Abstract in English:Although the natural reservoirs of the avian influenza (AI) virus have been extensively studied in many countries, there is a clear lack of information on this subject in South America, particularly in Brazil. The objective of this study was to conduct a serological survey for H5, H7 and H9 antibodies to AI-subtype viruses in wild birds in the state of São Paulo , Brazil. Serum samples were tested using the hemagglutination-inhibition assay. Out of the 31 wild birds sampled between January and December of 2006, seven (22.58%), were seropositive for H5, H7 and H9; four (12.90%) were seropositive for H5 and H7; 13 (41.94%), were seropositive only for H7; three (9.7%), were seropositive only for H9; and four (12.90%) were negative for all three hemagglutinin subtypes. These results indicate that AI viruses belonging to H5, H7 and H9 subtypes circulate among wild birds in the state of São Paulo in the form of either concurrent or consecutive infections. This study contributes to the knowledge of AI epidemiology in Brazil, and stresses the need of further detailed and long-term epidemiological and ecological investigation to determine the current status of this virus.
Abstract in English:Brazilian poultry production is prospering, and negative-pressure broiler houses are increasingly used to improve environmental control. One important issue is the color of the side curtains used in such houses due to the influence of colors on broiler behavior. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of different curtain color on the welfare of 7-day-old broilers, considering luminosity and other environmental parameters. Chicks were housed in three different negative-pressure broiler houses either with black (T1), blue (T2), or yellow (T3) side curtains. House environment (luminosity, dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, air velocity, and gas emissions) and the behavior of chicks on day 7 after housing were evaluated in three consecutive flocks in the morning and in the afternoon. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis, Kruskal-Wallis' test, and Pearson's correlation test. Luminosity and ITU were influenced by curtain color, and some of the evaluated behaviors were associated with luminosity or other environmental parameter.
Abstract in English:A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to evaluate the effects of cereal type (corn vs. wheat), enzyme supplementation (0 or 0.4 g/kg diet), and sodium butyrate addition (0 or 2 g/kg diet) on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal morphology of male broilers from 10 to 42 d. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres chickens were assigned to eight dietary treatments in a completely randomized design, providing five replicate pens per treatment. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient recommendations. When compared with birds fed corn-based diets, chickens fed wheat-based diets had inferior weight gain (1978 vs. 1807 g, p < 0.01) and feed per gain ratio (1.81 vs. 1.93; p < 0.01). Both weight gain (1870 vs. 1915 g; p < 0.01) and feed intake (3511 vs. 3556 g; p < 0.01) were increased by enzyme addition to experimental diets. Feed intake significantly (p < 0.01) increased by sodium butyrate addition to experimental diets; however, no significant differences were observed in weight gain or feed per gain ratio when sodium butyrate added to experimental diets. The birds fed wheat-based diet had higher relative weights of the proventriculus (p < 0.01), gizzard (p < 0.05), liver (p < 0.05), duodenum (p < 0.05), and ceca (p < 0.01) when compared with those fed corn-based diet. Enzyme and sodium butyrate addition had no significant effects (p > 0.05) on the relative weights of the proventriculus, gizzard, pancreas, liver and heart. Cereal type had a significant (p < 0.05) effect on intestinal morphology, including villus height and crypt depth. Jejunal villus height (p < 0.05) and crypt depth (p < 0.01) were improved by sodium butyrate addition. In conclusion, the results of this experiment showed that enzyme and sodium butyrate addition, especially to the wheat based diet, improve growth performance.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group), and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group), 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase), AKP (alkaline phosphatase), triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p<0.05), and improved duodenum and immune functions. However, the results above were not significantly different between birds fed 0.1% Bacillus subtilis natto supplemented diets and the control group (p>0.05). The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.
Abstract in English:A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control), 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17) via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OH)D3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h), with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OH)D3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OH)D3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05) among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OH)D3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.
Abstract in English:The present study was carried out to determine the sex of the fertilized white layer eggs with using morphological measurements. A total of 300 Super Nick White Layer (54 wks of age) eggs were incubated and sexed in the end of incubation period. Before incubation egg length, width and weight were measured. The egg volume and shape index were estimated with using these measurements for each egg. The effect of egg weight and replicate number was not significant on the sex of the hatching chick (p > 0.05). The effects of egg shape index (p = 0.001), egg length (p = 0.0018), egg width (p < 0.01) and volume (p = 0.004) of the egg had significant effect on the sex of hatching chick. According to the results of the current study, morphological measurements of the pre-incubated egg might be an indicator of sex of the hatching chick. The shape index and egg volume were more informative for the likelihood of the sex of hatching chick. According to the positive results of the current study, it is possible to incubate more female chicks with using the morphological measurements of egg. This may increase the incubation capacity and decrease the number male chicks that are killed at layer hatcheries.
Abstract in English:Two groups of domestic pigeons (Columba livia) were experimentally infected orally with doses of 9.5 x10(7) and 9.5 x10(9) CFU/mL (group A and B, respectively) of a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strain isolated from chickens. None of the used doses caused mortality of the inoculated birds; however, the pathogen was successfully recovered from the liver and spleen of group B birds on day 7 post-inoculation (dpi). Pathogen shedding, as evaluated through cloacal swabs, occurred in both groups until the 14th day of observation (p <0.05). Among all fecal samples collected from group B (n=4), three different birds shed the pathogen in their feces, out of which two were positive on 3 dpi and one on 7 dpi. The same number of fecal samples was evaluated in group A and only one bird shed the pathogen, on 7 and 14 dpi. The concentration of the microorganism in the feces was lower in group A than any sample from Group B. Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from chickens, when inoculated in pigeons, may be recovered from feces, cloacal swabs and organs, and these birds may contaminate poultry causing economic losses as well as posing a risk to the public health.
Abstract in English:In broiler feed manufacturing, grinding may significantly increase costs due to electric energy use. This study evaluated the performance and the morphometrics of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. According to a completely randomized experimental design, 2,400 birds (1,200 males and 1,200 females) were submitted to five treatments of eight replicates each. Treatments consisted of diets based corn or sorghum as follows: ground corn (A), broken corn (B), ground sorghum (C), ground (50%) and whole (50%) sorghum (D) and whole sorghum (100%; E). Pre-starter feeds (1 to 8 days), based on corn or sorghum, were produced only with ground grains. The study was divided in two trials: males and females. The results were submitted to analysis of variance (p<0.05) and Tukey's test. Feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio, and livability of 21- and 42-day-old male and female broilers were not affected by the treatments. This demonstrates that broiler performance is not influenced by sorghum physical form and that broilers fed sorghum-based diets presented similar performance as those fed corn-based diets. Gizzard and small intestine were heavier when whole sorghum grains was included in the diet. It was concluded that whole sorghum grains can be included in broiler feeds with not detrimental effects on performance.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of adding a commercial multi-enzyme complex to conventional and alternative broiler diets on the immune response and occurrence of lesions in the intestinal mucosa. In total, 900 male broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design, with six treatments of six replicates each. Two control diets were formulated: one with conventional feedstuffs (T1), based on corn and soybean meal, and one with alternative feedstuffs (T4), containing corn, millet, and soybean, canola and sunflower meals. Based on these diets, other four were prepared with reduced metabolizable energy, digestible amino acids, calcium and available phosphorus levels and the addition (T3 and T6) or not (T2 and T5) of a multi-enzyme complex. Broilers fed diets based on conventional feedstuffs had higher levels of defense cells compared with those fed diets that included millet with canola and sunflower meals. On the other hand, the use of enzymes in conventional or alternative diets decreased the number of these cells in the ileal mucosa.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers) and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers). In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet) with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.
Abstract in English:An experiment was conducted to evaluate the biometrics of organs (ovary, oviduct, liver, proventriculus and gizzard) of laying hens submitted to different forced-molting methods of molt and maintained at three different temperature. Organs were evaluated after molting and resting period. Six hundred birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 5x3 factorial arrangement (forced-molting methods x environmental temperatures) into 15 treatments with 5 replicates of 8 birds each. The molting methods applied were the dietary inclusion of 90%, 70%, 50% of alfalfa, 2,800 ppm zinc oxide, or total feed restriction. Birds were kept at ±20 ºC, ±27 ºC, or ±35 ºC. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts. The traditional forced-molting method (feed fasting) resulted in adequate performance. However, as the aim of the present study was to find an alternative method to feed fasting, the highest dietary alfafa inclusion level (90%) was shown to be efficient compared with other methods, particularly when hens were kept at high temperature. Therefore, this alternative forced-molting may be applied, especially when bird welfare is taken into consideration.
Abstract in English:Falconiformes (n=82), Strigiformes (n=84) and Cathartiformes (n=14) at a triage center (CETAS-Belo Horizonte, IBAMA, Brazil) were examined between 2008 and 2010 . No bird was reactive at hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) for antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg). Two Caracara plancus (2/68) had HI titers (16-32) against Newcastle disease virus. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in the liver (PCR; n=95). Blood smears (Giemsa; n=89) and spleen fragments (PCR; n=82) were 13.5% and 8.5% positive, respectively, for Haemoproteus only. Necropsy of Cathartiformes (n=10), Falconiformes (n=42) and Strigiformes (n=57) showed that trauma injuries were the main cause (63.3%) of admission and death, being fractures (38.5%) of the thoracic limbs (57.1%) the most frequent. Nematode (12.8%), cestode (1.8%), trematode (0.9%), and acanthocephalan (2.7%) parasite infections were relevant. Mites (Acari) were the most frequent (17.4%) external parasites, particularly Ornithonyssus sylviarum in Asio clamator and Amblyomma cajennense in Tyto alba. Chewing lice (10.1%) and Pseudolynchia spp. (9.2%) were also found. Histomonas spp. (6.4%) was found in the ceca of Bubo virginianus, Athene cunicularia, Tyto alba, and Asio clamator, but not in Falconiformes or Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. (oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophagus; 9.1%) was detected in Falconiformes and Strigiformes, but not in Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. were found in A. cunicularia, Asio clamator, Glaucidium brasilianum and Tyto alba (Strigiformes), and in Rupornis magnirostris, Milvago chimachima, Falco femoralis, Falco sparverius and Caracara plancus (Falconiformes). Coccidia (9.1%) (Sarcocystis spp., 6.4%) and mycosis were observed in most Tyto alba (70%). The evaluated Orders may not pose risks for commercial poultry production. Habitat loss and urban adaptation may be increasingly affecting raptors.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating total or partial replacement of corn by sorghum in broiler diets and at estimating the effect of the pigment supplementation on broiler performance, carcass and cuts yield, and possible breast and leg pigmentation. We used 1680 one-d-old Ross® 308 broilers. Birds were sexed and distributed according to a completely randomized design (2 x 3 + 1). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and diets with two levels corn replacement by sorghum (50 and 100%) and three pigments levels, with four replicates of 60 birds per treatment. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary replacement of corn by sorghum on performance, carcass and parts yield, and no changes in breast and leg meat pH (p >0.05). Meat redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and luminosity (L*) increased (p < 0.05) as pigment inclusion levels increased. It was concluded that the use of sorghum instead of corn did not affect broiler performance or carcass and cuts yield. When adequate pigments were used, meat color significantly improved.
Abstract in English:Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed exclusively vegetable diets and diets containing animal meal with the addition of creatine or not after day 8. In the experiment, 1080 one-day-old male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into six treatments with six replicates each. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated, to which animal meals and creatine were included or not. Diets were formulated to contain equal mineral (calcium, phosphorus and sodium) and amino acid (available methionine + cystine, lysine and threonine) levels. The following treatments were applied: A. control (diet based on corn and soybean meal); B. control + creatine (600g/ton); C. inclusion of 5% meat and bone meal (MBM), D. inclusion of 5% MBM + creatine (600g/ton), E. inclusion of 5% blood meal (BM), F. inclusion 5% BM + creatine (600g/ton). Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass yield and viability were evaluated. At 42 days of age, BM dietary inclusion impaired weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The inclusion of MBM affected only feed conversion ratio. The addition of creatine ito the diet with BM improved weight gain when compared with the BM diet with no creatine. The addition of creatine to the diet containing 5% BM improved weight gain when compared with the same diet without the use of the additive.
Abstract in English:In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the efficacy of training of catching teams and reduction of back scratches in broilers. The study was carried out in a large broiler company between January and October of 2010, in the region of Dourados, Brazil. During that period, 80 samplings were performed in 80 broiler houses in the micro-regions covered by the company. When broilers were 43 days old, when 5% of the birds in each house were evaluated immediately after catching, when birds were already inside the plastic crates, ready to be transported to the processing plant. Out of a total number of 1,177,600 total, 58,880 broilers were evaluated. Four catching teams (A, B, C, and D), with 24 people each, were trained for four consecutive weeks. By the end of the training course, it was observed that average age of the team members and time of catching affected the incidence of back scratches. Training had a positive effect, reducing in 33.13% the incidence if back scratches caused by the catching team due to incorrect catching procedures. Therefore, continuous training is required, particularly when the catching teams are composed of young and inexperienced workers.