Abstract in English:Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman) has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.
Abstract in English:This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M) and one negative (I) flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M). Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.
Abstract in English:Thirty-two Hubbard broilers were raised under commercial husbandry to evaluate the effect of temperature exposure (26 and 35ºC) on the activity of digestive enzymes at different ages (23 and 46 days) and different diet energy levels (2,900 and 3,200 kcal ME/kg). Data were analyzed in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (energy/temperature/age) in a completely randomized design. Animals were slaughtered after four hours of heat exposure for sampling of an intestinal segment, to extract alkaline phosphatase, and pancreas, to extract amylase, lipase and trypsin. The activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase was influenced by energy level and animal age. Energy level of diet and environmental temperature interfered on the activity of pancreatic amylase. Lipase activity was affected only by broiler age. There was no effect of treatments on pancreatic trypsin activity. It was concluded that the activity of the pancreatic enzymes can be regulated by different mechanisms under stress conditions induced by heat.
Abstract in English:An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different digestible amino acid profiles on the performance of broilers in two phases: from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days of age. At the end of the experiment, carcass yield and cut percentages were evaluated. Nine hundred and sixty AgRoss birds were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (four digestible amino acid profiles): Rostagno et al. (2000), Baker & Han (1994b), Degussa (1997) and those recommended by AgRoss (2000), with six repetitions and 40 birds per repetition (20 males and 20 females). The results showed that the four diets were able to provide the requirements of the birds, since no significant differences were seen among the treatments on the performance in the two phases and on the carcass yield and cuts at 42 days of age. Males had better yields of feet, head and neck, and lower percentage of abdominal fat (p<0.05). The best cost/benefit ratio was seen for the profile established by Rostagno et al. (2000) when diets were evaluated in an ideal protein situation.
Abstract in English:There is a need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) infection in broiler breeders in Brazil. Many features of the infection remain unrecognizable, because there are no clinical signs of the disease. A detailed testing was performed at each 6 to 8 weeks in three MS-free flocks introduced in farms with endemic MS infection for a follow-up epidemiological study. Every flock was monitored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by serum plate agglutination (SPA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) for serology studies, and isolation of mycoplasmas from tracheal swabs. PCR was found to be the most sensitive test, detecting early MS infection. Serology was positive in less than 50% of the sera and MS was isolated only between 27 and 28 weeks of age and in a maximum of 60% positive hens. A similar profile was seen for MS infection in all three flocks. Infection started at brooding, whereas laboratory detection of the assymptomatic infection was more probable in the weeks of increasing egg production. This predictable profile during rearing may be very useful for the optimization of monitoring MS infection in broiler breeder flocks.
Abstract in English:The supplementation of cobalt and vitamin B12 in diets for commercial laying hens on the second production cycle was studied. Four hundred and eighty light commercial laying hens, Lohmann LSL, were used at initial phase of forced molting laying period. The trial was conducted in a randomized design. The plots were the treatments which were constituted by combination of five cobalt levels (0.00; 0.30; 0.60; 0.90 and 1.20ppm) and two vitamin B12 levels (without and with 10µ/kg), and the split-plots were four periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days) during the second period of production, with 4 repetitions and 12 hens per experimental unit. Food and water were provided ad libitum and eggs were collected twice daily. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, two layers from each treatment were slaughtered, and liver and blood samples were taken for analysis. Performance and egg quality were not different (p>0.05) among cobalt supplementation levels, although egg damage data were different (p<0.05). Supplementation with vitamin B12 decreased egg weight. No influence of cobalt or vitamin B12 supplementation was seen on the concentration of cobalt in the liver and yolk as well as on blood analysis (hematrocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and leukocytes). The results revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation was important for commercial laying hens on the second cycle of production, but not cobalt supplementation.
Abstract in English:The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM) produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I) and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II). In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn]) of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM), four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females). In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age). One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds) were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.
Abstract in English:The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different particle sizes, expressed as Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) of corn (0.336mm, 0.585mm, 0.856mm and 1.12mm) of mash and pelleted broiler chicken diets on the weight of the gizzard, duodenum and jejunum+ileum; on the pH of the gizzard and small intestine and on the characteristics of the duodenal mucous layer (number and height of villi and crypt depth) in 42-day-old broilers. The physical form and the particle size of the diet had no significant effect on gizzard and intestine pH (p > 0.05). A greater gizzard weight was seen in the birds receiving pelleted diet and particle size of 0.336mm (p < 0.008). However, for the particle sizes of 0.856 and 1.12 mm, a greater weight was found in birds that received mash diet (p < 0.039 and p < 0.006, respectively). Also, gizzard weight was greater with increasing corn GMD independent of the physical form of the diet. In the mash diet, the increase in particle size promoted a quadratic response in the weight of duodenum and jejunum + ileum. The pelleted diet promoted a greater number of villi per transverse duodenum cut (p < 0.007) and greater crypt depth (p < 0.05). As the particle size increased, there was a linear increase of villus height and crypt depth in the duodenum, irrespective of the physical form of the diet.
Abstract in English:One-day-old male Ross chicks were used in an experiment designed to compare two methionine sources, DL-methionine and methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (MHA-FA), and four different levels: 0.41; 0.47; 0.53; 0.59% (starter diet); 0.35; 0.41; 0.47; 0.53% (grower diet); and 0.30; 0.36; 0.42; 0.48% (finisher diet). One thousand two hundred and eighty chicks were housed in 32 experimental floor-pens (40 birds each) and fed 8 experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal for 47 days. The effects of methionine sources and levels were evaluated by performance data, carcass and cut yields, feather yield and abdominal fat content. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (2 sources and 4 levels), with 8 treatments and 4 repetitions. Analysis of variance was performed using PROC GLM of SAS©. Data indicated DL-methionine to be more effective in promoting growth than MHA-FA, and weight gain increased numerically in response to increasing levels of methionine in all phases.