Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 19, Issue: 3, Published: 2017
  • Multi-Criteria Analysis to Prioritize Energy Sources for Ambience in Poultry Production Articles

    Collatto, DC; Mansilha, RB; Chiwiacowsky, LD; Lacerda, DP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This paper intends to outline a model of multi-criteria analysis to pinpoint the most suitable energy source for heating aviaries in poultry broiler production from the point of view of the farmer and under environmental logic. Therefore, the identification of criteria was enabled through an exploratory study in three poultry broiler production units located in the mountain region of Rio Grande do Sul. In order to identify the energy source, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied. The criteria determined and validated in the research contemplated the cost of energy source, leadtime, investment in equipment, energy efficiency, quality of life and environmental impacts. The result of applying the method revealed firewood as the most appropriate energy for heating. The decision support model developed could be replicated in order to strengthen the criteria and energy alternatives presented, besides identifying new criteria and alternatives that were not considered in this study.
  • Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A on Calcium Metabolism during Chick Embryo Developmentand in Hatched Chicks Articles

    Elsayed, MAE; Hatab, MH; Elaroussi, MA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to study the effect of in-ovo ochratoxin A (OTA) injection in Highline layer eggs on calcium metabolism and blood biochemical parameters of embryos and after the hatch. At day 10 of embryonic development, one hundred and sixty-two fertile eggs were individually weighed and divided into two equal treatments. The first treatment (control) consisted of the individual injection of fertile eggs with 50 µL sodium carbonate. In the second treatment (OTA), fertile eggs were individually injected with 12.5 ng OTA dissolved in 50 µL sodium carbonate. On days 12, 14, and 16 of incubation and at the hatch, serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations were lower (p<0.05), while sodium, alkaline phosphatase and triiodothyronine concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in the OTA-injected eggs compared with the controls. Serum potassium concentration was not affected (p<0.05) by OTA treatment. Lower calcium and phosphorus levels were determined (p<0.05) in the allantoic fluid of OTA-injected eggs compared with the controls. On days 12, 14, and 16 of incubation and at the hatch, lower whole body and yolk calcium and phosphorus, but not sodium levels, were measured (p<0.05) in the OTA treatment compared with the controls. In conclusion, the injection of eggs with OTA reduced blood calcium and phosphorus levels, which were associated with reduced whole body and yolk content from these electrolytes. Therefore, ochratoxin A had a negative effect on calcium metabolism.
  • Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Farms of Different Sizes Located in Northern China: On-Farm Sampling and Detection by the PCR Method Articles

    Li, X; Liu, L; Li, Q; Xu, G; Zheng, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) has caused foodborne infections over decades. It is transmitted mainly from contaminated eggs to humans. SE is commonly present in layer houses, and closely interacts with environmental factors. The objective of the present study was to develop a viable PCR method to identify SE in environmental samples collected in layer farms of different sizes, and to evaluate SE contamination status in four main egg-production provinces of northern China. After specificity retrieval using Primer-BLAST against the NCBI database, three SE specific oligonucleotide primers were selected as candidate primers. The primers targeting Prot6e gene were adopted and primers targeting Sdf I were also selected to validate the results, after testing eight different types of pooled poultry environmental samples (overshoe, air, drinking nipple, feed, egg collection belt, eggshell, air inlet, and air outlet) by PCR. A PCR detection limit of 1 CFU/mL was determined using cell lysates from pure cultures. Testing time was less than 48 h. On-farm samples were collected from two layer farm sizes (one housing more than 50,000 layers, and the other, less than 50,000 layers) in each province. The applied PCR method was shown to be simple, inexpensive and effective for screening SE in a large amount of farm samples. The study identified only one SE-positive farm, which a large farm and where nine samples were found to be contaminated with SE: drinking nipples (3), egg collection belt (1), air inlet (1), air (1), overshoe (1) and eggshell (2).
  • Renal Dose Dopamine Mediates the Level of Aquaporin-2 Water Channel (Aqp2) in Broiler Chickens Articles

    Chang, Z; Zhang, H; Wu, X; Nabi, F; Rehman, MU; Yuan, X; Mehmood, K; Zhou, D

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a small protein located in the collecting tubules of kidneys; it plays an important role in the concentration and production of urine. The aim of this study was to determine the expression level of the AQP2 gene in the kidney of broiler chickens after the administration of renal­dose dopamine. Broiler chickens (25 days-old) were randomly divided into two groups (n=20 per group): intravenous administration of saline solution (control group) or renal-dose dopamine (dopamine group). The expression and localization of the AQP2 gene were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. The protein level of AQP2 was analyzed by western blot analysis. The dopamine group presented no significant difference (p>0.05) in the biochemical criterion or mRNA expression of AQP2 compared with the control group. However, AQP2 protein level was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells. In contrast, protein level was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the cytoplasm of the dopamine group compared with the control group. Moreover, AQP2 protein was apparently more distributed and localized in the cytoplasmic vacuoles than in the membranes of the kidney in the renal­dose dopamine administered chickens group. In conclusion, present findings suggest that renal­dose dopamine mediates the level of AQP2 protein via shuttle from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm rather than changing the expression of AQP2 gene to adjust the secretion and absorption of water in kidney.
  • The Identification of SNPs in BCDO2 Gene for Skin Color in Chinese Indigenous Chicken Articles

    Kong, FL; Chen, SY; Ran, JS; Yang, CW; Jiang, XS; Lan, D; Hu, YD; Liu, YP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A complete linkage disequilibrium between the SNP (SNP B) in BCDO2 gene and the yellow skin phenotype in European domestic chicken has been reported. Here, we genotyped the reported SNPs (SNP A, SNP B, and SNP C) of the BCDO2 gene in 183 Chinese Indigenous chickens from 11 breeds/populations, including 57 yellow, 17 white, and 109 black skin chickens. The frequency of all three SNPs were significantly different between yellow and white skin chickens (p<0.01). In black skin chickens, a high frequency of the heterozygous genotype (AG) in SNP A (0.51) and SNP B (0.48) was observed. A total of three haplotypes (AAA, AGA, and GAA) from these three SNPs were obtained. Frequencies of the proposed yellow skin-associated haplotype AGA in yellow skin, white skin, and black skin chickens were 0.81, 0.35, and 0.56, respectively. The results showed that the yellow skin phenotype of the evaluated birds has not been under selection, and that the BCDO2 gene in black skin chickens, evolutionally may undergo a transition phase from yellow to white skin chicken. We concluded that, the SNPs of BCDO2 gene not only can be used to determine whether the chicken was subjected to selection, but may also be used as a marker when selecting for the preferred skin color in chicken breeding programs.
  • Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Some Native Lactobacillus Strains on the Growth Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) during Rearing Period Articles

    Siadati, SA; Ebrahimnezhad, Y; Salehi Jouzani, Gh; Shayegh, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the probiotic effects of different concentrations of four selected native Lactobacillus strains on the growth performance and serum biochemical parameters of Japanese quails. A completely randomized design (CRD) was applied, including seven probiotic treatments with four replicates of 20 quails each, totaling 560 quails. Treatments were applied for five weeks. Four native Lactobacillus strains were anaerobically grown in a 10-L batch fermenter and lyophilized (1010 CFU/g). Treatments were as follows: T1: control (basal diet); T2: commercial probiotic CP1; T3: commercial probiotic CP2; and T4, T5, T6, and T7: four native strains added at levels of 50, 100, 150, and 200 g/ton diet, respectively. The native probiotics significantly improved body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the starter, finisher, and overall periods (35 days) (p<0.05), whereas no significant effect was observed on feed intake. The native strains significantly influenced the serum glucose, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, uric acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL ratio, white blood cell counts (WBC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of quails during the rearing period (p<0.05), whereas treatments had no influence (p>0.05) on blood cholesterol, calcium, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or hemoglobin (HB) levels or on red blood cell counts (RBC). The cecal and small intestine samples of the quails fed the native Lactobacillus strains contained significantly higher Lactobacillus spp. and lower E. coli populations compared with the control diet and those supplemented with commercial probiotics. It was concluded that the use of the native Lactobacillus strains (150 g/ton diet) promoted the best performance of Japanese quails.
  • The Preventive Effects of Different Doses of Glucomannan on Experimental Aflatoxicosis in Japanese Quails Articles

    Yavuz, O; Özdemir, Ö; Ortatatli, M; Atalay, B; Hatipoglu, F; Terzi, F

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experimental study was performed to investigate whether there is a protective effect of different doses of Glucomannan using against aflatoxicosis in Japanese quail, and pathological changes and relative organ weights were compared. In the experiment, 60 one-day old male Japanese quails were used as divided into six different groups. Experimental groups were designated as Control(C), aflatoxin(A), glucomannan(GM), 2-fold dose of glucomannan(2GM), aflatoxin+glucomannan(A+GM) and aflatoxin+2-fold dose of glucomannan(A+2GM). While control group quails fed the standard ration as ad libitum, other groups were fed with the administrations additionally to standard diet respectively; 2mg/kg of aflatoxin to group A, 1g/kg of glucomannan to group GM, 2g/kg of glucomannan to group 2GM, 2mg/kg of aflatoxin and 1g/kg glucomannan to group A+GM, 2mg/kg of aflatoxin and 2g/kg glucomannan to group A+2GM. All quails were euthanized at day 21 of the study and organs, (liver, spleen, kidney, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) were removed, weighed and subjected to routine histopathological procedures. Although any important macroscopic changes were not observed in the C, GM and 2GM groups, significant pathological changes were found in the groups of A, A+GM and A+2GM. In the A+GM group, the partial reduction in the severity of microscopic lesions were seen in liver, bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen, however a significant reduction in severity of lesions was noticed in A+2GM group. As a result of the study, 2g/kg of glucomannan has been found pathologically to be more effective than 1g/kg glucomannan in terms of the protection against aflatoxicosis by giving orally.
  • Optimum Dietary Standardized Ileal Digestible Isoleucine to Lysine Ratio for Meat-Type Quails in the Growing-Finishing Phase Articles

    Viana, GS; Barreto, SLT; Muniz, JCL; Arnaut, PR; Santana, LC; Alves, WJ; Hannas, MI; Tizziani, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine (SID Ile:Lys) ratio for meat-type quails from 15 to 35 d of age. Three hundred fifty not-sexed meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) were randomly assigned into five treatments, with seven replicates of 10 quails each. An isoleucine-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diet was formulated and graded supplemented with L-isoleucine (99%) to obtain diets containing SID Ile:Lys ratios of 55,61, 67, 73, and 79%. Data were analyzed as one-way ANOVA and optimum SID Ile:Lys was estimated by polynomial (linear and quadratic) regression. Statistical differences were considered when p<0.05. Quail performance from 15 and 21 d and 15 and 28 d of age was not affected by the treatments. From 15 to 35 d of age, body weight gain and body weight exhibited a quadratic response to increasing dietary SID Ile:Lys ratios, and were optimized at 66 and 67% SID Ile:Lys, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by SID Ile:Lys ratios in any of the phases assessed herein. Based on the results, the optimum SID Ile:Lys ratio for meat-type quails from 15 to 35 d of age is 67%.
  • Effects of Transportation Distance, Slaughter Age, and Seasonal Factors on Total Losses in Broiler Chickens Articles

    Arikan, MS; Akin, AC; Akcay, A; Aral, Y; Sariozkan, S; Cevrimli, MB; Polat, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed at determining the total losses associated with the season, transportation distance, and slaughter age during the transportation of broilers from poultry farms to slaughterhouses in Turkey. All data and parameters were statistically analyzed and the change in total loss during transportation was evaluated by two-way analysis of variance to determine which factors or variables affect this change. Total transportation losses were compared among the four seasons of the year, two slaughter ages (younger broiler, 31-39 days of age; older broilers 40-46 days of age) and three distance ranges (short, ≤50 km; medium, 51-150 km; and long, ≥151 km). Total losses of 259.40 g, 307.35 g, and 350.14 g were determined for short, medium and long distances, respectively, indicating that losses increased with transportation distance (p<0.05). Broilers slaughtered at a younger age presented lower total losses than those slaughtered at an older age (p<0.05). When seasons were evaluated, the highest total loss was determined in the summer, which was not statistically different from that calculated for autumn, whereas total transportation losses in spring and winter were found relatively lower. The study showed long-distance transportation in the winter considerably increased total losses to levels similar to those obtained in the summer.
  • Effects of Guanidionoacetic Acid and Arginine Supplementation to Vegetable Diets Fed to Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress before Slaughter Articles

    Esser, AFG; Gonçalves, DRM; Rorig, A; Cristo, AB; Perini, R; Fernandes, JIM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and L-arginine (L-Arg) as creatine precursors to vegetable diets on the carcass yield and meat quality of broilers subjected to two days of heat stress before slaughter. A total of 1260 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design into four treatments with nine replicates of 35 birds each. The treatments consisted of: T1 - vegetable diet based on corn and soybean meal (control diet); T2 - control diet with the inclusion of meat meal (3%); T3 - control diet supplemented with GAA (0.08%); and T4 - control diet supplemented with L-Arg (0.8%). The birds were submitted to heat stress for two days before slaughter (from 42 to 44 days of age). The birds fed the diets supplemented with GAA or L-Arg presented heavier carcasses (p<0.0035), higher breast yield (p=0.0685), and lower of abdominal fat deposition (p=0.0508) than those fed the control diet and the control diet with meat meal. The cooking loss of the breast fillets of broilers fed the control diet supplemented with meat meal, GAA or L-Arg was lower (p<0.0068) compared with those fed the control diet. Thawing and pressure-driven breast fillet weight losses, and pH, luminosity, redness (a*value), and yellowness (b* value) values were not influenced by the treatments. When GAA is less expensive than commercially-available Arg, the dietary supplementation of GAA is more advantageous, based on the meat yield improvements observed in the present study.
  • Successful Identification of Duck Genome Region Determining Desirable Uniformity of Meat Performance Traits Articles

    Dobek, A; Gornowicz, E; Moliński, K; Grajewski, B; Lisowski, M; Szwaczkowski, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify genome regions determining duck meat performance traits with possible small variation. In total, 368 crossbred ducks of F2 generation obtained from two parental lines: Pekin-type ducks of Polish origin (A55) and Pekin-type ducks of French origin (GL-30) were recorded. The following seven traits were analyzed: body weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight, water holding capacity in the breast and leg muscles, and color lightness L* of the breast and leg muscles. All birds (including parental and F1 generations) were genotyped (29 microsatellite markers). Means and coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated for 28 full-sibs (four sires by six dams and one sire by four dams). Number of progeny per full-sib group ranged from 7 to 17. The multivariate cluster analysis using grouping by k-means algorithm was used on transformed data. The multivariate cluster analysis gave two clusters: first group with 10 full-sibs and second one with 18 families. Differences among half-sibs in the CV of the recorded traits were determined. It should be noted that one out of five sire groups showed statistically significant differences from the other ones. Moreover, the CVs in this group were smaller. The analysis of microsatellite markers indicated three alleles from three loci were present only in the “superior” sire group. The obtained results indicate a promising opportunity of effective selection for improving carcass technological quality using molecular markers.
  • Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Betaine Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Performance of Japanese Quails Articles

    Ratriyanto, A; Indreswari, R; Nuhriawangsa, AMP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary protein levels and betaine supplementation on nutrient digestibility and performance of Japanese quails. In total, 765 Japanese quails were randomly assigned to a 3×3 factorial arrangement, with five replicates of 17 quails each. Three basal diets were formulated to contain three crude protein levels (16.5, 18.0, and 19.5%). Each protein level was supplemented with 0, 0.06, and 0.12% betaine. The diet with 16.5% dietary crude protein with no betaine supplementation resulted in the lowest crude fiber digestibility, while the 18.0% CP diet supplemented with 0.12% betaine generated the highest crude fiber digestibility (p<0.05). The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein increased crude fiber digestibility, but reduced ether extract digestibility (p<0.01). Moreover, betaine supplementation increased dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and crude ash (p<0.01) digestibility and tended to increase ether extract digestibility (p=0.09). The increase in egg weight for the 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets was correlated with a decrease in feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). However, feed intake and egg production were not affected by protein levels. Betaine supplementation enhanced all performance variables (p<0.01). The diets with 18.0 and 19.5% crude protein resulted in heavier yolks and eggshells than the 16.5% crude protein diet (p<0.05), whereas betaine supplementation increased yolk, albumen, and eggshell weight (p<0.01). The 18.0 and 19.5% protein diets produced similar responses in most evaluated parameters. Laying Japanese quails can be fed diets with 18.0% crude protein. Moreover, betaine supplementation provided several benefits, and particularly improved nutrient digestibility, performance, and egg quality.
  • Experimental Study on the Geometrical and Mechanical Properties of Goose Eggshells Articles

    Zhang, J; Peng, W; Tang, W; Wang, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This paper examined the properties of goose eggshells to determine possible areas of improvement in egg transport and storage. First, we measured goose egg sizes and performed statistical tests, and found that the major axis, minor axis, and egg-shape index presented normal distribution. Eggshell thickness first increased and then decreased from the blunt end to the sharp end. Second, the shape of individual goose eggshell was measured using a 3D scanner. Volume equation, surface equation, and contour function of goose eggshell shape were obtained, exhibiting a highly symmetrical structure. Finally, goose eggs were compressed along their major and minor axes between two plates. Breaking strength was highly dependent on the shape index. A crack was found on the force point along the major axis of each goose egg.
  • Lipid Peroxidation in the Plasma, Lungs, Heart and Liver of Broilers Fed a Grape Seed Extract and Raised at 2278 m of Altitude Articles

    Rodríguez-Ortega, LT; Juárez-Juárez, G; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Bautista-Ortega, J; González-Cerón, F; Vargas-Galicia, AJ; Chan-Díaz, D; Moreno-Medina, D; Gallegos-Sánchez, J; Rodríguez-Ortega, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of vitamin E (VE) by grape seed extract (GSE) on glutathione peroxidase activity (GPxA), nitric oxide (NO) concentration and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration] in the plasma, lungs, heart and liver, and live performance of broilers raised at 2278 m of altitude. One-d-old Ross 308 male chickens (n = 420) were randomly distributed into three treatments: Control-AL (basal diet containing 40 IU of VE and fed ad libitum; AL), Control-FR (basal diet and feed restriction; FR) and GSE-AL [basal diet containing 10 mg of GSE (equivalent to 30 IU VE) plus 10 IU of VE and fed AL]. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Glutathione peroxidase activity, and NO and MDA concentrations in the plasma were evaluated on d 46. On d 47, MDA was evaluated in the lungs, heart and liver. Live performance parameters were recorded weekly. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in live performance and NO concentration among treatments. Birds from the GSE-AL treatment presented the lowest (p<0.05) GPxA, the highest (p<0.05) MDA concentration in the plasma, heart and liver, and intermediate MDA concentration in the lungs. Our results suggest that GSE may partially replace VE in broiler diets without impairment of live performance. However, further research is required to determine the optimal level of dietary GSE inclusion to reduce lipid peroxidation in the plasma, lungs, heart, and liver of broilers raised at 2278 m of altitude.
  • Efficacy of a Synthetic Antioxidant Treatment in Stabilizing Poultry Byproduct Meal and Subsequent Impact of the Treated Meal on Selected Growth Parameters of Broilers Articles

    Ahmad, H; Khalique, A; Naveed, S; Zia, MW; Rasool, Z; Zahid, U; Moeed, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a commercial antioxidant (CAO; Rendox Plus®) treatment in stabilizing the poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) and then the subsequent effect of the treated PBPM on growth of broilers. Five batches A, B, C, D and E of PBPM were treated with CAO at 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL/ton, respectively and stored for 42 days. Oxidative stability of PBPM was estimated on day 0 and then weekly using Peroxide Value and Thiobarbituric Acid tests. PBPMs treated with 750 &1000 mL/ton presented the least oxidation and were selected to be included in broiler diets. A total of 240 one-day-old non-sexed Hubbard broilers were randomly divided into two flocks of 120 birds each. Each flock was further divided into four groups with three replicates of 10 birds each. The selected PBPMs (D and E) were added at 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% in the starter and grower diets. The experiment lasted for 35 days. The PBPM treated with 1000 mLCAO/ton exhibited the lowest (p<0.05) oxidation level compared to other treated PBPMs. PBPMs with up to 7% CAO inclusion rate did not influence (p>0.05) broiler feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, final body weight, carcass traits, or mortality rate. It was concluded that CAO was effective in stabilizing PBPM, and up to 7% (70 g/kg) of CAO-treated PBPM can be safely included in broiler diets without any harmful effect on their performance.
  • Effect of an Organic Trace Mineral Premix on the Semen Quality, Testicular Morphology and Gene Expression Related to Testosterone Synthesis of Male Broiler Breeders Articles

    Shan, T; Dai, P; Zhu, P; Chen, L; Wu, W; Li, Y; Li, C

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In order to investigate the effect of organic trace minerals premix (OTM) on the reproductive performance of breeder roosters, a total of 240 San Huang roosters (23 weeks of age) were randomly divided into two treatments with six replicates of 20 roosters each. The first group (n = 120) was fed a basal diet containing an inorganic trace minerals premix (ITM) and the other group (n = 120) was fed the basal diet in which ITM was replaced by OTM. The experiment period was 22 weeks. Semen from one randomly-selected rooster per replicate was collected two weeks after the beginning of the experiment and other 10 times every two weeks. Another rooster per replicate was randomly selected at 30, 35, and 45 weeks of age, and sacrificed. Results showed that OTM did not affect relative organ weights. There was a significant increase in semen parameters in OTM group (p<0.05), such as semen volume, semen density, and semen motility from 31 to 35 weeks. OTM-fed roosters presented higher serum testosterone levels at 45 weeks of age, as well as higher testicular mRNA expression of the genes 3-beta dehydrogenase 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) in the OTM-fed group at 45 weeks of age compared with those fed ITM (p<0.05). Considering the results of the present study, it was concluded that feeding organic instead of inorganic trace minerals to male broilers breeders improves semen quality, which may be attributed to their better testicular development and higher expression of enzymes related to testosterone synthesis.
  • Climatic Variation: Effects on Stress Levels, Feed Intake, and Bodyweight of Broilers Articles

    Osti, R; Bhattarai, D; Zhou, D

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Chickens tolerate a very narrow range of climatic variation, and therefore, it is essential to determine the most suitable climatic area and weather for broiler production in open-house systems. In this study, 3060 broilers were used as experimental birds to investigate the effects of seasonal differences and climatic variations on the growth performance of broilers reared in an open-house system. Birds were kept under various treatment models that differ in climate Tropic zone, sub tropic zone and temperate zones. Data were recorded during July-August as summer months and January-February as winter months. Collected data was analyzed using the least square procedure given by Harvey-1990. Significantly higher (p<0.05) level of corticosteroids and H/L ratio of between the experimental birds was observed and consequent effect on feed intake was determined. The body weight and FCR at 42 day was significantly (p≤0.05) higher during winter season in subtropical zone. Subtropical climatic zone was found significantly better than other climatic zone. Efficient management of broiler farming that corresponds for effective feed intake during heat/cold stress to maximize bird’s efficiency can significantly increase production efficiency and acquiesce highest profit to broiler farming.
  • Effects of Phytogenic Additives and Organic Acids, alone or in combination, on the Performance, Intestinal Quality and Immune Responses of Broiler Chickens Articles

    Fascina, VB; Pasquali, GAM; Carvalho, FB; Muro, EM; Vercese, F; Aoyagi, MM; Pezzato, AC; Gonzales, E; Sartori, JR

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA), alone or in combination, on the performance, intestinal histomorphometry and lipid oxidation, and immune responses of broiler chickens. In this experiment, 820 one-day-old chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 41 broilers each. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet with no PA or OA (CD); CD with OA and no PA (CD+OA-PA); CD with PA and no OA (CD+PA-CD); CDwith both PA and OA (CD+PA+CD); and CD + avilamycin + monesin sodium. Broiler performance was not affected by the alternative feed additives, except from 1 to 21 days, when broilers fed the CD or CD+PA+OA diets showed higher body weight gain than those fed the CD with only OA. The broilers fed the diet containing avilamycin and monensin presented better performance. The supplementation of PA and OA increased bursalcortical area on21 and 42 days post-hatch. On 21 days post-hatch, broilers fed the AGP diet presented higher ileal villus height than those fed the control diet. The pH values of the jejunum content were reduced on the OA-fed chickens. Higher villus height and crypt depth were found in the alternative additive-fed chickens on 7 days post-hatch. On 42 days post-hatch, the percentage of the bursal cortex increased in PA-fed broilers; however, there was no increase in antibody production. The PA-fed chickens presented lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the small intestine. The dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives, individually or in combination associated with organic acids, does not affect broiler live performance or intestinal histomorphometry; however, it enhances immune responses and intestinal quality.
  • Effects of Nutrient Density and exogenous enzymesin Starter Diet on Performance, Intestinal Microflora, Gut Morphology and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens Articles

    Nabizadeh, A; Golian, A; Hassanabadi, A; Zerehdaran, S

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A total of 810 one-day-old, straight-run broilers were used to evaluate the effects of dietary nutrient density and feed additives included in the starter diet on their performance, intestinal microbiota, gut morphology, and immune response. A 3×3 factorial arrangement with three nutrient densities (100, 103.75 and 107.5%, as recommended) and three feed additives (no additives, 0.5 g/kg diet Maxi-Gen, and Maxi-Gen + Superzyme + Bio-Phytase at the rate of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 g/kg diet, respectively), fed from 1 to 10 d of age. Similar commercial corn-soy grower and finisher diets fed to all birds from 10-24 and 24-42 d of age, respectively. There was higher (p<0.05) body weight gain and lower (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio in chicks fed starter diet with 107.5% nutrient density and Maxi-Gen with or without exogenous enzymes compared with those fed control diet at 10 and 42 d of age. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts in the cecal content were increased linearly as dietary nutrient density increased in 10-d-old birds (p<0.05). Higher duodenal and jejunal villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (p<0.05) were measured in the birds fed the starter diets with 103.75% and 107.5% nutrient density at 5 and 10 d of age. Total anti-SRBC and IgM titers were significantly higher in the broilers fed the 107.5% nutrient density diet containing feed additives at 35 day of age. It is concluded that higher nutrient density and the inclusion of feed additives in the starter diet may improve the growth performance, gut morphology, and immune response of broiler chickens.
  • Effect of Sources and Levels of Dietary Zinc on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Blood Parameters of Broilers Articles

    Zakaria, HA; Jalal, M; AL-Titi, HH; Souad, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A total of 400 one-day-old, straight-run, commercial (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effects of two dietary levels of zinc (Zn) sources on broiler chick performance, carcass traits and blood parameters. Corn-soybean diets were formulated for three rearing phases (starter, grower and finisher). The two dietary treatments applied consisted of the addition per kg of diet of 80mg of inorganic Zn (ZnO) (T1), or 80mg of ZnO plus 42mg of an organic Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn120; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA), totaling 122mg of the combined organic and inorganic Zn sources (T2). Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design in the two treatments with eight replicates (pens) of 25 birds each. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. On day 42, blood samples were taken from four birds closest to the group average weight per replicate (32 per treatment) and then slaughtered for carcass evaluation. The results of this study did not find any significant effect of either of the evaluated Zn sources on broiler growth performance. Mortality rate was significantly lower (p<0.05) by the higher Zn concentration and the Zn sources group (T2). Carcass yields were not significantly influenced by the treatments. Breast quality showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in shear force (T2), indicating juicier meat. Higher concentrations (p<0.05) of Zn, Phosphorus (P), and total protein in blood were noted in (T2). Birds fed a mixture of organic and inorganic Zn source (T2) presented overall better results.
  • Selected Traits of Hatched and Unhatched Eggs and Growth Performance of Yellow Japanese Quails Articles

    Copur Akpinar, G; Alasahan, S; Ayasan, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate selected traits of hatched and unhatched eggs and chick growth performance of yellow Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Eggshell temperature at the time of transfer to the hatcher was higher in hatched eggs (38.09oC) than in unhatched eggs (37.43oC) (p=0.000), lower in eggs with in early embryonic mortality (37.39oC) than those with late embryonic mortality (38.13oC) (p=0.000), and higher in eggs with female chicks (38.14oC) than those with male chicks (37.95oC). Lower eggshell, yolk, and albumen weights were determined in eggs with embryonic mortality of 17-18 days (0.58 g, 3.13 g and 4.96 g) compared with those with 10-16 days (0.67 g, 3.55 g and 5.58 g) and embryonic mortality of 1-9 days (0.75 g, 3.95 g and 6.19 g) (p=0.000). Lower egg weight loss was obtained in eggs with embryonic mortality (13.85%) of 1-9 days than those with embryonic mortality of 17-18 days (26.48%) (p=0.001). Females were heavier at chick weight (8.98 g vs. 8.63 g; p=0.033) and at 4 (231.81 g vs. 211.43 g; p<0.000) and 5(260.69 g vs. 231.87 g; p<0.000) weeks of age than males, and had longer left shanks (34.39 mm vs. 33.61 mm; p=0.004).
  • Cold-Induced Ascites in Broilers: Effects of Vitamin C and Coenzyme Q10 Articles

    Nemati, MH; Shahir, MH; Harakinezhad, MT; Lotfalhian, H

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We hypothesized that the supplementation of vitamin C (Vit. C) and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) alone or in combination could reduce the negative effects of cold stress in broilers. Four hundred male chicks were exposed for 24 h to cold stress (15 ºC) starting from 15d of age, while a positive control group (PC, 100 birds) was kept under normal temperature condition. The experimental groups under cold stress (four treatments in 5 replicates of 20 birds) were: negative control (NC, basal diet), Vit. C (basal diet + 300 mg/kg Vit. C), CoQ10 (basal diet + 40 mg/kg CoQ10) and Vit. C plus CoQ10 (basal diet + Vit. C+ CoQ10at above mentioned doses). Vit. C or CoQ10 supplementation were restored (p<0.01) performance and lowered (p<0.01) ascites mortality. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were decreased (p<0.01) to the level comparable to PC by Vit. C supplementation. Lower plasma concentrations of thyroxin (T4) and higher triiodothyronine (T3) were observed in NC birds (p<0.01) and were not affected by Vit. C or CoQ10. In conclusion, supplementation of Vit. C or CoQ10 in diet of broilers under cold stress conditions resulted improved performance parameters (body weight and feed conversion ratio) and ascites related traits (low red blood cell count, hematocrit, T3, and heart weights and high T4). No additional benefit was observed by combination of Vit. C and CoQ10.
  • Evaluation of Aluminum Chloride As an Effective Short-Term Solution for Reducing Odor - Causing Volatile Fatty Acids in Duck Litter Articles

    Chung, TH; Park, JH; Kim, CM; Choi, IH

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on pH and volatile fatty acid levels in duck litter over the course of a three-week experimental period. Ninety one-day-old Pekin ducks (45 males and 45 females) were distributed into three treatments with three replicates each (10 ducks per replicate) using a completely randomized design. Two treatments were top-dressing duck litter with thin layers (1-2 cm) of 50 g or 100 g of AlCl3 per kg of litter, respectively; the control group received no litter treatment. Although no significant differences in propionic acid levels (p>0.05) were observed in any of the treatments, overall pH values for the 50 g and 100 g AlCl3 treatments were both lower (p<0.05) than those of the control group. Additionally, the two AlCl3 treatments revealed a corresponding influence (p<0.05) on acetic acid levels during the last two weeks of the experimental period. These results indicate that aluminum chloride amendments (at a suggested rate of 100 g per kg of duck litter) are potentially useful in lowering the pH of duck litter, thereby decreasing acetic acid production as an indicator of odor emissions.
  • Erratum Erratum

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