Abstract in English:This experiment was designed with the objective of developing a simple, practical, and high repeatability technique for the simultaneous evaluation of the integrity of the plasmatic and acrosomal membranes, as well as funcional mitochondria of domestic fowl spermatozoa using an association of fluorescent probes. Four ejaculates (motility > 80% and abnormal morphology < 10%) from each of six Ross male broiler breeder (n=24) were diluted in TALP sperm medium (25x10(6) spermatozoa/mL) and split into two aliquots, and one of these aliquots was flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed to damage all cellular membranes. Three treatments were prepared from these aliquots, with the following ratios of Fresh semen:Flash frozen semen: 100:0 (T100), 50:50 (T50), and 0:100 (T0). A 150-µL aliquot of diluted semen was placed in a microcentrifuge tube with the addition of 2-µL PI, 2-µL MITO, and 50-µL FITC-PSA, and incubated at 38.5º C/8 min in the dark. An 8-µL sample was placed on a slide, coverslipped, and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. Each sample had 200 cells counted and classified based on the fluorescence emitted by each probe. By regression analysis, plasma membrane integrity, as detected by PI, was determined as: v=4.17+0.82X (R²=0.95). Acrosome integrity, as detected by FITC-PSA, generated the equation: v=4.19+0.84X (R²=0.96). Functional mitochondria was estimated by the equation v=3.20+0.83X (R²=0.96). This is an efficient technique to simultaneously evaluate plasmatic, acrosomal, and mitochondrial membranes in fowl sperm. It is suggested that its application in flow cytometry systems allows this methodology to be applied in large scale.
Abstract in English:The entrance of poultry products into the trade world requires changes in the configuration of these products, such as programs that ensure their quality and biosafety for the consumers. This article aims at presenting new perception on poultry biosafety programs in broiler breeder farms from an ecological perspective, making these programs more efficient and cost-effective, i.e., more competitive. Using literature review, some convergences were found between ecology concepts and biosafety programs. One of these convergences is understanding the farm as an open ecosystem, integrating through adaptation the natural environment with the exotic environment. This also allows understanding how the production area interacts with the environment as to energy substrate input and output or as to the dissemination of poultry pathogens by vectors outside the farm or from the production area to the environment. This allows building a theoretical reference for further studies on ecological models for the improvement of poultry biosafety programs.
Abstract in English:Effectiveness, biological security and the absence of residues in meat and/or eggs must be considered when recommending options for the control Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry production environments. This research study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos+citronellal in the control of A. diaperinus, including analysis for the presence of residues of this compound in poultry carcasses (experimental farm). Two studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. One used paper filters a four dilutions of the compound, and the other used a container including with pulverized broiler litter and the compound. The analysis of carcasses for residues was conducted in broilers that raised in a broiler house treated (floor and/or litter) with the compound at a dilution of 1:800. Birds were regularly sacrificed, submitted to necropsy, and liver, muscle and fat fragments were collected. Gas chromatography was used to identify the possible presence of any chemical residue in these samples. High effectiveness rates against A.diaperinus were observed in the two laboratory studies, as well as the absence of residues in the carcasses. This compound, used in the studied concentrations, can be recommended as a valuable alternative for the control and treatment of A. diaperinus.
Abstract in English:The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1), two (2:1), three (3:1) and four (4:1) females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1), in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05). Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00), and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90). Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed feeds containing different corn and limestone particle sizes. A total number of 648 birds in the peak of production was distributed in a random complete block experimental design, using a 2x3 factorial arrangement (2 corn particle sizes and 3 limestone particle sizes). Birds were designated to one of two blocks, with six replicates of 18 birds each. Mean geometric diameter (MGD) values used were 0.617mm and 0.723mm (corn fine and coarse particle sizes, respectively), and 0.361mm, 0.721mm, and 0.947mm (limestone fine, intermediate and coarse particle sizes, respectively). The following treatments were applied: T1: fine corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T2: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T3: fine corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone; T4: coarse corn feed, with 100% fine limestone; T5: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% intermediate limestone; T6: coarse corn feed, with 50% fine limestone and 50% coarse limestone. The experiment lasted 112 days, consisting of 4 cycles of 28 days. No significant interaction was observed among corn and limestone particle sizes for any of the analyzed parameters. There were no significant effects (p>0.05) of the tested corn particle sizes on quail performance or egg quality. There were significant (p<0.05) isolated effects of limestone particle size only on the percentage of cracked eggs, which was reduced when birds fed 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm) and 50% fine limestone (0.361mm) as compared to those fed 100% fine limestone. Therefore, the inclusion of 50% coarse limestone (0.947mm) is recommended for quail egg production.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the use of different growth promoters on the morphometry and ultra-structure of the intestinal mucosa of 42-day-old broilers. A total number of 36 male Cobb broilers was distributed in a randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with 3 prebiotic and 3 probiotic sources in the feed, summing up 9 treatments, with 4 replicates each. There was a significant interaction (P<0.01) among the studied factor for villi height (VH) in all intestinal segments, and for crypt depth (CD) in the duodenum and the ileum. In the duodenum, higher villi were obtained in the control group, with the combination of B. subtilis and prebiotics, and with the single use of MOS+OA. No VH differences were observed between the control group and those fed prebiotics. In the jejunum, the highest villi were obtained with the use of the bacterial pool, followed by the control group, and by the use of B. subtilis. Higher villi were also obtained in the control group and in the groups fed MOS, when B. subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics, and when the bacterial pool was used individually or in combination with MOS. In the ileum, the highest villi were obtained with the individual use of B. subtilis, and when MOS+OA or MOS were individually used or in combination with the bacterial pool. As to duodenal CD, deeper crypts were observed in the control group and in those fed B. subtilis or MOS+OA. In the ileum, deeper crypts were also found in the control group and those fed B. subtilis. Deeper crypts were also found when the bacterial pool was individually used or in combination with MOS+OA, and with the individual use of MOS. It was concluded that the use of growth promoters was beneficial to increase intestinal villi height when Bacillus subtilis was used in combination with prebiotics. The other growth promoters (MOS+OA, MOS, and bacterial pool), can be individually used in most situations. The tested growth promoters did not influence intestinal villi density.
Abstract in English:In order to evaluate the effects of broiler genotype and of heat exposure on performance, carcass characteristics, and protein and fat accretion, six hundred one-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement, according to the following factors: genetic group (selected and non-selected broilers) and pair-feeding scheme (Ad32 - reared under heat stress and fed ad libitum; Ad23 - reared at thermoneutrality and fed ad libitum; Pf23 - reared at thermoneutrality and pair fed with Ad32), with a total of six treatments with four replicates of 25 birds each. Independent of pair-feeding scheme, selected broilers showed better feed conversion, higher carcass yield, and lower abdominal fat deposition rate. However, as compared to non-selected broilers, they reduced more intensively feed intake when heat exposed, which promoted significant breast-yield decrease, and more pronounced changes on carcass chemical composition. These findings allows concluding that, in both genetic groups, both environmental temperature and feed-intake restriction influence abdominal fat deposition rate and other carcass characteristics; however, the impact of heat exposure on broiler performance is more noticeable on the selected line.
Abstract in English:The pathogenicity of insect-pathogenic hyphomycetous isolates to the lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) was tested in this study. Thirty isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, Paecilomyces amoenoroseus (Hennings), P. fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith, P. lilacinus (Thom) Samson, P. tenuipes (Petch) Samson, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, and M. anisopliae var. acridum were initially screened by sprinkling dry conidia onto adult A. diaperinus or by allowing adults to walk on Petri dishes with sporulating fungal isolates. The two most virulent isolates, CNPSo-Ma352 (M. anisopliae) and CNPSo-Ma356 (M. anisopliae), killed 30% and 26.7% of the dry-conidia treated adults, respectively. These two isolates were selected for LD50 bioassays. LD50 of CNPSo-Ma352 was 4.5 x 10(4) conidia per larva, and 2.1 x 10(5) conidia per adult, and for strain CNPSo-Ma356, LD50 was 2.2 x 10(4) conidia per larva and 1.3 x 10(5) conidia per adult. Larvae were 5-6 times more susceptible than adults. A larger number of conidia required to cause 50% mortality in insect evaluates, suggesting the reduced susceptibility of A. diaperinus to entomopathogenic fungi. Nevertheless, these and other strains of fungus offer an alternative method for controlling of lesser mealworm in poultry houses when associated to integrated management.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the prebiotic Bio Mos™ (2 kg/ton up to 10 days; 1 kg/ton from 10 to 21 days; and 0.5 kg/ton from 21 days to slaughter), of the probiotic Lac XCL 5x™ (by spray-mixing), of a combination of the two supplements (prebiotic + probiotic), and of one growth promoter antimicrobial agent (Avilamycin at 15 ppm). Birds were orally challenged with inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) 10(6) CFU at 3 days of age. Four hundred and eighty male Ross chicks were used. The experiment lasted 28 days, and the analyses were conducted at 15 and 28 days of age. Cecum and liver bacterial colonization of production of anti-SE antibiodies, intestinal micrometry and bird performance were assessed. Neither the prebiotic, nor the probiotic influenced performance or production of anti-SE antibodies in SE-challenged birds. Intestinal micrometry and bird mortality were not influenced by prebiotic or probiotic supplementation, or by the antimicrobial agent. The use of an antimicrobial agent produced higher SE CFUs in cecum bacterial counts, while prebiotic and probiotic yielded lower counts. The combination prebiotic+probiotic did not produce significantly different results from the individual use of the additives.
Abstract in English:Campylobacter was investigated in cecal droppings, feces, and cloacal swabs of 22 flocks of 3 to 5 week-old broilers. Risk factors and the likelihood of the presence of this agent in these flocks were determined. Management practices, such as cleaning and disinfection, feeding, drinkers, and litter treatments, were assessed. Results were evaluated using Odds Ratio (OR) test, and their significance was tested by Fisher's test (p<0.05). A Campylobacter prevalence of 81.8% was found in the broiler flocks (18/22), and within positive flocks, it varied between 85 and 100%. Campylobacter incidence among sample types was homogenous, being 81.8% in cecal droppings, 80.9% in feces, and 80.4% in cloacal swabs (230). Flocks fed by automatic feeding systems presented higher incidence of Campylobacter as compared to those fed by tube feeders. Litter was reused in 63.6% of the farm, and, despite the lack of statistical significance, there was higher likelihood of Campylobacter incidence when litter was reused. Foot bath was not used in 45.5% of the flocks, whereas the use of foot bath associated to deficient lime management increased the number of positive flocks, although with no statiscal significance. The evaluated parameters were not significantly associated with Campylobacter colonization in the assessed broiler flocks.