Resumo em Inglês:The eggshell is an important structure for two reasons. Firstly it forms an embryonic chamber for the developing chick, providing mechanical protection and a controlled gas exchange medium. Secondly it is a container for the market egg, providing protection of the contents and a unique package for a valuable food. The superficial structure of the shell has been known for over 100 years. The shell consists of 97% calcium carbonate, and this is provided to the hen in the diet. However, the chemical must be broken down in the digestive system and then re-synthesized in the shell gland to form the shell. This results in a turnover of blood Ca of ~ 100 times each 24 hours. Provision of calcium to layers has been researched at length, but the key work, conducted at Cornell University in the 1960's, showed the necessity for sources with large particle size, for example, oyster shells. Subsequent research has defined guidelines that, if correctly followed, will yield reliable and optimum eggshell quality. Breakage or cracking of eggshells in market channels is a serious concern. Cracks result from a combination of shell strength and integrity, and the extent of the "insult" received by the egg during handling. Measurement of shell strength, and assessment of "insults" is important to the poultry industry. Most recent research has identified the ultra-structure of the shell, with resulting opportunities for industrial remedies, and possible new selection criteria, to ensure maximum shell quality throughout the egg industry.
Resumo em Inglês:Broiler chicks from one incubator hatch within long periods of time, which leads to dehydration and reduction in yolk sac reserves of those chicks that have hatched earlier and potentially impairs early performance. The present research investigated the hatching distribution at intervals of incubation using eggs of different weights within one breeder age or eggs from widely different breeder ages. Eggs from breeders at 27 and 59 weeks of age (54 and 69 g) and from breeders at 40 weeks of age, which were graded as light (58 g) and heavy (73 g), were placed in a commercial incubator. There were a total of 1,184 eggs distributed in four treatments and eight replicates: eggs from 27-week-old breeders (27B), eggs from 59-week-old breeders (59B), light eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BL) and heavy eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BH). Replicates were comprised of 37 eggs that were placed in each incubator tray. The treatments were physically separated from each other using a plate. Eggs were transferred to a hatcher after 432 hours of incubation and the first chick hatched at 449 hours of incubation. Afterwards, the number of completely hatched chicks from each replicate was recorded at six-hour intervals until 503 hours of incubation, when the hatchings stopped. Hatched chicks were removed from the trays after each measurement. Data were submitted to an analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant interaction between breeder age and incubation length. The hatching onset of eggs from the old breeders was later compared to young breeders. Hatchability (%incubated eggs) was lower for the old breeders; however, differences in hatchability as a percentage of the hatched eggs were not so evident. Complete hatchability occurred only at 503 hours of incubation; however, more than 90% eggs had hatched 18 hours earlier.
Resumo em Inglês:Cluster analysis was used to investigate the genetic divergence among five lines of laying hens. The following traits were evaluated: body weight at 40, 48 and 56 weeks of age; egg weight at 40, 44, 52 and 60 weeks of age; and laying rate from 40 to 60 weeks of age. Three groups were formed when data were analyzed by the single-linkage hierarchical method using squared Mahalanobis distance (D²) as dissimilarity measures: one group comprised lines 3 and 5, the second group line 1, and the third group comprised lines 2 and 4. Using Tocher's optimization method, only two groups were formed: one group comprised lines 3, 5 and 1, and the second comprised lines 2 and 4. This evidences the disagreement between the methods over the evaluation of genetic divergence. The trait that contributed mostly to the genetic divergence was body weight at 48 weeks of age.
Resumo em Inglês:The present study was carried out to compare the growth curve, performance and carcass yield of two broiler strains, Paraíso Pedrês (PP) and ISA Label (ISA), raised in confined or semi-confined systems. It was used a completely randomized design with five replicates, consisting of 20 and 29 birds in semi-confined and confined systems, respectively. Semi-confined birds had free access to pasture at 28 days of age. Performance data were recorded weekly by building growth curves as well as calculating the growth rate. After reaching the recommended body weight (2.5 kg), male birds were slaughtered for physicochemical analysis of carcass, parts and organs. Semi-confined PP and ISA birds showed higher growth potential, higher weight gain, lower feed intake and better feed-to-gain ratio than confined birds. No interactions were observed for carcass yield and meat quality characteristics. Males presented higher yields of feet, drumstick, thigh, drumstick + thigh, and heart, while females presented higher breast and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat from ISA Label birds was more yellowish than from PP, whereas less soft meat was observed in semi-confined birds.
Resumo em Inglês:An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the enzyme phytase in diets formulated with different phosphorus sources on performance, eggshell quality and excretion of commercial laying hens. Two hundred and eighty-eight commercial Hyssex Brown laying hens were evaluated during two production phases, which included eight twenty-eight-day cycles, using a completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial with six replicates of eight birds per treatment. Three phosphorus sources (calcium and sodium phosphate, micro-granulated dicalcium phosphate and triple super phosphate) and two phytase levels (0 or 1000 FTU/kg diet) were tested in the composition of the diets. After the post-peak period, triple super phosphate decreased bird performance and eggshell quality. It was possible to reduce the levels of phosphorus supplementation when phytase was added to the diet. Besides, phytase supplementation reduced phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen excretions, but affected mean egg weight at production peak.
Resumo em Inglês:An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible) according to Rostagno et al. (2000) and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01) and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg) or per dozen eggs (p<0.01) compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.
Resumo em Inglês:The strain used in this work was a Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Kottbus (6,8:e,h:1,5) isolated from imported day-old ducklings in Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário (LANAGRO/SP) of the Ministry of Agriculture of Brazil (MAPA). In view of the lack of information available about this Salmonella isolate and also because it was detected in day-old imported birds, this study was carried out to investigate the dissemination of S. Kottbus among newly hatched chicks. The birds were placed in three groups: one group of 20 birds received 0.1 mL of S. Kottbus culture containing 1.2 x 10(8) CFU/mL, the second group of 20 birds was inoculated with 1.2 x 10(5) CFU/mL and the third group of 10 birds was untreated (control group). Results were similar for both infected groups. The bacterium was recovered from cloacal swabs collected from the first day following the experimental infection until the end of the trial (42 days post-inoculation). At 15 and 42 days post-inoculation (dpi), half of the birds of each group were killed for bacteriological examination of cecal contents, liver and spleen. At 15 dpi, viable cell counts of S. Kottbus were obtained in all kinds of samples. At 42 dpi, Salmonella was present in the liver and spleen of few birds, but in large amounts in the cecal contents of almost all birds.
Resumo em Inglês:Avian cryptosporidiosis has been reported in more than 30 species of birds. To date, the species infecting birds are C. baileyi, C. galli and C. meleagridis. In this study, the morphological, clinical and molecular characteristics of a Brazilian ostrich isolate of Cryptosporidium are described. The oocysts of this Brazilian isolate are larger and more elongated than those of Cryptosporidium previously reported in ostriches, which were morphologically similar to C. meleagridis. Morphological, biological and molecular analyses demonstrated similarity of this ostrich isolate with C. baileyi, suggesting that there are at least two Cryptosporidium species infecting ostriches; one with molecular, biological and morphological characteristics related to C. baileyi, and another morphologically similar to C. meleagridis.
Resumo em Inglês:Competitive exclusion (CE) has been designed to accelerate the colonization of the alimentary tract of young commercial birds and it has been also used to repopulate the digestive tract after antibiotic therapy. The method has been successfully adopted as a means to prevent enteric salmonellosis. The present study was carried out to evaluate if CE is able to prevent this kind of infection. Newly hatched chicks were given a CE culture and at different intervals of time birds infected with Salmonella Enteritidis were placed together with the group of treated birds. CE culture was prepared from feces of adult laying hens incubated overnight at 37C under aerobic conditions. Birds were killed 4 and 8 days after challenge and viable counts of Salmonella Enteritidis were assessed in the cecal contents. The results showed that Salmonella infection was reduced even if CE culture administration was concomitant with the inclusion of the infected bird in the group.
Resumo em Inglês:The present study evaluated the effect of different deboning times on the quality of broiler breast meat. Seventy-two broiler breasts were evaluated. They were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments, six repetitions and two birds per parcel. The treatments were denominated as follows: A - deboning immediately after chilling, B - deboning 1 h after chilling, C - deboning 2 h after chilling, D - deboning 3 h after chilling, E - deboning 4 h after chilling, and F - deboning 24 hours after chilling. Lowest pH values (p<0.05) were seen when deboning was performed 24 h after carcass chilling (pH=6.00) in comparison to deboning at 0 h (6.69) and 1 h (6.42) after chilling. R values were inversely proportional to pH values, i.e., R values were lower (p<0.05) in treatments A (1.05) and B (1.07) when compared to treatment F (1.44). No differences were seen in cooking loss during thermal treatment (broiling) of the muscle P. major. Higher shear forces (p<0.05) were seen in broiled muscles from carcasses with shorter storage times (A - 11.78 kgf and B - 10.75 kgf) before deboning, when compared to treatments E (6.11 kgf) and F (5.64 kgf). Higher L* values were observed in the treatment in which carcass deboning was performed 24 hours after chilling (49.26) in comparison to deboning immediately after chilling (44.68). Therefore, it was concluded that an interval of at least 4 hours is needed between chilling and deboning to obtain broiled breast fillets with tender texture. Furthermore, paler meat color (L* value) was produced with longer carcass storage before deboning.