Effects of Dietary Zinc Levels on the Growth Performance, Organ Zinc Content, and Zinc Retention in Broiler Chickens

TY Zhang JL Liu JL Zhang N Zhang X Yang HX Qu L Xi JC Han About the authors

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal zinc (Zn) requirement of broiler chickens based on Zn retention. On the day of hatch, 350 male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to seven treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. Zinc was supplemented as ZnSO4·7H2O at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg/kg in the starter diet (fed from 1 to 21 d of age) and at 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, or 96 mg/kg in the grower diet (fed from 22 to 42 d of age). The analyzed Zn levels were 34.98 and 27.57 mg/kg in the basal starter and grower diets, respectively. Supplemental Zn levels did not influence body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or liver Zn content of broilers at 21 and 42 d of age (p>0.05). Tibia ash Zn content of 21-d-old broilers increased when Zn supplementation level increased from 0 to 40 mg/kg Zn in (p<0.05). The highest breast muscle Zn content in 42-d-old broilers was observed when 100 and 80 mg Zn/kg was supplemented in the starter and grower diets, respectively. Fecal Zn content, Zn intake, Zn excretion, and Zn retention of 31- to 33-d-old broilers linearly increased with supplemental Zn levels (p<0.05). Zinc retention values, calculated as the difference between Zn intake and Zn excretion, were negative, about zero, and positive when starter/grower diets were supplemented with 0/0 and 20/16, 40/32, and 60/48 and 120/96 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that supplementing 40 and 32 mg Zn/kg in starter and grower diets, respectively, promote the growth performance of broiler chickens, while reduce Zn excretion in the environment.

Keywords:
Broiler chickens; growth; requirement; retention; zinc.

INTRODUCTION

Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element for poultry, and contributes for the maintenance of growth performance (Liu et al., 2011Liu ZH, Lu L, Li SF, Zhang LY, Xi L, Zhang KY, et al. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers. Poultry Science 2011;90:1782-1790.), skeletal development (Ao et al., 2007Ao T, Pierce JL, Pescatore AJ, Cantor AH, Dawson KA, Ford MJ, et al. Effects of organic zinc and phytase supplementation in a maize-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue zinc content of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 2007;48:690-695.; Tomaszewska et al., 2017Tomaszewska E, Muszynski S, Dobrowolski P, Kwiecien M, Winiarska-Mieczan A, Swietlicka I, et al. Effect of zinc level and source (zinc oxide vs. zinc glycine) on bone mechanical and geometric parameters, and histomorphology in male Ross 308 broiler chicken. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:159-170.), and immune function (Kidd et al., 1996Kidd MT, Ferket PR, Qureshi MA. Zinc metabolism with special reference to its role in immunity. World's Poultry Science Journal 1996;52:309-323.) of broiler chickens. The Feeding Standards of Chickens in China (Ministry of Agriculture of P. R. China, 2004) indicate that Zn levels of 100 and 80 mg/kg are suitable for broiler chickens from 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. However, the NRC (1994NRC. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. Washington: National Academic Press; 1994.) recommends 40 mg/kg Zn for broilers from 1 to 42 d of age. Recent research has shown that the optimal levels of supplemental Zn for the performance of broiler chickens range between 12 and 60 mg/kg for (Ao et al., 2007; Huang et al., 2007Huang YL, Lu L, Luo XG, Liu B. An optimal dietary zinc level of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science 2007;86:2582-2589.; Liu et al., 2011). These data suggest that the Zn supplementation recommended by the Feeding Standards of Chickens in China (Ministry of Agriculture of P. R. China, 2004) may be higher than the Zn requirement for broiler chickens and should be revised.

Excessive Zn supplementation in chicken diets may cause environmental pollution due to Zn excretion in the feces, as fecal Zn content linearly increases with Zn dietary levels in broiler chickens and laying hens (Burrell et al, 2004Burrell AL, Dozier WA, Davis AJ, Compton MM, Freeman ME, Vendrell PF, et al. Responses of broilers to dietary zinc concentrations and sources in relation to environmental implications. British Poultry Science 2004;45:255-263.; Kim & Patterson, 2004Kim WK, Patterson PH. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on broiler performance and nitrogen loss from manure. Poultry Science 2004;83:34-38., 2005). Moreover, when Zn load in the soil increases, the Zn content in plant tissues also increases, hindering plant growth (Schmidt, 1997Schmidt JP. Understanding phytotoxicity thresholds for trace elements in landapplied sewage sludge. Journal of Environmental Quality 1997;26:4-10.).

Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the optimal Zn requirement of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age based on Zn retention.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

All procedures applied in this study were approved by the Institute of Animal Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Shangqiu Normal University.

Birds, Diets, and Management

On the day of hatch, 350 male Ross 308 broilers were weighed and randomly allotted to seven treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. Broilers were reared in stainless steel cages (190 cm × 50 cm × 35 cm) in a room with controlled temperature of 33 °C from d 0 to 3, 30 °C from d 4 to 7, 27 °C from d 8 to 14, and 24 °C from d 15 to 42. A lighting program of 20 h of light and 4 h of dark was adopted.

Birds were fed according to a two-phase feeding period: starter (1 to 21 d of age) and grower (22 to 42 d of age). The basal diets formulated for each phase were based on corn-soybean meal and supplemented with a trace-mineral premix with no Zn (Table 1). The experimental diets (treatments) consisted of the supplementation of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg of Zn/kg diet in the starter phase, and of 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, and 96 mg Zn/kg diet in the grower phase. The source of zinc supplemented to the basal diet was ZnSO4·7H2O, and the feeds were fed as mash. The birds were provided ad libitum access to feed and water during the entire experimental period.

Table 1
Ingredients and nutrient composition of experimental diets.

Growth performance parameters

Feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated for the periods 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 d of age. All dead birds were weighed and their weight was used to correct the FI.

Sample Collection

Fecal samples were collected from trays placed under each cage using the total fecal collection method from 31 to 33 d of age, and stored at -20 °C (Han et al., 2009Han JC, Yang XD, Zhang T, Li H, Li WL, Zhang ZY, et al. Effects of 1a-hydroxycholecalciferol on growth performance, parameters of tibia and plasma, meat quality, and type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter gene expression of one- to twenty-one-day-old broilers. Poultry Science 2009;88:323-329.). Before analysis, fecal samples were dried at 65 °C for 48 h and then ground to pass through a 1-mm mesh screen.

All broilers were weighed per cage on d 21 and 42. Ten birds per treatment were randomly selected for the collection of the tibia, liver, and breast muscle. Liver and breast muscle samples were frozen at -20 °C until further analysis. Tibial bones were boiled for 5 min, and the soft tissues were removed. The bones were then dried for 24 h at 105 °C and ashed in a muffle furnace at 600 °C for 24 h.

Zn Content Analysis

Zn content in the feed, feces, tibia ash, liver, and breast muscle were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IRIS Intrepid II, Thermal Jarrell Ash, Waltham, MA, USA). Follwing the method reported by Huang et al. (2009Huang YL, Lu L, Li SF, Luo XG, Liu B. Relative bioavailabilities of organic zinc sources with different chelation strengths for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. Journal of Animal Science 2009;87:2038-2046.), approximately 0.5 g of the samples was weighed in triplicate, digested with 10 mL HNO3 and 0.4 mL HClO4 at 200 °C in a 50-mL calibrated flask until the solution became clear, evaporated to almost dryness, and diluted to 1:20 (vol/vol) with 2% HNO3 before analysis.

Zn retention was calculated as follows:

Zn retention (mg/bird) = [feed intake (g/bird)×feed Zn content (mg/g)] - [fecal output (g/bird)×fecal Zn content (mg/g)]. The feed and fecal Zn contents were based on their analyzed values. The Zn content in the basal diet was also included in the Zn intake.

Statistical Analysis

Replicates were the experimental units used in the statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS software (SAS Institute, 2002SAS Institute. SAS user's guide. 9th ed. Cary: SAS Institute; 2002.). Polynomial comparisons were performed to determine the linear and quadratic effects of supplemental Zn levels on the growth performance, organ Zn contents, and Zn retention. Means were compared by Tukey test when probability values were significant (p<0.05).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Zn contents in the basal diets

The analyzed Zn contents in the basal starter (fed between 1 to 21 days of age) and grower (fed between 22 and 42 days) diets were 34.98 and 27.57 mg/kg, respectively (Table 2). Bartlett and Smith (2003Bartlett JR, Smith MO. Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 2003;82:1580-1588.), Ao et al. (2007Ao T, Pierce JL, Pescatore AJ, Cantor AH, Dawson KA, Ford MJ, et al. Effects of organic zinc and phytase supplementation in a maize-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue zinc content of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 2007;48:690-695.), Huang et al. (2007Huang YL, Lu L, Luo XG, Liu B. An optimal dietary zinc level of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science 2007;86:2582-2589.), Sunder et al. (2008Sunder GS, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR, et al. Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability, and immune competence in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2008;17:79-86.), Star et al. (2012Star L, Van Der Klis JD, Rapp C, Ward TL. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers. Poultry Science 2012;91:3115-3120.), and Pacheco et al. (2017Pacheco BHC, Nakagi VS, Kobashigawa EH, Caniatto ARM, Faria DE, Pacheco BHC, et al. Dietary levels of zinc and manganese on the performance of broilers between 1 to 42 days of age. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:171-178.) determined that the Zn content of corn-soybean basal diets for broilers ranges from 25 to 35 mg/kg, indicating an average Zn content of 30 mg/kg. The Zn content of the basal diet cannot be overlooked when formulating broiler chicken feeds.

Table 2
Calculated and analyzed Zn levels in experimental diets.

Growth Performance

The BWG, FI, and FCR of 21- and 42-d-old broilers were not influenced by supplemental Zn levels (p>0.05, Table 3). No linear or quadratic relationships were observed between supplemental Zn levels and growth performance parameters (p>0.05).

Table 3
Effects of supplemental Zn levels on the growth performance of broiler chickens.

It is well known that Zn is an essential element for animals. Zn deficiency results in growth inhibition in animals (MacDonald, 2000MacDonald RS. The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130:1500s-1508s.). However, broiler performance was not affected by supplemental Zn levels in the present study. Previous studies had also observed that broiler growth was not affected by dietary Zn concentrations (Bartlett and Smith, 2003Bartlett JR, Smith MO. Effects of different levels of zinc on the performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science 2003;82:1580-1588.; Rossi et al., 2007Rossi P, Rutz F, Anciuti MA, Rech JL, Zauk NHF. Influence of graded levels of organic zinc on growth performance and carcass traits of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2007;16:219-225.; Sunder et al., 2008Sunder GS, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR, et al. Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability, and immune competence in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2008;17:79-86.; Owens et al., 2009Owens B, McCann MEE, Preston C. The effect of substitution of inorganic zinc with proteinated or chelated zinc on broiler chick performance. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2009;18:789-794.; Yang et al., 2011Yang XJ, Sun XX, Li CY, Wu XH, Yao JH. Effects of copper, iron, zinc, and manganese supplementation in a corn and soybean meal diet on the growth performance, meat quality, and immune responses of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2011;20:263-271.; Star et al., 2012Star L, Van Der Klis JD, Rapp C, Ward TL. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers. Poultry Science 2012;91:3115-3120.; Liao et al., 2013Liao X, Li A, Lu L, Liu S, Li S, Zhang L, et al. Optimal dietary zinc levels of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 22 to 42 days of age. Animal Production Science 2013;53:388-394.; Pacheco et al., 2017Pacheco BHC, Nakagi VS, Kobashigawa EH, Caniatto ARM, Faria DE, Pacheco BHC, et al. Dietary levels of zinc and manganese on the performance of broilers between 1 to 42 days of age. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:171-178.; Zakaria et al., 2017Zakaria HA, Jalal M, AL-Titi HH, Souad A. Effect of sources and levels of dietary zinc on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:519-526.). This is attributed to the Zn content of basal diets (about 30 mg/kg), which is adequate to maintain the growth of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. Therefore, in the present study, growth performance could not be used as a criterion to evaluate Zn requirement of broiler chickens. However, other studies showed that broilers fed diets with no supplemental Zn presented lower BWG and FI than those Zn-supplemented diets (Huang et al., 2007Huang YL, Lu L, Luo XG, Liu B. An optimal dietary zinc level of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science 2007;86:2582-2589.; Liu et al., 2011Liu ZH, Lu L, Li SF, Zhang LY, Xi L, Zhang KY, et al. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of broilers. Poultry Science 2011;90:1782-1790.; Sarvari et al., 2015Sarvari BG, Seyedi AH, Shahryar HA, Sarikhan M, Ghavidel SZ. Effects of dietary zinc oxide and a blend of organic acids on broiler live performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2015;17:39-46.). Moreover, it was observed that high levels of supplemental Zn (500 to 1500 mg/kg) impaired the growth performance of broilers (Sandoval et al., 1998Sandoval M, Henry PR, Luo XG, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB. Performance and tissue zinc and metallothionein accumulation in chicks fed a high dietary level of zinc. Poultry Science 1998;77:1354-1363.; Kim & Patterson, 2004Kim WK, Patterson PH. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on broiler performance and nitrogen loss from manure. Poultry Science 2004;83:34-38.).

Zn contents in bone, breast muscle, and liver

Tibial ash Zn content of 21-d-old broilers linearly increased between 0 and 40 mg Zn per kg addition (p<0.05, Table 4), but no differences in tibial ash Zn were observed when supplemental Zn levels ranged from 40 to 120 mg/kg. There was no effect of Zn levels on the tibial ash content of 42-d-old broilers (p>0.05). Research has shown that supplemental Zn increases blood Zn concentration in laying hens and broiler chickens (Tsai et al., 2016Tsai YH, Mao SY, Li MZ, Huang JT, LienTF. Effects of nanosize zinc oxide on zinc retention, eggshell quality, immune response and serum parameters of aged laying hens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2016;213:99-107.; Zakaria et al., 2017Zakaria HA, Jalal M, AL-Titi HH, Souad A. Effect of sources and levels of dietary zinc on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:519-526.). A linear relationship was observed between 0 and 20 mg/kg supplemental Zn and bone Zn content in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age (Ao et al., 2007Ao T, Pierce JL, Pescatore AJ, Cantor AH, Dawson KA, Ford MJ, et al. Effects of organic zinc and phytase supplementation in a maize-soybean meal diet on the performance and tissue zinc content of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science 2007;48:690-695.; Star et al., 2012Star L, Van Der Klis JD, Rapp C, Ward TL. Bioavailability of organic and inorganic zinc sources in male broilers. Poultry Science 2012;91:3115-3120.). Consistent results were observed between dietary levels of 0 and 40 mg Zn/kg in starter broilers in the present study. No significant differences were detected between 60-140 mg/kg supplemental Zn and bone Zn content (Huang et al., 2007Huang YL, Lu L, Luo XG, Liu B. An optimal dietary zinc level of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Poultry Science 2007;86:2582-2589.; Liao et al., 2013Liao X, Li A, Lu L, Liu S, Li S, Zhang L, et al. Optimal dietary zinc levels of broiler chicks fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 22 to 42 days of age. Animal Production Science 2013;53:388-394.). These data suggest that supplemental Zn increases Zn absorption in the blood and Zn deposition in bone, but that bones are not capable of further retaining Zn when supplemental Zn level is higher than 40 mg/kg.

Table 4
Effects of supplemental Zn levels on organ Zn contents of broiler chickens

Supplemental Zn levels did not influence breast muscle Zn content of 21-d-old broilers (p>0.05). On the other hand, in 42-d-old broilers, the supplemental Zn levels of 100 and 80 mg/kg diet promoted the highest breast muscle Zn contents (p<0.01), while the birds fed the highest supplemental Zn level (120 mg/kg) presented similar (p>0.05) breast muscle Zn contents as those fed the diets containing 0, 20, 40, and 60 mg supplemental Zn/kg. Sandoval et al. (1998Sandoval M, Henry PR, Luo XG, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB. Performance and tissue zinc and metallothionein accumulation in chicks fed a high dietary level of zinc. Poultry Science 1998;77:1354-1363.) found that supplemental Zn levels increase muscle Zn content in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. By contrast, Kim & Patterson (2004Kim WK, Patterson PH. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on broiler performance and nitrogen loss from manure. Poultry Science 2004;83:34-38.) found that supplemental Zn levels had no effect on the Zn level in breast muscles of broilers from 6 to 18 d of age. The effect of supplemental Zn level on muscle Zn content should be further clarified.

Supplemental Zn levels did not affect (p>0.05) broiler liver Zn content in the present study. In contrast, Sandoval et al. (1998Sandoval M, Henry PR, Luo XG, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB. Performance and tissue zinc and metallothionein accumulation in chicks fed a high dietary level of zinc. Poultry Science 1998;77:1354-1363.) and Sunder et al. (2008Sunder GS, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR, et al. Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability, and immune competence in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2008;17:79-86.) found that supplemental Zn levels linearly increased Zn content in the liver and kidneys of broilers. These differences may be due to supplemental Zn levels evaluated among studies. The present experiment evaluated supplemental Zn levels of 0 to 120 mg/kg, whereas Sandoval et al. (1998) and Sunder et al. (2008) used supplemental Zn levels of 0-320 and 0-1500 mg/kg, respectively.

Zn retention

Increasing supplemental Zn levels linearly increased fecal Zn content, Zn intake, Zn excretion, and Zn retention of 31- to 33-d-old broilers (p<0.05, Table 5). When supplemental Zn levels increased from 0 to 120 and 96 mg/kg in the starter and grower diets, respectively, fecal Zn content, Zn intake, and Zn excretion increased from 137.42 to 388.84 µg/g, from 6.09 to 32.99 mg, and from 7.49 to 26.69 mg, respectively. Zn intake was lower than the Zn excretion at 0 to 20 and 16 mg/kg supplemental Zn in the starter and grower diets, respectively. Zn intake was approximately equal to Zn excretion when in the starter and grower diets were supplemented with 40 and 32 mg Zn/kg, and higher than Zn excretion when supplemental Zn levels were increased from 60 to 120 and 48 to 100 mg/kg in the starter and grower diets, respectively. Zinc retention was calculated as the difference between Zn intake and Zn excretion. Broilers presented negative Zn retention values when fed 0 and 20 mg Zn/kg in the starter diet and 0 and 16 mg Zn/ kg in the grower diet, approximately zero when fed 40 and 32 mg Zn in the starter and grower diets, and positive values when fed 60 and 120 mg Zn/kg in starter diet and 48 and 96 mg Zn/kg in the grower diet respectively.

Table 5
Effects of supplemental Zn levels on fecal Zn and Zn retention of 31- to 33-d-old broilers based on the Zn levels analyzed in the feeds and feces.

Burrell et al. (2004Burrell AL, Dozier WA, Davis AJ, Compton MM, Freeman ME, Vendrell PF, et al. Responses of broilers to dietary zinc concentrations and sources in relation to environmental implications. British Poultry Science 2004;45:255-263.) and Kim & Patterson (2004Kim WK, Patterson PH. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on broiler performance and nitrogen loss from manure. Poultry Science 2004;83:34-38., 2005) verified that fecal Zn content and Zn excretion linearly increased with supplemental Zn levels. Similar results were also detected in the present study. These data suggest that excess Zn is excreted with the feces in the environment, posing pollution risks. Burrell et al. (2004) found that the Zn intake was lower than the Zn excretion when supplemental Zn ranged from 0 to 40 mg/kg in broilers from 29 to 31 d of age. Body Zn loss resulted in lower bone Zn content when the Zn intake was lower than the Zn excretion in the present study. The Zn intake was approximately equal to the Zn excretion when supplemental Zn was 80 mg/kg (Burrell et al., 2004). Similar results were observed in this study and the Zn intake was approximately equal to the Zn excretion when supplemental Zn levels were 40/32 mg/kg. These data suggest that there is a threshold value of Zn deposition in broiler chickens. When the Zn retention reaches this threshold, Zn intake and Zn excretion are balanced.

The present study also showed that supplemental Zn did not significantly increase Zn content in the muscle, bone, or organs of 42-d-old broiler chickens. Therefore, most of the supplemental Zn was not retained in the chickens’ bodies. Excessive Zn is excreted in the environment by the feces if Zn intake is higher than Zn requirements. Zn excretion and its effects on the environment should be considered when supplementing Zn in broiler chicken diets.

CONCLUSIONS

The corn-soybean basal diet contained approximately 30 mg/kg Zn. Supplemental Zn levels of 40 and 32 mg/kg in starter (1 to 21 days of age) and grower (22 to 42 days of age) diets, respectively, are sufficient to promote adequate growth performance of broiler chickens, also taking into consideration that Zn excretion in the feces may pose environmental pollution risks.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (201303091), the Innovation Scientists and Technicians Troop Construction Projects of Henan Province (C20130058), and the Foundation of the Education Department of Henan Province (16A230003).

REFERENCES

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  • Rossi P, Rutz F, Anciuti MA, Rech JL, Zauk NHF. Influence of graded levels of organic zinc on growth performance and carcass traits of broilers. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2007;16:219-225.
  • Sandoval M, Henry PR, Luo XG, Littell RC, Miles RD, Ammerman CB. Performance and tissue zinc and metallothionein accumulation in chicks fed a high dietary level of zinc. Poultry Science 1998;77:1354-1363.
  • Sarvari BG, Seyedi AH, Shahryar HA, Sarikhan M, Ghavidel SZ. Effects of dietary zinc oxide and a blend of organic acids on broiler live performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2015;17:39-46.
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  • Sunder GS, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR, et al. Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability, and immune competence in broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2008;17:79-86.
  • Tomaszewska E, Muszynski S, Dobrowolski P, Kwiecien M, Winiarska-Mieczan A, Swietlicka I, et al. Effect of zinc level and source (zinc oxide vs. zinc glycine) on bone mechanical and geometric parameters, and histomorphology in male Ross 308 broiler chicken. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:159-170.
  • Tsai YH, Mao SY, Li MZ, Huang JT, LienTF. Effects of nanosize zinc oxide on zinc retention, eggshell quality, immune response and serum parameters of aged laying hens. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2016;213:99-107.
  • Yang XJ, Sun XX, Li CY, Wu XH, Yao JH. Effects of copper, iron, zinc, and manganese supplementation in a corn and soybean meal diet on the growth performance, meat quality, and immune responses of broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2011;20:263-271.
  • Zakaria HA, Jalal M, AL-Titi HH, Souad A. Effect of sources and levels of dietary zinc on the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 2017;19:519-526.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2018

History

  • Received
    11 Aug 2017
  • Accepted
    19 Oct 2017
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