between March/2005 and February/2006. This region experienced an unusually short rainy period between November/2005 and February/2006 that generated atypically high primary production levels (128gDWm-2month-1) and total biomass gains (447gDWm-2) in May and June/2005 respectively. Our data indicated that primary production and biomass allocation were strongly influenced by variations in wetland water levels and that macrophytes quickly invested in biomass accumulation when surface water levels rised.
Abstract in English:Leightoniomyces phillipsii (Berk. & Leight.) D. Hawksw. & B. Sutton, an anamorphic fungus, is described and illustrated for the first time for South America. This synnematous fungus with typical coarsely verrucose conidia was previously known to be associated only with lichens, but can be associated with plant roots. This discovery extends its habitat, geographical distribution, and ecosystem roles.