Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 18, Issue: 3, Published: 2016
  • Risk of Incidence of Hock Burn and Pododermatitis in Broilers Reared under Commercial Conditions REVIEW

    Jacob, FG; Baracho, MS; Nääs, IA; Lima, NSD; Salgado, DD; Souza, R

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The most common lesions observed in commercial broiler farms are hock burns and pododermatitis, defined as necrotic lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads and in the hock of growing broilers, causing pain and compromising broiler welfare. The present study aimed at identifying the risks of hock burns and pododermatitis in broilers reared under commercial conditions on new or reused litter. Twenty-four 40-d-old broilers reared in two houses in a commercial broiler farm. The plantar surface of the footpads and the hocks of broiler were recorded using infrared thermal images. The incidence of hock burns in broilers reared on new litter was 0.72 times lower than those on reused litter. Broilers reared on new litter presented lower risk (0.75, RR<1) of presenting pododermatitis when compared to those reared on reused litter. When simulating the risk using a larger sample, the simulated risk of broilers presenting footpad and hock lesions when reared on new litter was 38% higher those reared on reused litter.
  • COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT VACCINATION PROGRAMS AGAINST A VIRULENT FIELD STRAIN OF THE NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN BROILERS ARTICLES

    Sarcheshmei, M; Dadras, H; Mosleh, N; Mehrabanpour, MJ

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Despite the intensive vaccination programs used for controlling Newcastle disease (ND) in the Iranian poultry industry, outbreaks of ND have been reported in poultry farms. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines for the protection against ND infection and virus-shedding period of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) field strain after different immunization schemes. Eight groups of commercial broiler chickens were used. Six groups were vaccinated with different vaccination programs using commercial live and inactivated ND vaccines. All groups, except for group 8, were challenged with a virulent field isolate (104EID50/bird) at 28 days of age. Clinical signs, mortality rate and gross lesions were investigated. Antibody titers were assayed by hemagglutination inhibition test and fecal virus shedding was determined for 14 days post challenge (dpc) with 3-day intervals by the RT-PCR method. All unvaccinated-challenged control birds died. Vaccination with these ND vaccines protected chickens from clinical disease. The mortality rate in the vaccinated groups was significantly lower than in the positive control group. However, vaccinated chickens shed the challenge virus in fecal samples. Although the different vaccination regimens displayed close degrees of protection against the disease, the best protection was observed in broilers primed with the live B1 vaccine via eye drop simultaneously with inactivated vaccine at 8 days of age and boosted with B1 or LaSota via drinking water on day 18. In conclusion, the currently used vaccines with different vaccination schemes can protect chickens against the disease in areas where ND is endemic, while the spread of the field virus to other flocks cannot be prevented.
  • LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF A CYPERMETHRIN-BASED INSECTICIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF ALPHITOBIUS DIAPERINUS PANZER (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE) AND ITS IN-VITRO EFFECTS ON BEAUVERIA BASSIANA BALS. VUILL. (HYPOCREALES: CORDYCIPITACEAE) ARTICLES

    Oliveira, DGP; Cardoso, RR; Mamprim, AP; Angeli, LF

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The control of Alphitobius diaperinus is based mainly on chemical insecticides, and the indiscriminate and incorrect use of these products has led to failures in insect control. Thus, it is important to monitor the efficiency of the products available on the market and to develop alternative insect control strategies. The present study evaluated the effect of a new product (cypermethrin-6%) under laboratory and field conditions and assessed its in-vitro compatibility with the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Unioeste 4 isolate). Its efficiency in dry powder and wettable powder formulations was also assessed in the laboratory through comparison with a similar insecticide (cypermethrin-5%) at five different concentrations. The field assays were conducted in two commercial broiler breeder houses (Treated and Control), applying the new product on the litter at the manufacturer's recommended concentration (RC). Germination, vegetative growth, conidial production, number of colony forming units (CFUs) and insecticidal activity of the fungus were used to evaluate the compatibility of the insecticide. The effects of the cypermethrin-6% product and cypermethrin-5% were equivalent in the laboratory, and the new product exhibited better performance at lower concentrations (1/4RC, ⅛RC). The strategy applied in the field reduced the insect population in up to 96% after 75 days. Additionally, all concentrations of cypermethrin-6% were compatible with the fungus under the evaluated in-vitro conditions. Therefore, the new product is considered selective for B. bassiana. Further studies are necessary to assess its compatibility under field conditions, consolidating this strategy as a viable alternative for managing this pest.
  • DIGESTIBLE VALINE REQUIREMENTS IN LOW-PROTEIN DIETS FOR BROILERS CHICKS ARTICLES

    Nascimento, GR; Murakami, AE; Ospina-Rojas, IC; Diaz-Vargas, M; Picoli, KP; Garcia, RG

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age), starter (9 to 21 d of age) and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age). A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+) and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p.) reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val), with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05) the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05) muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05) carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.
  • SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL ARTICLES

    Guimarães, MB; Hurtado, R; Bello, CP; Vanstreels, RET; Ferreira, AJP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%), saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola) (22%), and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti) (15%). These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%), were infested with feather mites (43%), or presented both conditions (23%). No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.
  • Insulin Promotes the Expression of the Gluconeogenic Rate-Limiting Enzymes Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (Pepck) and Glucose 6-Phosphatase (G6pase) through PI3k/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Goose Hepatocytes ARTICLES

    Xiong, XP; Song, Q; Han, CC; Gan, W; He, F; Wei, SH; Liu, HH; Xu, HY

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To identify what makes insulin have an activating or inhibiting role in gluconeogenesis in goose hepatocytes and whether insulin regulates PEPCK and G6Pase through the PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway or not, goose primary hepatocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. After 12h cultured in serum-free medium, hepatocytes were incubated for 24 h in the medium with no addition (control) or with the addition of50, 100, and 150 nM of insulin, 1000 nM NVP-BEZ235, or co-addition of 150nM insulin and 1000nM NVP-BEZ235. Glucose concentration and PEPCK and G6Pase expression were determined. The results showed that PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA levels and activities were up regulated in the 50, 100, and 150nM insulin treatments, while glucose concentration was not significantly altered (p> 0.05). Compared with the activation role of 150nM insulin alone, the co-treatment with1000nM NVP-BEZ235 and 150nM insulin significantly down regulated PEPCK mRNA level and G6Pase protein activity (p< 0.05). However, there is a different result on mRNA level of G6Pase. In conclusion, G6Pase and PEPCK are up regulated by insulin through PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway in goose hepatocytes. However, G6Pase mRNA and protein levels may be regulated by insulin through different signaling pathways.
  • ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN SELECTED AREAS OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT WITH THE USE OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL AIR SAMPLER ARTICLES

    Konieczny, P; Cegielska-Radziejewska, R; Mroczek, E; Dziedzic, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the air quality in selected production facilities specified as the so-called "high-risk zones". Air samples were analyzed using either the sedimentation or the impaction methods. The impaction method showed the applicability of the air sampler in in-situ measurements. An increase in the numbers of aerobic bacteria was observed in most air sample collection sites as the duration of the production time increased. At the three successive dates, it amounted to 163 cfu/m3, 205 cfu/m3, and 324 cfu/m3, respectively. Such dependence was not observed by the of sedimentation method. It was stated that the impaction technique is better to precisely determine numbers of bacteria, yeast, and molds in the air of poultry processing areas. Analyses showed a high level of microbial air contamination in the examined production areas in relation to the guidelines applied in the assessment of indoor air contamination. Based on the recorded results, it was recommended to undertake immediate corrective actions, consisting in the replacement of filters in the refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, as well as to provide comprehensive training for the employees working in the selected facilities.
  • THE EFFECT OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. ETHANOL EXTRACTION ON THE PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL INDEXES OF THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF BROILERS REARED UNDER HEAT STRESS ARTICLES

    Khodadadi, M; Mousavinasab, SS; Khamesipour, F; Katsande, S

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The use of compounds with antioxidant properties as a source of phelanoeid compounds is highly recommendable in the poultry industry. Therefore, the effect of Cichorium intybus L. herb on pathobiochemical indexes of chicken under heat stress was studied. After exposure to heat stress (from day 21 to day 42 of growth), hydroalcoholic extraction was provided to 270 broiler chicks randomly divided into six groups and placed in two distinct poultry houses (heat stress and normal conditions). The three groups were recipient group of Cichorium intybus L. (1); recipient group of vitamin C (2) and control group (3). The birds in one of the houses were exposed to heat stress conditions (35 °C for 8 hours) for a time period between 22 to 42 days and the birds in the other house were reared under normal conditions (20-22°C) for the same time period. Blood samples collected from the birds showed that Cichorium intybus L. herb caused significant decrease in uric acid, Triglyceride, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total body clearance factors (CL- factors) and right ventricular failure index (RVF) and significant increase in K+ under heat stress condition (p< 0.05). Vitamin C caused significant decrease in uric acid, ALT, CL- factors and RVF index and significant increase in K+ and Na+ under heat stress condition (p< 0.05). A significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride in recipient group of Cichorium intybus L was observed compared to the recipient group of vitamin C under heat stress condition (p< 0.05). In a pathologic examination normal observations were in recipient group of Cichorium intybus L and recipient group of vitamin C compared to the control group. According to this study, use of Cichorium intybus L extract and vitamin C in chicken under heat stress induced improvement in liver, kidney activity and fat metabolism.
  • Effects of the Addition of Pure Glycerin Supplementation in the Drinking Water on the Performance of Broilers Submitted to Heat Stress and Feed Restriction ARTICLES

    Moraes, PO; Ceron, MS; Borille, R; Gianluppi, RDF; Lovato, GD; Cardinal, KM; Ribeiro, AML

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The experiment was conducted to study the effect of pure glycerin supplementation (GLYC) in the drinking water of broilers subjected to heat stress and feed restriction. Water with 0, 1, or 2% glycerin was provided ad libitum to broilers in six hours of feed restriction. The birds were housed in two environments: thermoneutral (TN) - 25 ° C, and cyclic heat stress (HS) - 12h with 250C, 6h with 320C, 3h of 250 to 320C and 3h of 320 to 250C. The experimental design was randomized in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 3 + 2, with three GLYC levels, two environments and one control group with ad libitum feeding each environment. When submitted to HS, broiler receiving 2% glycerin presented higher weight gain (WG), water consumption (WC), feed intake (FI) and energy consumption (EI) than those in the other treatments, contrarily to birds in TN, where increasing GLYC levels decreased those responses. Broilers submitted to feed restriction presented reduced FI, but better feed conversion (FCR), independently of rearing environment or GLYC levels. Broilers under HS submitted to feed restriction and receiving 2% GLYC presented higher WC (p< 0.05) and similar WG as the controls, differently from the restricted-fed broilers under TN receiving 2% GLYC, which WC and WG were lower than the controls. The inclusion of 2% pure glycerin in the drinking water may compensate the negative effects on performance caused by feed restriction in broilers submitted to heat stress.
  • Equilibrium Condition during Locomotion and Gait in Broiler Chickens ARTICLES

    Alves, MCF; Almeida Paz, ICL; Nääs, IA; Garcia, RG; Caldara, FR; Baldo, GAA; Nascimento, GR; Amadori, MS; Felix, GA; Garcia, EA; Molino, AR

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating a methodology to estimate the angulation and equilibrium condition, relating them to gait score and the main diseases of the locomotion system in males and females of commercial broiler strains. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2x2) was applied, consisting of two sexes and two genetic strains, with five replicates of 53 chickens each. The following characteristics related to broiler locomotion were studied: gait score (GS); incidence of Valgus (VAL) and Varus (VAR) deformities and of pododermatitis (POD); body angle relative the ground (ANG); equilibrium condition (EC); body weight (BW) and breast weight (BrW); and incidence of femoral degeneration (FD), tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) and spondylolisthesis (SPO). GS, and VAL and VAR were assessed inside a broiler house. Birds were then photographed to estimate ANG and EC. Birds were sacrificed at 42 days of age and analyzed for FD, TD, and SPO. Breast percentage was not influenced by sex or strain. Males showed better ANG than females, regardless of strain. Overall, the strains studied showed prostrated EC. The correlation between GS and the evaluated traits was low. There was a moderate to high association between EC and ANG both in males and females. GS showed low correlation with locomotion problems, and therefore, it is a poor indicator of skeletal diseases. On the other hand, the moderate to high correlations of ANG and EC with locomotion problems make them better indicators of bone diseases than gait score, which is possibly more related to EC and body posture than to bone pathologies.
  • EFFECTS OF GRADUAL FEED DILUTION WITH INERT OR LESS NUTRITIVE MATERIALS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, FEED COST AND MEAT ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF BROILER CHICKEN ARTICLES

    Atapattu, NSBM; Silva, LMS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the gradual dilution of broiler finisher diets with inert or less nutritive materials on growth performance, feed cost, and meat organoleptic properties. Broiler chicks (n=147) were allocated into 49 pens and fed a mash broiler finisher diet (control) or the control diet diluted either with cassava leaf meal (CLM), gliricidia leaf meal (GLM), grass meal (GM), rice bran (RB), sand (SND), or sawdust (SD). For a given diluent, six diets were prepared by mixing the control diet with the respective diluents (w/w) at 0% (fed from 27-28d),2% (fed from 29-30d), 4% (fed from 31-32d), 6% (fed from 33-34d), 8% (fed from 35-36d) and 10% (fed from 37-40d). SD, RB, GLM and GM significantly reduced the diluent-adjusted feed intake (total feed intake-diluent intake). Except for GLM and SD, other diluents resulted in similar weight gains as the control diet. The dietary dilution with rice bran reported the best feed conversion ratio (FCR) (1.91). The total feed cost of the birds fed control and sand diluted diet was higher (p< 0.001) than those fed other diets. Compared with the control diet, the gradual dilution of feed with RB and SND reduced the feed cost per kg of live weight gain by 12 and 10 Rs, respectively. Meat organoleptic properties of the birds fed RB diluted diet were similar to those of the control birds. It was concluded that gradual feed dilution with inert or less nutritive materials could be used as an alternative to conventional phase feeding. Among the tested materials, rice bran was identified as the best candidate for such gradual feed dilution programs.
  • Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid on Productive and Immune Parameters of Broilers ARTICLES

    Ocampo, CL; Gómez-Verduzco, G; Tapia-Perez, G; Gutierrez, OL; Sumano, LH

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Considering that glycyrrhizic acid (GRA) has been shown to have in-vitro and in-vivo antiviral activity against a wide range of viruses as well as immunostimulating activity, a trial to evaluate its effects on the performance and the immune response against Newcastle disease of broiler chickens was carried out. The study was performed with one-day-old Ross x Ross broiler chickens. GRA was added to the drinking water throughout the 49-d production cycle at a dose of 0.03%. Sample size of the trial was established in a pilot assay. Results showed that broiler chickens treated with GRA presented better weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, and lower mortality rate than the non-treated controls. In addition, GRA-treated birds presented higher antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and more efficient cellular immune response, as demonstrated by the late-hypersensitivity response test. Blood lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts also increased in this group. The histopathological examination of the bursa, spleen, and thymus revealed that only the thymus of the GRA-treated group had a clearly defined increase in cortex thickness on day 49. The bursa showed a higher number of lymphoid lesions in CG on days 21 and 49 compared with the GRA group. These results suggest that GRA has growth promotion properties, which are possibly linked to immune-based effects.
  • Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types ARTICLES

    Arguelo, NN; Garcia, ERM; Ferreira de Lara, JA; Ferraz, ALJ

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL) and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS). In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), water retention capacity (WRC), and lipid oxidation (TBARS) were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.
  • LIPID METABOLISM INDICES AND FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN THE BLOOD SERUM OF BROILER CHICKENS FED A DIET WITH LIGNOCELLULOSE ARTICLES

    Bogusławska-Tryk, M; Piotrowska, A; Szymeczko, R; Burlikowska, K; Głowińska, B

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to determine lipid metabolism indices and fatty acid profile in the blood serum of Ross 308 chickens (n = 48), fed a finisher mixture supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% of lignocellulose. The feeding trial lasted from 21 to 42 d of the birds' age. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at 42d of age from the pterygoid canal vein. In the blood serum the content of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TCHOL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The fatty acids concentration was estimated with the use of the gas chromatography method. Lignocellulose in doses of 0.5 and 1.0% significantly reduced the concentration of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content was not affected by dietary treatments whereas lignocellulose significantly influenced the profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n-3 and n-6 families. Insoluble fiber decreased (p< 0.05) serum concentration of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and increased share of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3), dihomogammalinolenic acid (C20:3n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) in total PUFA, compared to the control birds. The results of the present study have shown that the incorporation of limited amounts of lignocellulose into the broiler diet can influence the lipid metabolism in the chickens.
  • ACTIVITY OF SOME BRAZILIAN ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST THE POULTRY RED MITE DERMANYSSUS GALLINAE DE GEER (ACARI: DERMANYSSIDAE) ARTICLES

    Kasburg, CR; Alves, LFA; Oliveira, DGP; Rohde, C

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a cosmopolitan and hematophagous species commonly found in layer houses around the world. Poultry mite infestations may cause anemia, stress, low body weight and egg production, and mortality. Mite control is typically based on chemical products, but they are not effective and leave residues in eggs; therefore, alternative control methods, such as entomopathogenic fungi, need to researched. This study aimed at evaluating, in the laboratory, the activity of Brazilian isolates of entomopathogenic fungi against D. gallinae. The mites were collected from a commercial layer house and were sprayed with conidial suspensions (1 × 108 conidia/mL) of five isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. All tested isolates were pathogenic for the red mite, with confirmed mortality ranging from 22.9 to 52.4%. This demonstrate the potential of the tested entomopathogenic fungi isolates for mite control, and reinforces the need for further studies with other isolates, application strategies, and with fungal formulations.
  • Footpad Dermatitis in Broilers: Differences between Strains and Gender ARTICLES

    Martins, BB; Martins, MRFB; Mendes, AA; Fernandes, BCS; Aguiar, EF

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Pododermatitis, also known as "bumblefoot", is an inflammatory lesion of the footpad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic strain and sex on the incidence of footpad lesions in broilers. The experiment was carried out at São Paulo State University, using 480 broilers distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement (2 strains X2 sexes), with four replicates of 30 broilers each, totaling 16 experimental units. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and livability were evaluated at 21, 35 and 42 days of age; production efficiency factor was determined at the end of the rearing period. On day 42, the footpads of 100 broilers were grossly examined and assigned a lesion score in a 1-3 scale (Almeida Paz & Martins, 2014). Three samples per score within treatment were collected for microscopic evaluation. Analysis of variance was applied and performance parameter means were compared by Tukey's test. Footpad lesion incidence was analyzed by the c2 test using SAS (version8.2). Ross(r) broilers presented higher feed intake during all evaluated periods, and higher weight gain only in the period 1 to 21 days compared with Cobb(r) broilers. On the other hand, Cobb(r) presented better feed conversion ratio in the periods of 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days. The incidence of foot pad lesions was statistically different (p< 0.05) between strains and sexes, but there were no interactions between these factors. The lesion scores assigned were compatible with the histopathological results, showing that the higher the score, the more severe were the dermal and epidermal lesions.
  • Enzyme Complex Added to Broiler Diets: Effects on Performance, Metabolizable Energy Content, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance 1 ARTICLES

    Pessôa, GBS; Ribeiro, V; Albino, LFT; Araújo, WAG; Silva, DL; Hannas, MI; Rostagno, HS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Two trials were performed to evaluate the effects of an enzyme complex (EC) on broiler performance, metabolizable energy, and phosphorus and nitrogen balance. In the first trial, 960 one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (three nutritional levels and the inclusion or not of EC), totaling six treatments with eight replicates of 20 birds per pen, and reared until 42 days of age. The control diet was formulated to meet the broilers' nutritional requirements. The other diets contained reduced available phosphorus (P), metabolizable energy, and amino acid levels, considering 100% and 150% of the EC nutritional matrix. The inclusion of the EC (200 g/ton) resulted in better broiler performance, improving weight gain in 4% and feed conversion ratio in 3% (p< 0.05). In the second trial, 240 male broilers were randomly distributed into the same treatments with eight replicates of five birds per cage. The method of total excreta collection was used. There was an interaction (p< 0.05) between diets and EC for P intake, nitrogen (N) intake, and N retention. The EC supplementation improved nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values in 2.02% (p< 0.05). Significant effects were observed on phosphorus and nitrogen balance (p< 0.05). Phosphorus retention improved in 10.26%, nitrogen retention increased in 5.3%, while nitrogen excretion decreased in 3.3%. Based on the results of the present study, we recommend the addition of 200 g/t of the enzyme complex to broiler diets, considering nutrient reduction based on 100% of the EC nutritional matrix.
  • Experimental Coinfection of Chicken Anemia Virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum Vaccine Strains in Broiler Chicks ARTICLES

    Prezotto, CF; Marin, SY; Araújo, TS; Barbosa, FO; Barrios, PR; Gomes, AM; Peconick, AP; Resende, M; Sousa, RV; Martins, NRS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed at determining the clinical and pathological effects of the coinfection of young SPF chickens with chicken anemia virus (CAV) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains. The clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions were determined after the experimental coinfection broilers with a CAV genotype 1 vaccine strain given intraperitoneally on the first day of age and a MG F-strain vaccine given intranasally on the 8th day of age. The experimental groups included the negative control (group 1), a group infected with the MG F-strain vaccine (group 2), and a group coinfected with CAV and MG vaccines (group 3). Chicks were examined clinically and post mortem at 23 days of age, and gross and microscopic lesions of the trachea, thymus, and air sacs were compared among treatments (Kruskal-Wallis test). Infections were confirmed by PCR for specific genetic fragments of each agent in the target tissues. Mortality was only observed in chicks on group 3, with two deaths and more severe lesions in the trachea, thymus and air sacs compared with groups 1 and 2 (p< 0.01). Dead chicks presented reduced thymus and spleen size, hemorrhagic trachea with catarrhal exudate and partial obstruction, pericarditis, catarrhal airsacculitis, lungs with liquid and ascites. The surviving chicks in group 3 showed more severe respiratory changes than those in group 2, in addition to thymus and spleen size reduction. Results indicate the adverse effects of the coinfection of young chickens with MG F-strain and CAV genotype 1 vaccines.
  • Effect of Marination with Fruit and Vegetable Juice on the Some Quality Characteristics of Turkey Breast Meat ARTICLES

    Gök, V; Bor, Y

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effect of marination with antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetable juices, including black carrot juice, black mulberry juice, black grape and pomegranate juice, mixed vegetable juice (yellow carrot, tomato, zucchini, pepper, black carrot, cucumber and lettuce) for 24 and 48 hours on chemical, textural and sensorial properties of turkey breast meat was investigated. Moisture content of the samples marinated for 24 hours and cooked varied between 58.85 and 70.51%, with the control sample presenting the moisture highest value. The samples marinated in red grape juice for 48 hours had the highest cooking loss (49.11%), while the lowest cooking loss was recorded in the samples marinated in black carrot juice (40.61%). Moreover, the phenolic content of the samples marinated for 24 hours (250.12-1354.76 mg ga/L) was higher than those marinated for 48 hours (210.56-1156.43 mg ga/L). Reduced hardness values were obtained in turkey breast meat marinated in pomegranate (1.36 kg) and red grape (0.86 kg) juices, suggesting that these juices may potentially to be used as processing ingredients. Marination for 48 hours promoted better sensorial properties than marination for 24 hours.
  • EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TWO TYPES OF OLIVE PULP WITH OR WITHOUT EXOGENOUS ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC PARAMETERS ARTICLES

    Sayehban, P; Seidavi, A; Dadashbeiki, M; Ghorbani, A; Araújo, WAG; Albino, LFT

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effects of the dietary inclusion of olive pulp (OP) and supplementation birds with a commercial enzyme blend (ENZ) on the performance of broilers were evaluated. Six hundred one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were divided according to a completely randomized design into 10 treatments in a 2×2×2+2 factorial arrangement, consisting of two olive pulp levels (50 and 100 g/kg diet), two pulp categories (processed and non-processed), the inclusion or not of an enzyme blend supplement, and two control treatments without OP and the inclusion or not of the enzyme blend in the diet. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), energy intake (EI), energy efficiency (EE), protein intake (PI), protein efficiency (PE), feed cost per kg live weight (FC/kg), and production index (IP) were determined. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between broilers fed the OP diets and the control diets for all parameters. Processed OP improved FE (p≤ 0.019 from 1-21 days; p≤ 0.005 from 22-42 days; and p≤ 0.008 from 1-42 days of age) and EE (p≤ 0.012 from 1-21 days; p≤ 0.012 from 22-42 days; and p≤ 0.002 from 1-42 days of age). The enzyme blend supplementation did not influence (p> 0.05) any of the studied variables. The inclusion of OP in the diets at levels up to 100g/kg would does not have deleterious effects on broiler production performance.
  • DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATION OF MULTIROW COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE HIP JOINT OF JAPANESE QUAILS (COTURNIX JAPONICA) ARTICLES

    Paśko, S; Bartyzel, BJ; Dzierzęcka, M; Murawska, D; Szlufik, K; Bakoń, L; Gruszczyńska, J; Grzegrzółka, B; Nowicki, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The morphological assessment of selected parts of the hindlimb of Japanese quails (Temminck & Schlegel, 1849), with particular emphasis on hip joint structures, was performed, using a 128-row scanner (GE Optima Aquilion, Toshiba, Japan). Eight dead 3-month-old Japanese quails were evaluated. During intravital examination of those birds, no hindlimb abnormalities or locomotion disorders were detected. Bird body, which hip joints and other structures of hindlimbs were studied, was examined in posterioranterior position. The following hip joint structures, on both sides, were assessed in this study: hip joint gap width, acetabulum width, femoral head diameter, and femoral shaft width. The applied imaging method allowed accurate assessment of the selected structures. There was low variability between left and right hindlimbs and among individuals. Modern imaging techniques, such as multirow computed tomography (MCT) allows quick intravital assessment of normal and pathological structures of poultry bones and joints.
  • GOSSYPOL PROMOTES THE DEGENERATION OF CHICKEN OVARIAN FOLLICLES IN VITRO ARTICLES

    Gadelha, ICN; Lima, MA; Melo, MM; Soto-Blanco, B

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Gossypol, a phenolic compound produced by the pigment glands of cotton, is known to affect male reproduction. In females, exposure to gossypol has been associated with interference with the estrous cycle and embryo development. In laying hens fed cottonseed, gossypol was found to reduce egg production and weight and to cause discoloration of the egg yolk and/or albumen. It is probable that gossypol directly affects ovarian follicles, but this has not been confirmed experimentally yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine if gossypol affected cultivated ovarian follicles of the chicken. Ovarian follicles of adult female chickens were cultivated with different concentrations of gossypol (0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL) and classified according to the stage of development as primordial, transitional, primary, secondary or antral, and as viable or atretic. The percentages of viable and atretic follicles in the ovaries cultivated for 24 hours in the presence of gossypol were significantly different from those of the controls for all types of follicles except for secondary follicles, but in all types after cultivation for 7 days. The percentage of viable follicles was higher than that of atretic follicles in ovaries cultivated without gossypol. In contrast, ovaries cultivated with gossypol showed a predominance of atretic follicles. Gossypol increased the proportion of atretic follicles at all stages of development in cultivated chicken ovaries. Thus, gossypol may affect ovarian follicular viability and maturation, which might interfere with female fertility.
  • EFFECTS OF DIETARY FERMENTED GARLIC ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, RELATIVE ORGAN WEIGHTS, INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY, CECAL MICROFLORA AND SERUM CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKENS ARTICLES

    Lee, KW; Lee, KC; Kim, GH; Kim, JH; Yeon, JS; Cho, SB; Chang, BJ; Kim, SK

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding broilers with garlic fermented by Leuconostoc citreum SK2556. A total of 250 male broiler chicks was randomly housed into 25 floor pens. Five dietary treatments with five replicates of 10 chicks each (n=50 chicks/treatment). A corn and soybean meal based diet was used as the control diet (NC). The experimental diets were formulated by mixing the basal diet either with antibiotics (10 ppm; PC) or fermented garlic (FG) at the concentrations of 0.1% (FG1), 0.3% (FG3) or 0.5% (FG5) in diets. Daily weight gain, feed intake, and feed:gain ratio were not affected by any of the dietary treatments. Average daily gain on day 21 linearly increased (p= 0.024) with increasing FG levels. The relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius showed a progressive decline with increasing the FG levels. Jejunal villus height was not influenced by dietary treatments. Villus width linearly decreased as FG levels increased (p= 0.17). Jejunal crypt depth was significantly lower (p< 0.05) in the FG1 and FG3 groups compared with the NC group. Villus height:crypt depth ratio linearly increased (p= 0.018) with increasing FG levels. The population of cecal microflora was not altered by dietary treatments. Broiler chickens fed the FG5 diet exhibited (p< 0.05) higher blood levels of total protein and cholesterol compared with those fed the NC diet. Collectively, the results show that dietary FG marginally affected growth performance, especially during the first days rearing, improved intestinal morphology, and altered blood characteristics of broiler chickens.
  • Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Quail Populations from China ARTICLES

    Bai, JY; Pang, YZ; Zhang, XH; Yun, YX; Qi, YX

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Polymorphism of three quail communities was analyzed by using 12 microsatellite markers in this paper, aiming to provide scientific references for the evaluation, protection and utilization of quail genetic resources in China. Results demonstrated that the number of observed alleles by 12 microsatellite markers ranges between 4~7. The average polymorphism information contents (PIC) of the Chinese yellow quail, the Chinese black quail and the Korean quail, as detected by 12 microsatellite markers, are 0.6853, 0.6401 and 0.6565,respectively, and average heterozygosity values are 0.7333, 0.6957 and 0.7111, respectively. This indicates that the Chinese yellow quail has the richest genetic polymorphism. According to cluster analysis, the Chinese black quail and the Korean quail have the smallest genetic distance (0.0628), which reflects that they have the closest genetic relationship. The genetic distance between the Chinese yellow quail and the Korean quail is 0.0951. Therefore, the Chinese black quail and the Korean quail are clustered together firstly, and then the Chinese yellow quail.
  • ASSESSMENT OF BENZOPHENANTHRIDINE AND PROTOPINE ALKALOIDS IN BROILER CHALLENGED AND NOT BY SALMONELLA HEIDELBERG ARTICLES

    Previato do Amaral, PFG; Otutumi, LK; Rodrigues, GV; Lima, ET; Fernandes, JIM; Vendrame, A; Mezalira, TS; Suenaga, SS; Sestari, DAO; Cestari, IED; Martins, LA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Salmonellosis is a globally important zoonosis, and Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the most prevalent serovars in poultry production worldwide, as well as in food poisoning cases. Antimicrobial drugs were previously widely used to face health challenges in animal production; however, since their ban as performance enhancers, many alternative strategies have been proposed. One of these strategies is the use of plant extracts, such as those containing the alkaloids benzophenanthridine and protopine. These compounds have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and nutritional effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the supply of a product containing benzophenanthridine and protopine (Sangrovit(r)WS 100 g/1000 L of drinking water) to broilers during different rearing periods 1-21, 1-6 and 6-21 days of age challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg at six days of age. There was no effect of the product on the performance, jejunal morphometry, cecal goblet cell counts, or control of Salmonella spp. in broilers challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg. However, the group receiving the alkaloids from 1 to 21 days of age, compared with the control group, presented a numerical difference of 28 points in productive efficiency index, which directly impacts live production cost of live broiler, representing savings of R$ 0.11/kg of meat produced.
  • APPLICABILITY OF NON-FEED REMOVAL PROGRAMS TO INDUCE MOLTING INSTEAD OF THE CONVENTIONAL FEED WITHDRAWAL METHOD IN BROWN LAYING HENS ARTICLES

    Sariozkan, S; Kara, K; Güçlü, BK

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to compare the applicability of non-feed removal (NFR) programs to induce molting in brown laying hens by feedusing alfalfa meal and barley grain on molting of instead of feed withdrawal in terms of performance, egg quality and profitability. A total of 240, 75-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens were randomly divided into three groups as conventional feed withdrawal (CONV), and two non-feed removal programs using alfalfa meal (A+F) or barley grain (B+F), each containing 80 hens with 20 replicates (4 hens x 20 replicates = 80 hens). After 10 days of the induced molting the lowest body weight loss (20.01%) was found in the B+F method (p< 0.01). In the second cycle, onset of egg production days were significantly different between groups (p< 0.001) and hens of NFR groups (A+F and B+F) reached 50% egg production earlier than CONV group (p< 0.05). Most of the performance (average egg production, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality) and egg quality parameters (egg weight, specific gravity, shell thickness and breakage) of NFR groups were similar to the CONV group (p> 0.05). Haugh unit of CONV group was better than NFR groups, whereas molting by NFR groups improved egg yolk color (p< 0.001). Despite higher feed cost of NFR programs, egg income and profit was better than CONV group (p< 0.001). In conclusion, molting with alfalfa meal and barley grain of brown layers may be used as non-feed removal programs, without negative effects on the performance and egg quality parameters. Besides, these non-feed removal programs have higher income and profitability.
  • PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF WHITE LEGHORN HENS BASED ON THE TYPE OF HOUSING DURING REARING: FLOOR VERSUS CAGE Technical Note

    Itza-Ortiz, MF; Peraza-Mercado, G; Castillo-Castillo, Y; Rodriguez-Alarcon, CA; Vital-Garcia, C; Jaramillo-Lopez, E; Carrera-Chavez, JM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Poultry farmers in the southeastern of Mexico consider that the productivity of the hens that comes from rearing on floor has a higher productive performance than reared hens in cages, mainly due to higher percentage of egg laying and lower mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of the laying hen in relation to the type of rearing. A total of 79680 pullets Bovans White of 17 weeks of age were housed in cages with five pullets cage-1 (405 cm2pullet-1). They were divided in two treatments according to their type of rearing (floor vs cage) with four replicates. The study period was from week 20 to week 40 of age. The variables evaluated were daily (%) and cumulative mortality (%), egg production (%), egg weight (g), feed intake (g pullet d-1), cumulative feed intake (g pullet-1), daily and cumulative egg mass, number of eggs per hen housed, egg loss (%) and productivity index. The variables were analyzed using a randomized block design. It was observed that daily and cumulative mortality, feed intake and egg loss was higher (p< 0.05), while the number of eggs per hen housed and productivity index (p< 0.05) was lower for hens in cages. We conclude that it is possible to associate detriments in the productive performance of laying hens based on the type of housing during its growth phase.
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