Abstract in English:The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the probiotic thepax and yogurt (as probiotic) on the growth response and intestinal microflora results of broiler chickens. Two hundred forty day-old Ross 308 broilers were equally distributed into 12 floor pens and reared for 42 day. The treatments consisted of yogurt (10, 5 and 2.5% during starter, grower and finisher periods in the drinking water, respectively) and thepax (1000, 500, 250 g/ton-1 in the starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively), resulting three experimental diets and a control group. Each dietary treatment was fed ad-libitum to four replicate group of 20 birds at the beginning of rearing period. Birds and feed were weighed on days 21 and 42. The results of experiment indicate that diets containing feed additives improved broiler performance. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved significantly more (p < 0.05) with the thepax treatment compared with the control broilers during the total rearing period. The highest (p < 0.05) carcass and thigh values were recorded for broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax and yogurt, respectively. The lowest abdominal fat pad value was obtained in broilers fed the diet supplemented with thepax. On d 21, thepax and yogurt significantly reduced (p < 0.05) cecal Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens populations compared with the control group. In conclusion, thepax and yogurt improved broilers growth response and conferred intestinal health benefits to chickens by improving their microbial ecology.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating the live performance of turkeys during the initial stage of production (1-26 days of age) and to map the environmental variables inside turkey houses, such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2 concentration, at two distinct minimum ventilation systems. House 1 (H1) was equipped with a negative-pressure ventilation system and House 2 (H2) was equipped with a positive-pressure ventilation system. This study was performed in commercial poultry houses, located in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná, Brazil, in June, 2008. A number of 14,000 turkeys toms at the same age, provided by the same local hatchery and were housed at a stocking density of 23 birds m-2. Three 13 m² boxes with 300 turkeys each were placed inside the poultry houses. All treatments were assigned for the birds inside each of the three boxes. The poultry barns were virtually divided in eight equally distributed in areas where the environmental variables were recorded. The performance parameters measured were weight gain, feed conversion and mortality rate, recorded weekly. Analysis of variance and F-tests were performed to compare results within different environmental conditions, using MINITAB 14 statistical software. The ventilation systems did not significantly influence CO2 concentrations (p = 0.489), whereas temperature (p = 0.016) and relative humidity (p = 0.0001) and feed conversion (p = 0.001) were significantly affected by ventilation system. Temperature and relative humidity in H2 (positive pressure ventilation system) was found to be less aversive than those in H1 (negative pressure system). Also, bids in H2 presented lower feed conversions than those in H1.
Abstract in English:The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary fiber on the performance and energy balance of broiler chickens of a fast-growing strain (Cobb500) and a slow-growing strain (Label Rokens during the period of 1 one to 42 days of used In total, 360 male broilers (240 fast-grorain and 120 slow-grtrain)were, housed in collective cages. A completely randomized experimental dewith in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied, consisting of three groups of birds (slow-growing - SG; fast-growing fed ad libitum - FGAL; and fast-growing pair-fed with SG broilers - FGPF) and two iso-protein dis (a 3100 kcal ME/kg low-fiber diet and a 2800 kcal ME/kg high-fiber diet- Hwith containing 14% wheat bran and 4% oat hulls). Dietary fiber level did not affect feed intake (FI); however, it resulted in lower weight gain (WG) and worse feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p < 0.001) in birds fed the HFD diet due to its lower energy content. The FGPF group presented higher WG than SG and better FCR (p < 0.001), indicating that fast-growing birds present better performance than SG broilers, even under restricted feed intake. The SG group retained more energy relative to body weight (p < 0.001), which is associated to higher body fat retention in this strain (p < 0.001). The slow-growing strain did not present better use of high-fiber diet than fast-growing strain as expected.
Abstract in English:The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding whole linseed on the laying performance and egg characteristics in laying hens kept at high ambient environmental temperatures (average 34 ºC; the diurnal temperature range 26 ºC to 41 ºC). Two hundred and forty 38-wk-old white Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10 or 15% whole linseed (as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) for a period of 12 weeks. Egg production was recorded daily, while feed intake and egg characteristics were monitored on weekly basis. The results of the study demonstrated that egg production and feed intake decreased, while feed conversion ratio (FCR) per dozen of eggs increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary linseed levels. Egg weight, yolk weight, albumen height, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness were not influenced (p > 0.05) by linseed levels in the diets offered to the laying hens. The results of the present trial suggest that feeding linseed to the laying hens in hot climates has no detrimental effects on egg characteristics, but has suppressive effects on egg production, feed intake and feed efficiency of laying hens.
Abstract in English:Several studies point out that eggs are the main cause of human salmonellosis, particularly when poorly processed or eaten raw. In addition of causing public health problems, the presence of Salmonella hinders international food trade, and therefore, it is a health barrier. There are several predisposing factors for the contamination of internal egg content by Salmonella spp, including eggshell quality, which is related to dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels. In this study, eggs from Japanese quails fed diets containing two different Ca (2.0 or 3.5%) or P (0.25 or 0.45%) levels were evaluated. Three production phases were used in the experiment: starter, intermediate, and final. The presence of Salmonella Enteriditis in the eggshell and internal content in in the periods of 0, 24, 96, and 168 hours after the experimental contamination of the eggs by immersion in broth containing Salmonella Enteriditis. The bacterium was detected in decreasing numbers in the eggshell of eggs from all treatments and during all storage periods. No significant bacterial numbers were found in the internal egg content in none of the treatments during none of the production phases. Therefore, the evaluated Ca and P levels in the diet of Japanese quails did not result in higher or lower public health risk relative to the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal egg content.
Abstract in English:This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes) for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclusion of 5% rapeseed oil; T6 - inclusion of 5% canola oil; T7 - inclusion of 5% soybean oil; T8 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T9 - inclusion 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T10 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% canola oil) of six replicates of eight birds each, totaling 480 birds. Yolk cholesterol levels and nutritional composition were determined on days 20, 60 and 112 days of the experimental period. Data obtained during the experimental period were submitted to analysis of variance. Egg yolks produced by layer fed oils presented lower cholesterol levels after 20 days of inclusion in the experimental diets. On days 60 and 112, cholesterol levels were higher. It was concluded that supplementing layer diets with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not change the nutritional composition of egg yolks. The supply of diets containing oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce yolk cholesterol content.
Abstract in English:Salmonella Gallinarum is the agent of fowl typhoid in poultry and infects mainly adult galliforms, causing significant economic losses in poultry production. Because quails are susceptible to this disease and quail production is becoming increasingly important in Brazil, this study was carried out to evaluate the virulence of Salmonella Gallinarum strain to quails. The inoculum was prepared from S. Gallinarum strain resistant to nalidixic acid. Forty eight 16-week-old Japanese quails were randomly distributed in three groups. Before the experiment, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds in order to confirm they were free from Salmonella spp. Cloacal swabs and fecal samples were collected on days 03, 06, 09, 12, and 15 post-inoculation. Birds that died during the experiment were submitted to post-mortem examination, and had their organs aseptically collected for bacteriological examination. All eggs produced during the experiment were also examined. The mortality rate recorded during the experiment was 43.75% (21/48). S. Gallinarum was recovered from the organs of the birds that naturally died during the experiment, but the agent was not isolated from the organs of sacrificed birds. No egg sample was positive for Salmonella Gallinarum. It was concluded that S. Gallinarum may be recovered from the organs of experimentally-infected Japanese quails.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella in common quails submitted to forced molting. A total of 240 quails were divided at 40 weeks of age into four groups: CG (control, quails not submitted to molting); FM (fasting method); WM (fed wheat midds ad libitum); and ZM (zinc oxide method). From each group, 10 cloacal swabs, 10 fecal samples, and 20 egg samples were collected before molting (two weeks) and after molting (two weeks). The microbiological procedures for Salmonella spp. identification were performed in four steps. The agglutination test, using somatic and flagellar antigens, was used to confirm Salmonella-suspected colonies. According to the methodology applied, none of the samples was positive for Salmonella spp. The results showed that 20.0% of the egg samples from birds submitted to forced molting were contaminated with enterobacteria. It was concluded that, under the conditions of the present experiment, the stress caused by forced molting did not induce infection by Salmonella spp. or increased Enterobacteriaceae contamination levels in the eggs.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary energy levels and stocking densities on the thermoregulating parameters, live performance, and carcass traits of broilers reared under tropical winter conditions at different times of the day. In total, 1,312 one-d-old male broilers were used. Birds were allotted to three different stocking densities (10, 14 or 18 birds/m²) and two dietary energy levels (2900 or 3200 kcal ME/kg). The following parameters were evaluated:radiant heat load (RHL), rectal temperature (RT), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), livability (L), production of live weight per area (WA), and carcass yield. Stocking density did not affect sensible heat loss (SRL) or rectal temperature (RT); however, as expected, sensible heat loss (SRL) and RT were influenced by time of the day, with higher values in the morning and in the afternoon, respectively. There was no effect of treatment (p>0.05) on carcass or parts yield. Feed intake was reduced in 3%, whereas weight gain and feed conversion ratio improved in 8 and 10%, respectively, as dietary energy level increased. On the other hand, stocking density did not influence live performance or carcass traits. Based on the present results, it is concluded that sensible heat loss depends on dietary energy levels and particularly on time of the day. Therefore, environmental house management is suggested during tropical winters in order to reduce differences between broiler skin and environmental temperatures in the morning and in the afternoon.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to trace the inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal (BMBM) in the diet of Japanese quails by analyzing eggs and egg fractions (yolk and albumen) by the technique of carbon-13 (13C) and nitrogen-15 (15N) stable isotopes. In the trial, 120 Japanese quails were distributed in six treatments with four replicates of five birds each. The following treatments were applied: feed based on corn and soybean meal, containing graded BMBM inclusions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5%). After 42 days, 20 eggs per treatment were randomly collected for three consecutive days. Ten eggs were used for yolk and albumen sample collection, and ten for total egg sample collection. It was possible to detect the dietary inclusion of 1% BMBM in the egg and its fractions. Therefore, the technique of isotopes 13C and 15N is able of tracing since 1% inclusion level of BMBM in the diet of Japanese quails in eggs and their fractions.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was to trace the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM) in the diet of meat-type quails reared for a long period using the technique of stable isotopes. A number of 320 quails were randomly distributed into eight treatments: vegetable diet (T1), and a diet containing 8% POM were fed until the end of the experimental period (T2) or replaced by the vegetable diet on day 42 (T3), 56 (T4), 70 (T5), 84 (T6), 98 (T7), and 112 (T8). Breast muscle samples were collected from four birds randomly selected per treatment every 14 days. The obtained isotope results were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with the aid of the GLM procedure of statistical SAS program. Treatments were different from T1 when birds were sacrificed at least two weeks after the diet was changed. T2 results were different from T1 in all evaluated periods. It was concluded that it is possible to trace poultry offal meal inclusion in a strictly vegetable diet after the diet was changed for at least 14 days.