Evaluation of Dietary Glycerin Inclusion During Different Broiler Rearing Phases

LW Freitas JFM Menten KC Zavarize R Pereira GG Romano MB Lima CTS Dias About the authors

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, and carcass and parts yield of broilers. In total, 1,610 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were: T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age. The diets containing glycerin fed since the pre-starter period improved broiler weight gain and feed conversion ratio, but did not influence feed intake or livability. At the end of the experiment, the production efficiency index of the broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was significantly reduced compared with the other treatments. Litter moisture in the pens of broilers fed 10% glycerin during the entire rearing period was higher compared to the other treatments since day 21.Diets containing 10% glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days) or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days), influenced broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency indexes at 42 days. Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance, litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

Keywords:
Alternative feedstuff, biodiesel, broiler litter; nutrition, pododermatitis

INTRODUCTION

Corn is the main energy source used in poultry feeds. Approximately 80% of Brazilian corn production is used in the formulation of feeds. Corn accounts for 65-70% of poultry feed composition. It is a valuable grain also used in human foods, and its replacement in feeds by other energy sources may reduce animal feeding costs.

The use of alternative feedstuffs, particularly in poultry production, may reduce production costs and increase the availability of traditional ingredients for human foods. Among alternative feedstuffs, glycerin is an energy-rich and low-cost ingredient. The glycerin obtained from biodiesel production contains 70-80% glycerol. Literature reports a wide range of chemical composition and energy values for glycerin. This variation may be due to the lack of purity of the samples because of the methods used for biodiesel production (Zavarize et al., 2014Zavarize KC, Menten JFM, Pereira R, Freitas LW, Romano GG, Bernardino M, et al. Metabolizable energy of different glycerin sources derived from national biodiesel production for broilers. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2014;16(4):411-416.).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of different levels of glycerin on the performance, litter moisture, pododermatitis incidence, carcass and parts yield of broilers relative to glycerin feeding period.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

In total, 1,610 Cobb 500 broilers were reared in 35 pens with 46 birds each. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments with seven replicates was applied. The experimental treatments were T1: control diet; T2: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T3: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 1-42 days of age; T4: dietary inclusion of 5% glycerin from 7-42 days of age; T5: dietary inclusion of 10% glycerin from 7-42 days of age.

The glycerin product added to the diets contained 83% glycerol, 0.09% ether extract, 7% ashes, and 1.8% sodium. Glycerin gross energy value was determined in a bomb calorimeter as 3,620 kcal/kg, and the metabolizable energy value (3,258 kcal AMEn/kg) used for feed formulation was calculated as 90% of the GE value.

The rearing period was divided in four phases: pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (7-21 days), grower (21-35 days), and finisher (35-42 days), as the corresponding feeds were formulated to supply the broilers' nutritional requirements proposed by Rostagno et al. (2011Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC, Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, et al. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos - composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 3rd ed. Viçosa, MG: UFV; 2011.), as shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1
Ingredients and calculated nutritional composition of the pre-starter (1-7 days) and starter (8-21 days) diets.
Table 2
Ingredients and calculated nutritional composition of the grower (22-35 days) and finisher (36-42 days) diets.

Birds and feed residues were weekly weighed to calculate the live performance parameters (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, live weight, livability, and production efficiency index). Production efficiency index was calculated according to the equation: PEI = [(daily weight gain x livability)/ feed conversion ratio] x 100.

On day 7, one bird per replicate, with the average body weight of the replicate, was selected, identified, sacrificed by neck dislocation, and immediately frozen at -18oC. Carcass samples were freeze-dried for 170 days for subsequent determination of their dry matter content.

Litter moisture percentage was determined on days 21, 28, 35, and 42. Litter samples were collected from three different locations in each pen, distant from the feeder and drinker Litter samples were weighed and dried in a forced-ventilation oven (55°C for 72 hours), and weighed again.

On day 42, four birds per replicate were scored for pododermatitis according to a 0-1 scale as: 0 (no lesions), 1 (lesion covering up to 50% of the footpad surface), and 2 (lesion covering more than 50% of the footpad surface).

On day 48, all birds were fasted for eight hours, weighed, and sacrificed to determine carcass, parts, and abdominal fat yields. Birds were sacrificed by electrical stunning and bled. After evisceration and removal of the abdominal fat, carcasses were not placed in the chiller. Carcasses with no feet, head, neck, and offal were weighed to calculate their yield as a percentage of live weight. Carcasses were then cut up according to industrial processing methods into breast, legs (thighs and drumsticks), back, and wings; and their yields were calculated as a percentage of carcass weight. Feet, head + neck, and abdominal fat (removed from the abdominal cavity and from the gizzard) yields were calculated as a percentage of live weight.

The results obtained for performance parameters, carcass dry matter content, and carcass traits were submitted to analysis of variance using the PROC GLM of SAS statistical package version 9.2. When significant effects (p<0.05) were detected, means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level.

Pododermatitis scores were analyzed by the PROC FREQ of SAS statistical package version 9.2, and treatment means were compared by the test of Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). When significant effects were determined, means were submitted to the Chi-square test (c2).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 3 presents the performance results obtained. The statistical analyses showed that the diet with the inclusion of 5% glycerin promoted significantly better performance (p<0.05) until broilers were 21 days old, in agreement with the findings of Bernardino et al. (2014Bernardino VMP, Rodrigues PB, Oliveira DH, Freitas RTF, Naves LP, Nardelli NBS, et al. Fontes e níveis de glicerina para frangos de corte no período de 8 a 21 dias de idade. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Produção Animal 2014;15(3):649-658.), Zavarizeet al.(2012Zavarize KC. Utilização de glicerina proveniente da produção de biodiesel na dieta de frangos de corte [tese]. Piracicaba (SP): Universidade de São Paulo; 2012.), Silva et al. (2012Silva CLS, Menten JFM, Traldi AB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, Santarosa J. Glycerin derived from biodiesel production as a feedstuff for broiler diets. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2012;14(3):193-202), and Dourado et al. (2010Dourado LRB, Barbosa FC, Bezerra GC, Silva FF, Santos ET, Lima SPB, et al. Glicerina em dietas para frangos de corte de 1 a 8 dias. Anais do 4º Congresso Latino Americano de Nutrição Animal; 2010; São Pedro, São Paulo. Brasil. p. 23-24.). In addition, consistent with studies evaluating the addition of increasing glycerin levels (up to 10%) in broiler diets (Zavarize et al ., 2012; Menten et al., 2008Menten JFM, Pereira PWZ, Racanicci AMC. Avaliação da glicerina proveniente do biodiesel como ingrediente para rações de frangos de corte. Conferência APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas; 2008; Santos, São Paulo. Brasil. Campinas: FACTA; 2008. p.66.; Fernandes et al ., 2010), no negative effect of the inclusion of up to 8% of glycerin was detected on broiler performance, suggesting that glycerin can be included in broiler diets, provided its chemical composition. Mandalawi et al. 2014Mandalawi HA, Kimiaeitalab MV, Obregon V, Menoyo D, Mateos GG. Poultry Science 2014;93(11):2855-2863 showed that raw glycerin from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw glycerin depends primarily on its glycerol content. However, when high glycerin levels were added to the diet (20 and 25%), Simon et al. (1997Simon A, Schwabe M, Bergner H. Glycerol supplementation in broiler rations with low crude protein content. Archives of Animal Nutrition 1997;50(3):271-282.) performance impairment was observed. Guerra et al. (2011Guerra RLH, Murakami AE,Garcia AFQM, Urgnani JF, Moreira I, Picoli KP. Glicerina bruta mista na alimentação de frangos de corte (1 a 42 dias). Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 2011;12(4):1038-1050.) obtained worse feed conversion ratios due to high feed intake when broilers were fed a diet with 10% glycerin relative to lower levels of glycerin inclusion. On the other hand, Cerrate et al. (2006Cerrate SE, Yan F, Wang Z, Coto C, Sacakli P, Waldroup PW. Evaluation of glycerin from biodiesel production as a feed ingredient for broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 2006;5(11):1001-1007.) obtained lower feed intake in broilers fed diets of 10% of glycerin compared with 5%, and attributed this result to the reduced flow of the feed in the feeders, which consequently limited feed intake.

Table 3
Performance parameters measured in the periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 1-42 days of the rearing period of broilers fed with glycerin.

Whole carcass dry matter content of the broilers sacrificed with seven days of age are shown in Table 3.There was no effect of dietary glycerin inclusion (p>0.05) on whole carcass dry matter content of broilers sacrificed with seven days of age. Previous studies indicated that the inclusion of high glycerin levels in starter broiler diets increased weight gain during the first days of rearing; however, when fed during the entire rearing period, performance losses were observed (Simon et al., 1997Simon A, Schwabe M, Bergner H. Glycerol supplementation in broiler rations with low crude protein content. Archives of Animal Nutrition 1997;50(3):271-282.; Cerrate et al, 2006Cerrate SE, Yan F, Wang Z, Coto C, Sacakli P, Waldroup PW. Evaluation of glycerin from biodiesel production as a feed ingredient for broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 2006;5(11):1001-1007.; Silva et al., 2012Silva CLS, Menten JFM, Traldi AB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, Santarosa J. Glycerin derived from biodiesel production as a feedstuff for broiler diets. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2012;14(3):193-202). This result suggests that the use of glycerin does not promote water retention in the carcass, but true weight gain.

Carcass trait results are shown in Table 4. The was no effect of the treatments (p>0.05) on carcass and parts yield. These results are consistent with the findings of Guerra et al. (2011Guerra RLH, Murakami AE,Garcia AFQM, Urgnani JF, Moreira I, Picoli KP. Glicerina bruta mista na alimentação de frangos de corte (1 a 42 dias). Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 2011;12(4):1038-1050.), Silva et al. (2012Silva CLS, Menten JFM, Traldi AB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, Santarosa J. Glycerin derived from biodiesel production as a feedstuff for broiler diets. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2012;14(3):193-202), and Gianfelici (2009Gianfelici M.F. Uso de glicerol como fonte de energia para frangos de corte [dissertação]. Porto Alegre (RS): Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2009.), using a maximum level of 10% of glycerin in broiler diets. This indicates that glycerin can be added up to this level in the diet with no adverse effects on carcass yield or commercial parts yields. However, Cerrate et al. (2006Cerrate SE, Yan F, Wang Z, Coto C, Sacakli P, Waldroup PW. Evaluation of glycerin from biodiesel production as a feed ingredient for broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 2006;5(11):1001-1007.) observed that broilers fed diets containing 2.5 and 5% of glycerin, presented higher carcass and breast yields compared with those fed a standard diet.

Table 4
Carcass and parts yields of 49-d-old broilers fed with different glycerin levels.

Litter moisture results are shown in Table 5. The litter of the broilers fed the diet with 10% of glycerin during the entire rearing period (1-42 days) presented higher moisture levels (p<0.05) after day 21, compared with the other treatments. Freitas et al. (2011Freitas LW, Zavarize KC, Menten JMF, Pereira R, Lima MB, Silva CLS. Qualidade da cama de frangos alimentados com níveis crescentes de glicerina. Conferência APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas; 2011; Santos, São Paulo. Brasil. Campinas: FACTA; 2011. p.1) and Guerra et al. (2011Guerra RLH, Murakami AE,Garcia AFQM, Urgnani JF, Moreira I, Picoli KP. Glicerina bruta mista na alimentação de frangos de corte (1 a 42 dias). Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 2011;12(4):1038-1050.), evaluating the inclusion of increasing glycerin level in broiler diets, also observed higher litter moisture after day 21, when the diets contained more than 10% of glycerin. Bernadino et al. (2014) found increased litter moisture when broilers were fed 7% of glycerin in the diet according to Robinson & Newsholme (1969Robinson J, Newsholme A. The effects of dietary conditions and glycerol concentration on glycerol uptake by rat liver and kidney-cortex slices. Journal of Biochemistry 1969;112(4):449-453.), the digestion of glycerol, present in glycerin, is limited by the saturation of the enzyme glycerol kinase. In addition, glycerol is a highly hygroscopic molecule, carrying water during its excretion. Gianfelici (2009Gianfelici M.F. Uso de glicerol como fonte de energia para frangos de corte [dissertação]. Porto Alegre (RS): Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2009.) and Romano et al. (2014Romano GG, Menten JFM, Freitas LW, Lima MB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, et al. Effects of glycerol on the metabolism of broilers fed increasing glycerin levels. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2014;16(1):97-105.) observed that levels higher than 7.5% of glycerin in broiler diets increased water consumption and excretion, which may have adverse effects on the field due to higher litter moisture. Glycerin is a low molecular weight hydrophilic compound, which is easily excreted by the kidneys. Silva et al. (2012Silva CLS, Menten JFM, Traldi AB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, Santarosa J. Glycerin derived from biodiesel production as a feedstuff for broiler diets. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2012;14(3):193-202) described a positive linear effect of dietary glycerin levels on litter moisture evaluated when broilers were 43 days old, and observed higher excreta moisture after the third week of rearing in broilers fed 10% of glycerin.

Table 5
Litter moisture levels on days 21, 28, 35, and 42, according to experimental treatment.

The incidence of pododermatitis observed in the present study is shown in Table 6. The incidence of pododermatitis was significantly higher (p<0.05) when birds were fed glycerin during the entire experimental period (1-42 days), and all birds fed 10% of glycerin were affected.

Table 6
Incidence and severity (score) of pododermatitis in the right footpad (RF) and left footpad (LF) of broilers fed with different glycerin levels at 42 days.

The incidence of severe pododermatitis (score 2) was only 17% in the broilers not fed glycerin, whereas more than 45% of those fed diets containing glycerin during the entire rearing period (1-42 days) presented score 2. This result may be attributed to the high litter moisture in the pens of the latter, which was higher than 25%, which is the highest recommended values (UBA, 2008).

Litter moisture may greatly influence the incidence and the severity of pododermatitis (Traldi et al., 2007Traldi COM, Duarte KF, Moraes VM. Avaliação de probióticos na dieta de frangos de corte criados em cama nova ou reutilizada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2007;36(3):660-665.). Bernardi (2011Bernardi R. Problemas locomotores em frangos de corte [dissertation]. Dourados (MS): Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados; 2011.) indicated that high excreta output increase litter moisture and nitrogen content, also increasing the incidence and severity of footpad lesions.

CONCLUSIONS

Diets containing 10% of glycerin, both for the entire rearing period (1-42 days) or only after the pre-starter phase (7-42 days), influence broiler performance and incidence of severe pododermatitis, reducing the production efficiency index at 42 days.

Glycerin may be added up to 5% in broiler´s diets with no effect on performance; litter moisture and carcass yield, indicating that this co-product of the biodiesel industry can be used as an alternative feedstuff for broilers.

REFERENCES

  • Bernardi R. Problemas locomotores em frangos de corte [dissertation]. Dourados (MS): Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados; 2011.
  • Bernardino VMP, Rodrigues PB, Oliveira DH, Freitas RTF, Naves LP, Nardelli NBS, et al. Fontes e níveis de glicerina para frangos de corte no período de 8 a 21 dias de idade. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Produção Animal 2014;15(3):649-658.
  • Cerrate SE, Yan F, Wang Z, Coto C, Sacakli P, Waldroup PW. Evaluation of glycerin from biodiesel production as a feed ingredient for broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science 2006;5(11):1001-1007.
  • Dourado LRB, Barbosa FC, Bezerra GC, Silva FF, Santos ET, Lima SPB, et al. Glicerina em dietas para frangos de corte de 1 a 8 dias. Anais do 4º Congresso Latino Americano de Nutrição Animal; 2010; São Pedro, São Paulo. Brasil. p. 23-24.
  • Fernandes ML, Barbosa FC, Santos ET, Silva FF, Dourado RLB, Farias LA. Glicerina na alimentação de frangos de corte de 1 a 8 dias de idade criadas em baterias metálicas. Anais da 49° Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia; 2012; Brasília, DF. Brasil. p.1-3.
  • Freitas LW, Zavarize KC, Menten JMF, Pereira R, Lima MB, Silva CLS. Qualidade da cama de frangos alimentados com níveis crescentes de glicerina. Conferência APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas; 2011; Santos, São Paulo. Brasil. Campinas: FACTA; 2011. p.1
  • Gianfelici M.F. Uso de glicerol como fonte de energia para frangos de corte [dissertação]. Porto Alegre (RS): Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2009.
  • Guerra RLH, Murakami AE,Garcia AFQM, Urgnani JF, Moreira I, Picoli KP. Glicerina bruta mista na alimentação de frangos de corte (1 a 42 dias). Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal 2011;12(4):1038-1050.
  • Mandalawi HA, Kimiaeitalab MV, Obregon V, Menoyo D, Mateos GG. Poultry Science 2014;93(11):2855-2863
  • Menten JFM, Pereira PWZ, Racanicci AMC. Avaliação da glicerina proveniente do biodiesel como ingrediente para rações de frangos de corte. Conferência APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas; 2008; Santos, São Paulo. Brasil. Campinas: FACTA; 2008. p.66.
  • Robinson J, Newsholme A. The effects of dietary conditions and glycerol concentration on glycerol uptake by rat liver and kidney-cortex slices. Journal of Biochemistry 1969;112(4):449-453.
  • Romano GG, Menten JFM, Freitas LW, Lima MB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, et al. Effects of glycerol on the metabolism of broilers fed increasing glycerin levels. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2014;16(1):97-105.
  • Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC, Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, et al. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos - composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 3rd ed. Viçosa, MG: UFV; 2011.
  • Silva CLS, Menten JFM, Traldi AB, Pereira R, Zavarize KC, Santarosa J. Glycerin derived from biodiesel production as a feedstuff for broiler diets. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2012;14(3):193-202
  • Simon A, Schwabe M, Bergner H. Glycerol supplementation in broiler rations with low crude protein content. Archives of Animal Nutrition 1997;50(3):271-282.
  • Traldi COM, Duarte KF, Moraes VM. Avaliação de probióticos na dieta de frangos de corte criados em cama nova ou reutilizada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2007;36(3):660-665.
  • União Brasileira de Avicultura. Protocolo de boas práticas de produção de frangos de corte. São Paulo; 2008.
  • Zavarize KC. Utilização de glicerina proveniente da produção de biodiesel na dieta de frangos de corte [tese]. Piracicaba (SP): Universidade de São Paulo; 2012.
  • Zavarize KC, Menten JFM, Pereira R, Freitas LW, Romano GG, Bernardino M, et al. Metabolizable energy of different glycerin sources derived from national biodiesel production for broilers. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 2014;16(4):411-416.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2017

History

  • Received
    Apr 2016
  • Accepted
    Nov 2016
Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Av. Andrade Neves, 2501 - Castelo, 13070-001 Campinas SP - Brazil, Tel.: (55 19) 3243-6555 / Fax.: (55 19) 3243-8542 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
E-mail: rvfacta@terra.com.br