Abstract in English:Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents frequently used in poultry production and in human medicine. The use of such substances must comply with safety criteria, including withdrawal periods, doses, and treatment duration, as their misuse and abuse may cause bacterial resistance and the presence of residues in edible tissues. Consequently, the consumption of animal products with fluoroquinolone residues may result in the transmission of resistant bacteria. In addition, if residues are beyond the acceptable levels, fluoroquinolone active metabolites are harmful to human health. This article presents a review on the use of antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone class in poultry production, focusing on the development of bacterial resistance to these drugs and the presence of their residues in poultry products.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the economic efficiency of broiler breeder production using the analysis of stochastic profit frontier function. Data were collected in 48 broiler breeder farms contracted by a commercial company located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The collected data refer to the last batch of fertile eggs that was delivered to the company, between January, 2008, and July, 2009. The following parameters were evaluated: production of hatching eggs per hen (number of eggs/hen), hatchability (hatch %), feed intake per hatching egg (g feed/ egg), production scale (number of birds/batch), farmer's experience in production activities, and labor type. Factors, such as area of occupied land, electricity costs, and invested capital were also evaluated. Results showed that the cost of electricity, as well as area of occupied land, production scale, and feed intake per hatching egg significantly affect the economic efficiency of the broiler breeder farms in Southwestern Paraná, Brazil.
Abstract in English:An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary nutrients (protein, methionine, and choline) manipulation on the performance and tibia characteristics of broilers fed diets containing 15% oak acorn. A completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates of 15 chicks each, was used. One group was fed a diet based on corn (without oak acorn) as control and other four groups were fed diets containing oak acorn with one of the following nutrient manipulation: without nutrient manipulation, high level of methionine (100% more than NRC), high level of CP (10% more than NRC), and addition of 0.2% choline. Starter and finisher diets were fed from one to 21 and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively. The results indicated that group fed diet without nutrient manipulation presented higher feed intake and worse feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) compared with the control group throughout the experiment. Elevated levels of methionine, protein, and choline had significant beneficial effects on feed conversion ratio during starter phase. Feeding oak acorn negatively influenced tibia bone characteristics (bone ash and strength) both at 21 and 42 d of age, whereas the supplementation with protein, methionine and choline prevented those negative effects. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of 15% oak acorn had negative effects on broiler performance and tibia characteristics. Detrimental effects of oak acorn, particularly on tibia bone, were reduced or prevented by increasing the dietary levels of choline, methionine, and protein.
Abstract in English:Enzyme supplementation of diets enhances broiler performance by improving some of the basic production parameters such as average feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or average weight gain. The enzyme NSPase is commonly used in broiler diets containing high levels of viscous cereals such as barley, oat, wheat, or sorghum. The use of NSPase in diets with different levels of sunflower meal has been not been extensively explored. The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of sunflower meal levels in grower and finisher broiler diets supplemented or not with enzymes (cellulase, β-glucanase, and xylanase) on broiler performance, intestinal function, and carcass traits. A completely randomized experimental design, with 3*2 factorial arrangement with five replicates, was applied (1200 Ross 308 broilers). Sunflower meal inclusion and enzyme supplementation started in grower phase. Broiler performance significantly improved in grower phase (weight gain and feed conversion ratio) by enzyme supplementation, while the effect of sunflower meal was evident in finisher phase, when it significantly reduced weight gain. Sunflower meal increased ileal viscosity, and the interaction between diet and enzyme supplementation was statistically significant. Maltase activity was reduced with sunflower meal dietary inclusion, while enzyme supplementation had no effect either on maltase or sucrase activity. There were no any effects of sunflower meal inclusion with or without enzyme supplementation on carcass characteristics. It can be concluded that high inclusion of sunflower meal in broiler diets may impair broiler performance, but this may be overcome by enzyme supplementation. The effect of enzyme supplementation more evident in the grower phase than in the finisher phase.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating bacterial shedding, as detected in swabs, feces, and eggs of quails submitted to forced molting by feed fasting and experimentally infected with a Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) strain. In the experiment, 84 40-week-old Italian female quails were distributed in the following groups: FI (quails induced to molt by fasting and inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis - SE); CI (quails fed with a laying diet and inoculated with SE); FNI (quails induced to molt by fasting and not inoculated with SE); and CNI (quails fed with a laying feed and not inoculated with SE). Feces, cloacal swabs, and eggs were collected on day 1, 3, 7 and 14 post-inoculation (dpi) and submitted to bacteriological analyses. All samples obtained from cloacal swabs were negative for SE. None of the quails of the non-inoculated groups (FNI and CNI) were positive for SE in the fecal samples. Among the inoculated quails, the FI group presented significantly higher (p< 0.05) SE shedding in the feces on 1 dpi than the CI group. On 4 dpi, no significant difference was observed (p< 0.05) in SE shedding between the inoculated quail groups. On 7 dpi, only the FI group shed SE in the feces, whereas on 14 dpi, none of the groups shed SE. According to the results, we concluded that quails submitted to molting by fasting have higher possibility of shedding SE in the feces.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to determine the critical points of the operation of broiler catching for transport to the processing plant from animal and operational perspectives. During catching, chickens, environmental variables (temperature and relative humidity) were constantly monitored to determine the Enthalpy Comfort Index (IEC). Also, the physiological variable rectal temperature (RT) was monitored as an indicator of stress suffered by the birds during this handling procedure. Bird welfare were evaluated by analyzing their behavior. The bag method was effective to prevent the struggling of birds while being taken from the broiler house to the transport truck, reducing physical injuries and losses during catching.
Abstract in English:The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of a heat-resistant bacterial phytase added to pelleted diets on mineral digestibility, live performance, carcass traits, and bone quality of broilers. Three treatments were evaluated: Positive control; negative control, with 0.10 points reduction in calcium level and 0.15 points reduction in available phosphorus level; and negative control + phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Mineral digestibility and bone quality results demonstrated that the evaluated phytase resisted pelleting as it increased the utilization of the minerals present in the diet.
Abstract in English:The influence of age (85, 140, and 270 days) of European quails breeders on the egg quality and hatching, fertility and progeny performance was evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (females' age x males' age), with ten replicates and six birds per experimental unit (four females and two males). Egg production and quality were determined during 3 periods of 14 days and incubation parameters were evaluated in eggs obtained in five consecutive days. The live performance of the progenies was analyzed until 35 days. There was no effect of male age or any interaction between the age of males and females for the evaluated variable. The female's age influenced egg production, egg weight and chick weight, with better results obtained for 140-d-old breeders. The age of females reduced the hatchability, increased the late mortality in incubated eggs, and had no effect on fertility, total embryo mortality or eggshell structure, when analyzed by electron microscopy. The number of sperm trapped in the outer perivitelline layer (sptz/mm²) was determined in 10 fertile eggs per experimental unit. Young females fertilized by young males (80 days) had reduced sptz/mm². Progeny live performance was not affected by breeder's age. Breeders with 270 days retain fertility; however, their egg production, weight and hatchability of fertilized eggs is reduced. In conclusion, European quail breeders with 140 days of age have better egg quality, hatching and breeding results.
Abstract in English:Avian salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis are infectious diseases that, in addition of causing lack of flock uniformity, represent a hazard to human health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of mycoplasmosis and salmonellosis in commercial broilers, backyard chickens, and spent hens slaughtered at a processing plant with local health inspection in Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. A total of 210 samples were randomly collected at the time of bleeding. Samples were submitted to rapid plate serum agglutination test (RSA) for the classification of Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. In order to increase result specificity, mycoplasmosis-positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). No samples presented detectable antibodies against Salmonella pullorum or Salmonella gallinarum in the RSA test. Only Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in 14% of the backyard chickens and 0.74% in commercial broilers, whereas no antibodies were detected in spent hens. The seroprevalence rates found in the present study emphasize the need of keeping chicken flocks free from disease using effective biosafety systems.
Abstract in English:This experiment aimed at evaluating the influence of the supplementation of digestible lysine and digestible arginine at different ratios in the diet fed to layers between 24 to 44 weeks of age on egg quality. In total,320 Lohmann LSL laying hens were allotted according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 4factorial arrangement, consisting of two digestible lysine levels (700 or 900 mg/kg of diet) and four digestible arginine levels (700, 800, 900,or 1000 mg/kg of diet). Diets contained, therefore, digestible Lys:Arg ratios of 100, 114, 128, and 142 when the diet contained 700 mg digestible lysine per kg of diet, and 78, 89, 100, and 111 when 900 mg digestible lysine per kg was supplemented. The data obtained with digestible arginine levels were fitted to polynomial regression equations, and with digestible lysine, the F test (5% probability) was used to compare the means. The following variables were evaluated: egg weight; internal egg quality (yolk percentage and index, albumen percentage, Haugh units), eggshell quality (specific gravity andeggshell percentage); and whole egg, albumen, and yolk solids content. Digestible lysine and arginine interaction did not affect egg quality. Increasing levels of digestible lysine and arginine reduced eggshell quality and albumen solids, respectively. The levels of these amino acids suggested to improveegg quality are 700 mg digestible lysine and 700 mg digestible arginine/kg of feed at a Dig Lys: Dig Arg ratio of 100.
Abstract in English:The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r) broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.
Abstract in English:In this study, Dioxy MP 14, a locally developed form of chlorine dioxide, was tested in a commercial chicken pen to determine its effectiveness as an airborne environmental sanitizing agent. The biocide was introduced via an overhead misting system with a variable dosing pump. The extent of airborne microbial control was determined with settle plates. Performance and mortality rate of the chickens in the experimental pen was compared to that in the control pen. Results show a decrease in airborne microbial load and a significantly higher egg productivity rate at a 5% level in the treated pen. However, no significant difference in mortality rates between the two pens was observed.
Abstract in English:Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA). Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating the effects of whole and ground sorghum, compared with ground corn, on the live weight, feed conversion ratio, organs weight and intestinal biometrics and histomorphometrics. In total, 960 Hubbard Flex broilers were reared until 42-day-old and distributed into 24 pens, according to the three treatments: ground corn, whole-grain sorghum, and ground sorghum. On day 42, five male birds per treatment were selected by similar body weight and sacrificed. Gizzard absolute weight, and proventriculus, liver, pancreas and heart relative weights, and duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon length and relative weight were determined. Villus characteristics and intestinal mucosa absorption surface area were evaluated. Broilers fed sorghum, independently of physical form, were heavier and had greater feed conversion ratio than those fed ground corn. Gizzard showed the highest relative weight in broilers fed whole sorghum compared to corn. Liver and jejunum relative weight was higher in broilers fed ground corn, compared to ground sorghum. Whole small intestine, cecum and colon relative lengths showed no difference among treatments. Deeper crypts were found in the duodenum of broilers fed whole grain sorghum, compared to ground sorghum, as well as in jejunum compared to ground corn; however, intestinal absorption surface area was not different among treatments. Whole or ground grain sorghum may replace corn in the feed of 1- to 42-d-old broilers, since they improve body weight and feed conversion ratio, and not adversely affect intestinal morphometry and organs weight.
Abstract in English:This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP) concentration for optimum growth performance and carcass characteristics of Lueyang black-boned chicken. In total, six hundred 42-day-old Lueyang black-boned chicks were randomly assigned to five treatments, each with six replicate pens with ten males and ten females. The birds fed experimental diets with different levels of protein concentration of 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 g kg-1 from seven to twelve weeks of age respectively. On day of 84, weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were measured, and two chickens (one male and one female) close to the average weight of all birds in each treatment were selected from each pen and sacrificed to evaluate carcass traits and selected serum biochemical indexes. Dietary CP concentration did not have any significant influence on feed intake (p>0.05). The birds fed the diet with 180 or 160 g kg-1 CP concentration exhibited greater (p<0.05) growth rate, better feed conversion ratio, relative breast weight and albumin concentration in serum than that of those fed other dietary CP concentrations. According to the results of regression analysis, the CP requirements of Lueyang black-boned chicken from seven to twelve weeks of age for optimal weight gain and feed:gain ratio were 174 and 170 g kg-1, respectively.
Abstract in English:Two experiments were simultaneously carried out to compare feed formulation models: a linear model for minimum cost with a nonlinear model for maximum profitability for one-to 42-d-old broilers. One-d-old male or female Cobb 500 broilers (n=2368) were allocated to one of the two trials according to sex. The experiments were performed simultaneously in an experimental poultry farm. Two housing densities were used: high density (HDH), with 14 birds/m2, and low density (LDH), with 10 birds/m2. The following treatments were evaluated: linear feed formulation and LDH (LF10); nonlinear formulation and LDH (NF10); linear formulation and HDH (LF14); and nonlinear formulation and HDH (NF14). A completely randomized design with four treatments of eight replicates each was applied. Performance and cost per kg of poultry were evaluated. Both formulation systems promoted similar broiler performance. However, the high-density feed using linear formulation reduced body weight in 42-d-old males, but not when nonlinear formulation was used. The NF10 treatment yielded the worst feed conversion ratio (p<0.05) and the lowest cost/kg broiler (p<0.05) for both sexes. The results demonstrate that the nutritional program that yields the best performance is not always the most economical one.
Abstract in English:Infectious laryngotracheitis is a very important respiratory disease because it causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The target of ILTV infections is the respiratory system, and the main organ in which the virus remains latent is the trigeminal ganglia. However, the virus has demonstrated tropism for other organs as well. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) in the state of São Paulo. Samples submitted to LABOR- USP during the last four years (2009-2013) analyzed by a nested/PCR technique. Out of the 682 samples from layers tested for LTIV, 12.46 % were positive, and derived from in both traditional (trachea and trigeminal ganglion) and untraditional (cecal tonsils, digestive tract and kidneys) organs utilized for ILTV diagnosis. The present work showed that ILTV is circulating in commercial layer flocks in São Paulo State, and that the LTIV is present in other organs in addition to the respiratory tract and trigeminal ganglion; however, it was not determined if the circulating virus is a vaccinal or field strain.