Detoxified Castor Seed Cake for Broilers

DE Faria Filho AN Dias WA Carneiro CFD Bueno JB Matos Júnior ALC Veloso PA Rodrigues About the authors

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the dietary detoxified castor seed cake (DCC) inclusion on broiler performance and carcass traits. Two hundred and fifty Cobb-500(r) broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (dietary inclusion of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% DCC) with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females). Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated from one to 40 days of age. Carcass yield and the yields of the breast, leg (drumstick+thighs), and wings were determined when broilers were 40 days old. Live performance parameters were influenced by DCC dietary inclusion, and levels 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC impaired FI, WG, and FCR, respectively. Carcass and parts yields were not affected by dietary DCC inclusion. It was concluded that the addition of DCC levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair live performance or carcass traits.

Keywords:
Broilers; performance; carcass yield; Ricinuscommunis L

Introduction

The oil extracted from castor seeds (Ricinuscommunis L) has been used for biodiesel production. The oil is extracted by mechanical means or with solvents, yielding castor seed cake and castor meal, respectively. Castor cake corresponds to approximately 55% of the castor seed weight (Azevedo & Lima, 2001Azevedo DMP, Lima EF, editor. O Agronegócio da mamona no Brasil. Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; 2001.), i.e., each metric ton of processed castor seed yields 550 kg of castor seed cake.

The nutritional composition of castor seed byproducts, reported by Moreira et al. (2003Moreira JFC, Rodríguez NM, Fernandes PCC, Veloso CM, Saliba EOS, Gonçalves LC, Borges I, Borges ALCC.Concentrados protéicos para bovinos. 1. Digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e da proteína bruta. Arquivo Brasileiro de MedicinaVeterinária e Zootecnia 2003; 55:315-323.), Rostagno et al. (2011Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC,Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, Ferreira AS, Barreto SLT, Euclides RF. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Viçosa: UFV; 2011.), and Matos Júnior et al. (2011Matos Júnior JB, Dias AN, Bueno CFD, Rodrigues PA, Veloso ALC, Faria Filho DE.Metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor seed cake for poultry. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2011;40:2439-2442.), indicates their potential use in animal feeds, including poultry diets. Castor seed byproducts have been typically used as crop fertilizers due to the presence of toxic products and allergens in castor seeds. However, there currently are efficient methods available to detoxify castor seed byproducts (Anandan et al., 2005Anandan S, Anil K, Ghosh J, Ramachandra KS. Effect of differentphysical and chemical treatments on detoxification of ricin in castor seed cake. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2005;120:159-168.; Oliveira, 2008Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.).

The dietary inclusion of alternative feedstuffs may reduce feed costs, which account for the largest part of production costs. The inclusion of up to 10% detoxified castor seed meal to starter (Ani & Okorie, 2004Ani AO, Okorie AU.The effect of dietary castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L)meal and supplementary L-Lysine on the performance of broiler starter chicks. Discovery and Innovation 2004;16:46-52.; Ani & Okorie, 2005Ani AO, Okorie AU. The effect of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L) meal on performance of broiler starters. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 2005; 16:54-60.) and finisher (Ani & Okorie, 2008Ani AO, Okorie AU. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean(Ricinuscommunis L)meal. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2008;93:157-164.) broiler diets did not impair broiler performance. However, considering that castor byproducts need to be detoxified and that their nutritional composition may widely vary, further studies need to be conducted to allow nutritionists to decide whether this product can be safely included in animal feeds.

This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the dietary inclusion of different levels of detoxified castor seed cake on the performance and carcass yield of broilers.

Materials and Methods

The experiment was conducted at the Poultry Sector of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Two hundred and fifty day-old Cobb-500(r) broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of five treatments (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 or 10.0% DCC dietary inclusion) with five replicates of 10 birds each (five males and five females). Birds were housed in galvanized-iron cages (96-cm long x 48-cm wide x 63-cm high). Between 1-21 days, the experimental unit consisted of one cage housing 10 birds (housing density of 21.70 birds/m2). Between 22-40 days, the experimental unit consisted of two cages housing five birds each (housing density of 10.85 birds/m2).

The ingredient and calculated nutritional composition of the starter (1-21 days) and grower (22-40 days) diets is presented in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal were formulated to contain equal levels of metabolizable energy, crude protein, total methionine+cystine, calcium, available phosphorus, and sodium. The treatments consisted of the dietary inclusion of detoxified castor seed cake (DCC) at the levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%.

Table 1
Experimental diets fed during the starter phase (1-21 days of age)
Table 2
Experimental diets fed during the grower phase (22-42 days of age)

The castor seed cake was detoxified using 60g microprocessed calcium oxide for each kg of castor seed cake (Oliveira, 2008Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.). Calcium oxide was diluted in 10 parts of water and mixed with the castor seed cake (Oliveira, 2008Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.). Eight hours later, the castor seed cake was air-dried at environmental temperature (Oliveira, 2008Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.). According to Oliveira (2008)Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008., this method completely eliminates ricin, which is the main toxic compound of the castor seed.

The nutritional composition of the DCC was determined according to the AOAC (2000)Association of Official Analytical Chemists International- AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 17th ed. Washington; 2000.. The following results, on as-fed basis, were obtained: 20.6% crude protein, 18.2% ether extract, 32.9% crude fiber, 9.1% non-nitrogen extract, 11.0% ashes, 3.97% calcium, 0.57% total phosphorus, and 0.05% sodium. The level of 1829 kcal metabolizable energy per kg of DCC on as-fed basis, reported by Matos Júnior et al. (2011Matos Júnior JB, Dias AN, Bueno CFD, Rodrigues PA, Veloso ALC, Faria Filho DE.Metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor seed cake for poultry. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2011;40:2439-2442.), was adopted. The total methionine+cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, arginine, and available phosphorus values applied for the DCC were taken from Rostagno et al. (2011Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC,Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, Ferreira AS, Barreto SLT, Euclides RF. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Viçosa: UFV; 2011.). The diets were formulated on total amino acid basis, as the digestible amino acid values of DCC are not known. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum and birds were managed according to the recommendations of Cobb(r)'s manual (2008)Cobb. Broiler Management Guide. 2008..

Live performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio) were evaluated between 1 and 40 days of age. On day 40, two birds per experimental unit were selected, fasted for six hours, stunned by brain concussion and bled by severing the jugular vein. Carcasses were then scalded, plucked, and eviscerated. Carcass were weighed and their yield was calculated as a percentage of live weight. Breast, leg (drumstick+thigh), and wings were cut up, and their yields were calculated as a percentage of hot carcass weight with head and feet.

Data were verified for the presence of outliers, and then analyzed for normality of studentized residuals (Cramér-von-Mises test), and homoscedasticity (Brown-Forsythe test). After checking the compliance of these assumptions, data were submitted to analysis of variance using the General Linear Model procedure of SAS(r) software package (Littell et al., 2002Littell RC, Stroup WW, Jakob R, Freund RJ. SAS for linear models. 4th ed. Cary: SAS Institute;2002.). In case of significance (p<0.05), data were fit to polynomial regression equations (Freund & Littell, 2000Freund RJ, Littell RC. SAS(r) System for regression. 4th ed. Cary: SAS Institute; 2000.). The optimal DCC inclusion level was determined by the first derivative of the dependent variable relative to the independent variable, equaling the equation to zero.

Results and Discussion

There was a quadratic response of feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio during the period of 1-40 days of age as a function of DCC inclusion, with levels of 2.00, 1.38, and 1.25% DCC calculated for optimal FI, WG, and FCR, respectively (Table 3). Carcass traits were not influenced by DCC inclusion levels (Table 3).

Table 3
Feed intake (FI, g); weight gain (WG, g), feed conversion ratio (FCR, g/g), carcass yield (CY, %), breast yield (BY, %), leg yield (LY, %), and wing yield (WY, %) of 1- to 40-day-old broilers fed diets with castor seed cake inclusion (DCC, %)

In the present study, performance and carcass traits were not influenced when levels up to 1.25% DCC were added to the diet. Literature reports indicate that up to 10% detoxified castor meal can be added in starter (Ani & Okorie, 2004Ani AO, Okorie AU.The effect of dietary castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L)meal and supplementary L-Lysine on the performance of broiler starter chicks. Discovery and Innovation 2004;16:46-52.; Ani &Okorie, 2005Ani AO, Okorie AU. The effect of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L) meal on performance of broiler starters. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 2005; 16:54-60.) and finisher (Ani & Okorie, 2008Ani AO, Okorie AU. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean(Ricinuscommunis L)meal. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2008;93:157-164.) broiler feeds. No negative effects of detoxified castor byproducts added to the diets of Japanese quail (Santos, 2011Santos PA. Avaliação do farelo de mamona processado na alimentação de codornas japonesas [mestrado]. Recife (PE): Universidade Federal Rural do Pernambuco; 2011.) and laying chickens (Bueno et al., 2014Bueno DFD, Veloso ACL, Faria Filho DEF, Dias AN, Fernandes V, Couto FAP, Matos Júnior JB, Carneiro WA. Torta de mamona destoxificada para alimentação de poedeiras comerciais. Ciência Rural 2014;44(3):538-543.) during lay up to 10% and 5.7% on performance or egg quality were observed.

In the present experiment, feed intake was reduced when more than 2.00% DCC was included in the diet, with broilers fed 10% DCC presenting the lowest FI, which was 4.58% lower than those fed no DCC (Table 3). This result may be attributed to the low palatability and to the presence of an appetite-suppressing factor present in that feedstuff (Ani & Okorie, 2008Ani AO, Okorie AU. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean(Ricinuscommunis L)meal. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2008;93:157-164.). In addition, dietary oil and crude fiber contents also increased with increasing DCC inclusion levels (Tables 1 and 2), which may have also contributed for the FI reduction.

The weight gain reduction was proportionally higher than that of FI with the dietary inclusion of DCC. The WG of broilers fed 10% DCC was 13.1% lower compared with those fed no DCC, indicating that another factor, in addition of FI reduction, may have contributed to that result. Matos Júnior et al. (2011Matos Júnior JB, Dias AN, Bueno CFD, Rodrigues PA, Veloso ALC, Faria Filho DE.Metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor seed cake for poultry. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2011;40:2439-2442.) determined crude protein digestibility in the same DCC used in the present experiment as 77.2%, which is lower compared with that of soybean meal (91.0%) and corn (87.0%) for broilers (Rostagno et al., 2011Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC,Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, Ferreira AS, Barreto SLT, Euclides RF. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Viçosa: UFV; 2011.). Therefore, the digestible amino acid levels in the diets containing DCC possibly did not supply the broilers' requirements. The determination of the digestibility of the amino acids in DCC is suggested to allow better utilization of DCC in the formulation of poultry diets. Another factor that should be considered is the possible presence of ricin, which is the main toxic factor in DCC, although the detoxification method applied ensures the elimination of ricin (Oliveira, 2008Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.). However, the DCC used in the present experiment was not analyzed for ricin.

Conclusions

It was concluded that the addition of detoxified castor seed cake levels up to 1.25% to broiler diets does not impair their live performance or carcass traits.

Acknowledgements

This research project was funded by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (process n. 47331/2007-0).

References

  • Anandan S, Anil K, Ghosh J, Ramachandra KS. Effect of differentphysical and chemical treatments on detoxification of ricin in castor seed cake. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2005;120:159-168.
  • Ani AO, Okorie AU. The effect of dehulled and cooked castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L) meal on performance of broiler starters. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 2005; 16:54-60.
  • Ani AO, Okorie AU.The effect of dietary castor oil bean (Ricinuscommunis L)meal and supplementary L-Lysine on the performance of broiler starter chicks. Discovery and Innovation 2004;16:46-52.
  • Ani AO, Okorie AU. Response of broiler finishers to diets containing graded levels of processed castor oil bean(Ricinuscommunis L)meal. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 2008;93:157-164.
  • Association of Official Analytical Chemists International- AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 17th ed. Washington; 2000.
  • Azevedo DMP, Lima EF, editor. O Agronegócio da mamona no Brasil. Brasília: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; 2001.
  • Bueno DFD, Veloso ACL, Faria Filho DEF, Dias AN, Fernandes V, Couto FAP, Matos Júnior JB, Carneiro WA. Torta de mamona destoxificada para alimentação de poedeiras comerciais. Ciência Rural 2014;44(3):538-543.
  • Cobb. Broiler Management Guide. 2008.
  • Freund RJ, Littell RC. SAS(r) System for regression. 4th ed. Cary: SAS Institute; 2000.
  • Littell RC, Stroup WW, Jakob R, Freund RJ. SAS for linear models. 4th ed. Cary: SAS Institute;2002.
  • Matos Júnior JB, Dias AN, Bueno CFD, Rodrigues PA, Veloso ALC, Faria Filho DE.Metabolizable energy and nutrient digestibility of detoxified castor meal and castor seed cake for poultry. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 2011;40:2439-2442.
  • Moreira JFC, Rodríguez NM, Fernandes PCC, Veloso CM, Saliba EOS, Gonçalves LC, Borges I, Borges ALCC.Concentrados protéicos para bovinos. 1. Digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e da proteína bruta. Arquivo Brasileiro de MedicinaVeterinária e Zootecnia 2003; 55:315-323.
  • Oliveira AS. Co-produtos da extração de óleos da semente de mamona e de girassol na alimentação de ruminantes [tese]. Viçosa (MG): Universidade Federal de Viçosa; 2008.
  • Rostagno HS, Albino LFT, Donzele JL, Gomes PC,Oliveira RF, Lopes DC, Ferreira AS, Barreto SLT, Euclides RF. Tables brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Viçosa: UFV; 2011.
  • Santos PA. Avaliação do farelo de mamona processado na alimentação de codornas japonesas [mestrado]. Recife (PE): Universidade Federal Rural do Pernambuco; 2011.

  • 1
    Ethical Considerations The experimental procedures adopted in this study were approved by the Committee on Ethics in Animal Experimentation of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, under protocol n. 59/2008.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2016

History

  • Received
    May 2015
  • Accepted
    Nov 2015
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