Abstract in English:Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.
Abstract in English:Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44%) strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36%) strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28%) strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12%) strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.
Abstract in English:An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment in a free-range chicken production system on live performance as a function of microclimate, physiological parameters, and performance parameters. Four production modules were divided into four pens with 10 birds each, totaling 60 birds. The following treatments were applied: access to a paddock (TEST), access to a paddock with perches (PER), access to a paddock with artificial shade (SHA), and access to the paddock with perches and artificial shade (PESH). The PESH production module presented the best globe temperature (Tbg,ºC) and enthalpy (h, kJ/kg), and thereby, the best thermal environmental conditions, which ensured the longest permanence time of the birds in the paddock. The SHA and PESH modules promoted the lowest respiratory rate and shank and comb temperatures. Live performance was influenced by the presence of environmental enrichment (modules SHA and PESH), with the highest live weight (LW) and weight gain (WG) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI). Parts yield, such as giblets, were not influenced by production modules, except for PESH, which promoted higher offal weight. In general, chickens reared in enriched production modules presented greatest performance and comfort results and were considered close to optimal rearing conditions.
Abstract in English:Epididymal lithiasis (EL) histopathology is described using light and electronic microscopy in roosters (Gallus gallus domesticus) naturally affected by EL in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The histologic and morphological changes by EL in roosters was performed regarding cellular and subcellular details through light and electron microscopy. Efferent ductules epithelium lysosomal increase in size and numbers, membrane rupture, cellular vacuolation, ciliary loss, basal membrane degeneration, inflammatory reaction with mononuclear infiltrations, edema, epithelial and vascular endothelium losses were described. All industrial and freerange chickens showed EL in varying degrees in the efferent ductules (ED). However, ED altered areas did not correlate with the presence of luminal stones. Non-ciliated ED epithelium cells presented several atypically large lysosomes. Plicae loss and basal vacuoles were observed in the epithelium of dilated regions. Cellular cilia loss and apical cytoplasmic membrane rupture resulted in leakage of the cytoplasmic contents to the ED lumen, and ED epithelium desquamation occurred with or without lesion to the basal membrane. Basal membrane alterations were associated with profound sub-epithelial connective tissue damage. Aggregations of desquamated epithelium and spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of ED and compact aggregates were considered the basis for calculi formation. The widespread occurrence and high severity of EL lesions are indicative of the importance of EL as a cause of infertility in male chickens.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed at investigating the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP) and threonine (Thr) levels on the performance, immune responses and jejunal morphology of broiler chicks. A total of 432 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments including three different CP dietary levels (90, 95, and 100% of Ross 308 recommendations) and Thr (100, 110, and 120% of Ross specifications) dietary levels. Performance parameters were recorded for the starter (1-12 days), grower (13-24 days) and finisher (25-42 days) periods. Birds were subjected to different antigen inoculations to evaluate antibody responses. At day 42 of age, two randomly-selected birds per replicate were slaughtered to measure carcass traits. Although Thr dietary supplementation had no marked effect on Newcastle antibody titers, particularly the supplementation of Thr up to 110% of Ross specifications improved (p<0.05) antibody titers against sheep red blood cells during both primary and secondary responses. Reduction of dietary CP level resulted in significant decrease in villus height (p<0.05) and crypt depth (p<0.01) in jejunal epithelial cells, but the supplementation of low-CP diets with Thr up to 110 and 120% of the recommended values allowed overcoming these changes. Except for the starter period, reducing dietary CP level to 90% of Ross recommendations had no harmful effects on performance parameters; however, the best values were obtained with diets containing 110% Thr. The present results indicate that it is possible to reduce dietary CP level up to 10% after the starter period without any detrimental impact on growth performance, and dietary Thr supplementation up to 110% of Ross values may compensate for low CP-induced growth delay in broiler chicks.
Abstract in English:Salmonella is traditionally identified by conventional microbiological tests, but the enumeration of this bacterium is not used on a routine basis. Methods such as the most probable number (MPN), which utilize an array of multiple tubes, are time-consuming and expensive, whereas miniaturized most probable number (mMPN) methods, which use microplates, can be adapted for the enumeration of bacteria, saving up time and materials. The aim of the present paper is to assess two mMPN methods for the enumeration of Salmonella sp in artificially-contaminated chicken meat samples. Microplates containing 24 wells (method A) and 96 wells (method B), both with peptone water as pre-enrichment medium and modified semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) as selective enrichment medium, were used. The meat matrix consisted of 25g of autoclaved ground chicken breast contaminated with dilutions of up to 10(6) of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli (EC). In method A, the dilution 10-5 of Salmonella Typhimurium corresponded to >57 MPN/mL and the dilution 10-6 was equal to 30 MPN/mL. There was a correlation between the counts used for the artificial contamination of the samples and those recovered by mMPN, indicating that the method A was sensitive for the enumeration of different levels of contamination of the meat matrix. In method B, there was no correlation between the inoculated dilutions and the mMPN results.
Abstract in English:Modern broilers have been submitted to continuous genetic improvement, and therefore, their nutritional requirements must be constantly updated to ensure their performance. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate different digestible lysine levels for starter (1021 days) and grower (22-35 days) phases. The experiments were carried out with male and female Cobb 500 broilers, distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 increasing digestible lysine levels x 2 sexes), totaling 10 treatments, with 8 replicates of 22 and 20 birds during the starter and grower phase, respectively. Digestible lysine levels of 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24, and 1.30 were used in the starter diets (10-21 days) and 0.9, 0.98, 1.04, 1.10, and 1.16% in the grower diets (22-35 days). Based on the statistical analyses of the evaluated performance parameters, digestible lysine requirements for maximum performance were determined as 1.22% for males and 1.24% for females in the starter phase, and 1.16% for both sexes in the grower phase. Carcass and performance results indicate that digestible lysine requirements vary with sex and evaluated production parameter. Considering the most relevant broiler production parameters, in 22- to 35-d-old males, digestible lysine requirement for breast meat yield (1.16%) was higher than those for feed conversion ratio (1.07%) and weight gain (1.05%).
Abstract in English:This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different linseed oil levels (0.0, 3.3, 6.6, or 9.9%) in iso-energy diets fed during the period of 21 to 56 days of age on the performance, carcass traits, and body composition of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design consisting of four treatments with eight replicates of 40 birds per experimental unit. In the period of 21-42 days of age, weight gain increased, feed and calorie conversion ratios quadratically improved, and feed and metabolizable energy intakes linearly increased as dietary linseed oil level increased. Considering the entire experimental period, dietary linseed oil linearly increased weight gain and feed and energy intakes, and feed and calorie conversion ratios in a quadratic manner. On days 42 and 56, abdominal fat percentage and carcass yield were quadratically influenced by dietary linseed oil. Total body fat content at 56 days of age was quadratically influenced by dietary linseed levels.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers) with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p<0.05). There was no influence (p>0.05) of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05) under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05) between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to determine the selection of bedding material by broiler chickens during the rearing period and whether the choice was determinant to their performing a specific behavior. To achieve this objective, a choice test was designed. A choice pen was constructed where birds could move freely around the four selected materials (straw, wood shavings, rice hulls and sand). Chickens were introduced in this pen in four groups of eight birds, three days a week for one hour per day and group, for four weeks. The location and the activity performed by each broiler were recorded every five minutes. Results showed a preference for sand compared with the other three substrates. However, differences between the behaviors performed in each bedding material were shown mainly for resting (preferably performed on wood shavings and straw), dust bathing (on sand), pecking and scratching (on rice hulls). Other factors, such as the time of day, were also found to have effects on fighting and drinking, and changes in behavioral patterns (resting, preening, eating, standing and pecking) were also detected as broilers grew older.
Abstract in English:This study was conducted to determine the interference of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (sLPS) on the performance, biological parameters, and histological evaluations of 198 one-day-old male broiler chickens divided into three treatments according to sLPS dose (0, 250, or 500 µg/application/bird) that was applied to the birds every other day, from 15 to 27 days of age. At the end of the experiment (28 days), significant effects were observed on body weight (R= -0.17 and P=0.05), total cholesterol serum levels(R=0.43 and p<0.01), phosphorus (R=0.53 and P<0.01), uric acid (R= -0.38 and P<0.01), C-reactive protein (R=0.68 and p<0.01), serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (R=0.39 and p<0.01) and alkaline phosphatase (R= -0.39 and p<0.01). According to these results, sLPS mainly affect broiler biological parameters, but also their live performance.
Abstract in English:A total of 1.500 male Cobb 500 broilers were used to determine the optimal digestible lysine level for 18 to 40-day-old broilers. The experimental period started when broilers were 18 days old and had an initial average weight of 737 ± 20 g. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, with five lysine levels, totaling five treatments with 10 replicates of 30 birds each. The experimental diets contained equal energy and protein levels, and 0.86, 0.95, 1.04, 1.13, and 1.22% digestible lysine. The following parameters were evaluated: average body weight at 40 days of age, daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield and parts yield, and abdominal fat percentage. There was a quadratic effect (p<0.05) of digestible lysine levels on average body weight at 40 days of age, daily weight gain, and breast yield, and a cubic effect on feed conversion ratio and abdominal fat. There was no influence of lysine levels of daily feed intake, carcass yield, leg, or wing yields. It was concluded that digestible lysine requirements for male broilers during the evaluated period was 1.22% for performance and 1.04% for carcass yield.
Abstract in English:Recently, organic broiler chicken production has received more attention worldwide. This study has carried out an economic analysis to compare the profitability of organic versus conventional growing systems per unit of broiler meat production. To achieve this goal, 400 slow-growing broiler chickens (Hubbard Red-JA) were reared in an organic production system, and the same number of fast-growing birds (Ross-308) in a conventional system. The profitability was deduced with an economic analysis that compared total costs and net income. Results showed that organic broiler meat can cost from 70% to 86% more with respect to variable and fixed costs when compared with conventional production. The main reasons for the higher cost of organic broiler meat were feed, labor, certification, and outdoor area maintenance. The proportion of fixed costs in total costs was 1.54% in the conventional system and 7.48% in the organic system. The net income per kg of chicken meat in the organic system was € 0.75, which is 180% higher than chicken meat grown in a conventional system (€ 0.27); however, the price of organic broiler meat sold in the present study was twice as high as that obtained for conventional broilers. In conclusion, organic broiler meat production was more profitable than conventional rearing.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the metabolic response of broilers fed diets containing increasing crude glycerine levels in two bioassays. Birds were house in metabolic cages, and were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments of 4 replicates each (1st assay: 5 birds/ cage; 2nd assay: 1-20 days = 8 birds/ cage, and 21-42 days = 4 birds/cage). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and four other diets containing 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% glycerine derived from biodiesel. In experiment I, there was no effect (p>0.05) of glycerol level on liver weight or blood parameters. Serum blood glycerol levels of the birds fed 10% crude glycerine increased during the first nine days of diet intake (p<0.05). In experiment II, water intake increased (p<0.05) in the birds fed 7.5 and 10.0% crude glycerine at 4 and 8 days of age. Feed intake increased (p<0.05) on days 8 and 12 in birds fed 2.5 and 7.5% glycerine. Fecal moisture increased (p<0.05) in birds fed diets with 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0% crude glycerine on days 16 and 20. Ileal content moisture was not different (p>0.05) among treatments when birds were 42 days old. High dietary glycerine levels may induce metabolic change in broilers, such as increased blood glycerol level, water intake and fecal moisture.
Abstract in English:An experiment was carried out to determine the chemical composition, metabolizable energy values, and coefficients of nutrient digestibility of corn germ meal for layers. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was determined, and then a metabolism assay was performed to determine its apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) values and its dry matter and gross energy apparent metabolizability coefficients (CAMDM and CAMGE, respectively). In the 8-day assay (four days of adaptation and four days of total excreta collection), 60 29-week-old white Lohman LSL layers were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with three treatments with five replicates of four birds each, was applied. Treatments consisted of a reference diet and two test diets, containing 20 or 30% corn germ meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey tests at 5% probability level. The chemical composition of corn germ meal was: 96.39% dry matter, 49.48% ether extract, 1.87% ashes, 7243 kcal gross energy/kg, 11.48% protein, 0.19% methionine, 0.21% cystine, 0.48% lysine, 0.40% threonine, 0.72% arginine, 0.35% isoleucine, 0.83% leucine, 0.57% valine, and 0.37% histidine, on as-fed basis. There were no statistical differences in AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values with the inclusion of 20 and 30% corn germ meal in the diets. On dry matter basis, AME, AMEn, CAMDM, and CAMGE values of corn germ meal were: 4,578 and 4,548 kcal/kg, 4,723 and 4,372 kcal/kg, 64.95 and 61.86%, respectively.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the financial performance of broiler chicken production in Southwest of Paraná state in Brazil, as well as to study the relationship of these factors with the social-economic situation of poultry farmers. Data were obtained from a questionnaire applied to broiler chicken farmers between February and March, 2011. The questionnaire included 39 questions relative to farmer's age, family size, land possession, capital invested in broiler farming, gross income per flock, training and broiler farming experience, production size, credit needs, technical service, labor, production problems, and bird weight at slaughter. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The relationship between production data and financial performance was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient, at 95% confidence level. Approximately 64.84% of the interviewed broiler farmers in Paraná state presented medium to low financial performance. Factors such as education level, facility size, labor, gross income per flock, and average bird weight at slaughter had a positive impact on financial performance. The production problems that most affected the broiler production were environmental challenges, poor feed conversion, as well as management problems and low-quality chicks.