Abstract in English:The experiment was carried out in the experimental poultry house of the Research and Development Unit of Brotas of Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios do Centro-Oeste, SP, Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate forced-molting methods and their effects on body weight, egg production, feed intake, and mortality, as well as bird performance during the second laying cycle. A total number of 400 65-week-old Japanese quails was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments, with four replicates of 20 birds each. The following treatments were applied: T1= not submitted to forced molting, T2= 01 day of fasting + 13 days receiving 15g feed/bird/day (1F+R), T3= 02 days of fasting + 12 days receiving 15g feed/bird/day (2F+R), T4= 03 days of fasting + 11 days receiving 15g feed/bird/day (3F+R), and T5= 3 days of fasting and fed ad libitum thereafter (3F+AL). Significant differences were detected among treatments. When submitted to 3 days of fasting followed by ad libitum feeding, birds presented complete body weight recovery. No egg production percentage differences were detected in birds submitted to forced molting.
Abstract in English:This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of different heating times of settable eggs of Cobb 500® broiler breeders before submitting them to different storage periods on egg weight loss, embryo mortality, and hatchability. A total number of 1,980 eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, comprising nine treatments with 22 replicates of 10 eggs each. The following factors were analyzed: pre-storage heating periods (0, 6, 12 hours at 36.92°C) and storage periods (4, 9, 14 days at 12.06°C). After storage, eggs were incubated under usual conditions, and were transferred to the hatcher at 442 hours of incubation. Eggs were weighed before heating, incubation, and transference to determine weight loss. Partial hatchability was determined at 480 hours, and total hatchability at 498 hours of incubation. Embryo mortality was determined in non-hatched eggs. It was concluded that heating eggs for six hour before storage improves incubation results as it decreases incubation length and late embryo mortality, therefore its use can be indicated in commercial operations. Storing eggs for 14 days and pre-heating for 14 days and pre-heating for 12 hours severely impair incubation results, and therefore are not recommended.
Abstract in English:An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different heating times of settable eggs of Cobb 500® broiler breeders before submitting them to different storage periods on body weight, digestive tract organ weights, and intestinal mucosa morphology of newly-hatched chicks. Settable eggs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement: pre-storage heating periods (0, 6, 12 hours at 36.92°C) and storage periods (4, 9, 14 days at 12.06°C). Body weight and relative weights of the yolk sac, heart, liver, proventriculus+gizzard, and intestinal segments were measured in chicks hatching at 480 and 498 hours of incubation. Villi height, width and perimeter, and crypt depth (ìm) were measured in duodenal histological sections. It was concluded that pre-storage heating for six hours of eggs stored for four or nine days increases small intestine weight of newly-hatched chicks, but does not influence the morphology of the duodenal mucosa. Pre-storage heating for 12 hours negatively influences body weight and duodenal mucosa development, and therefore this practice is not recommended. Storage length does not have consistent effect on body weight and development of the gastrointestinal tract.
Abstract in English:Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary oxidized poultry offal fat on the performance of broilers and on the oxidative stability of dark chicken meat. One hundred and sixty male chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal diet containing 4% fresh or oxidized poultry fat from 10 to 47 days of age. Fresh fat was stored frozen until diets were produced, and oxidized fat was obtained by electrical heating (110 to 120 ºC). Birds were slaughtered at 47 days of age, and carcass characteristics were measured. Skinless and deboned thigh meat was stored chilled during 12 days, and samples were periodically collected to assess their quality and oxidative stability. Dietary oxidized fat did not affect bird performance or carcass characteristics. During chilled storage, meat color (L*, a* and b*) was not affected by dietary treatments; however, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances) values were higher (P<0.05) in thigh meat from chickens fed the oxidized fat, indicating that oxidative stability was adversely affected.
Abstract in English:The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil) and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC) analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic) fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.
Abstract in English:Studies on the detection of animal by-products in poultry meat are rare, and non-existent on quail meat. This study aimed at detectiong increasing levels of poultry offal meal (POM) in quail meat, using carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) stable isotopes technique. Sixty four on-day-old male quails derived from a commercial farm were randomly distributed into seven different groups, which were fed experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 15% of POM. Diets were formulated to contain equal energy, protein, and amino acid levels. Four individuals per treatment were sacrificed at 42 days of age for breast muscle (Pectoralis major), keel, and tibia collection, which were subsequently submitted to analyses. Isotopic δ13C and δ15N enrichment was observed in all analyzed tissues, with the lowest detection level of 3% dietary inclusion of poultry offal meal.
Abstract in English:The experiment was carried out in the experimental poultry house of the Research and Development Unit of Brotas of Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios do Centro-Oeste, SP, Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of Japanese quails submitted to forced molting aiming at optimizing the use of the same quail flock by promoting a second laying cycle. A total number of 400 67-day-old Japanese quails in lay, previously submitted to 14 days of forced molting, was distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments (T1= not submitted to forced molting, T2= 03 days of fasting + fed ad libitum, T3= 01 days of fasting + 13 days of feed restriction, T4= 02 days of fasting + 12 days of feed restriction, and T5= 03 days of fasting + 11 days of feed restriction. Feeds were contained equal nutrient levels, and were formulated according to NRC (1994) recommendations. There were significant differences among the studied treatments. Although the treatment of 3 days of fasting followed by ad libitum feeding resulted in lower egg weight, it promoted better lay percentage, egg mass, and feed conversion ratios (FCR/dz and FCR/kg). On the other hand, 3 days of fasting followed by restricted feeding resulted in higher feed intake and worse feed conversion ratios (FCR/dz and FCR/kg). When birds were not submitted to forced molting, they presented lower lay percentage and egg mass.
Abstract in English:This trial aimed at evaluating the effect of organic trace mineral supplementation of commercial layer diets on productive performance and egg quality. One-hundred-ninety-two Hy Line W36 white 69-w-old layers were distributed into a completely randomized design with three treatments, and eight replicates, with eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (R1), and two others experimental diets containing 0.250 ppm (R2) and 0.500 ppm (R3) of an organic source of zinc, manganese, and selenium. Feed intake (g/bird/day), feed conversion ratio (kg/dozen egg and kg/kg egg), egg weight (g), egg production (%), thin and cracked eggshells (%), specific gravity (g/mL), Haugh Units, total egg solids (%), yolk yield, white and shell yields (%), eggshell thickness, and egg Se content were evaluated Tukey's test analyzed differences among means at 5% of probability using PROC GLM in SAS (2000). Although not significant as compared to the non-supplemented diet, improvements on relative cracked-plus-thin shells were observed with the use of organic mineral blend. The addition of the organic blend to the diet at 0.250 kg/ton resulted in (p<0.05) higher total egg solids. Also, as compared to eggs from control group, fresh and dried yolk yields were higher with the dietary inclusion of the organic mineral blend at 0.250 and 0.500 kg/ton.
Abstract in English:This research included two studies evaluating the live performance of broilers fed Sangrovit® (minimum of 1.5% sanguinarine, a quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid extracted from Macleaya cordata). Both studies were conducted using Ross 308 female broiler chicks. Birds were fed corn-soybean meal all-vegetable diets without growth promoters with 5 treatments and 8 replications in each study. In the first study, treatments were composed of a Negative Control without feed additive and four diets with graded increases of Sangrovit of 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 ppm. In the second study, chicks received a similar diet from placement to 21 days of age and subsequently were given feeds with graded reductions in crude protein (CP) as follow: a Negative Control with 19.7% CP without sanguinarine, and then 19.7, 19.2, 18.8 and 18.3% CP supplemented with Sangrovit at 20 ppm. It was demonstrated that body weight was increased when birds were fed 50 ppm of Sangrovit at 21 d when compared to the Negative Control. Also comparatively to the Negative Control, cumulative feed conversion was improved for birds fed with Sangrovit at 37.5 ppm as well as feed intake from placement to 7 days at 12.5 ppm. No differences were observed in feed intake. Birds supplemented with Sangrovit and 18.8% CP had similar body weight gain and feed intake as the Negative Control with 19.7% CP. Mortality in both studies was not correlated with the treatments. Results from both studies indicate benefits of the supplementation of Sangrovit in diets for broilers.