Abstract in English:ABSTRACT It is estimated that Salmonella causes one million illnesses in the United States annually, with 19,000 hospitalizations and 380 deaths. There are various serotypes of this bacterium, and the serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis are commonly isolated from outbreaks and, in most cases, present resistance to the antibiotics utilized in clinical medicine. One of the current theories to explain the emergence of bacterial resistance is the continuous use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds. Despite the lack of evidences that antibiotic growth promoters cause bacterial resistance, the poultry industry has explored strategies to reduce or to eliminate the use of antibiotic growth promoters in the production chain, including the improvement of biosecurity programs, use of vaccines, genetic selection, and the feeding of other additives, such as organic acid blends (OAB) and competitive exclusion (CE) products. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the continuous dietary supplementation of an OAB and a CE product on the growth performance, pH of the crop and cecal contents, control of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the cecal content, and acute-phase protein serum levels in starter commercial turkeys. The additives promoting similar results as antibiotics under controlled experimental conditions should be further evaluated on commercial farms to allow their utilization under practical conditions. Supplementing commercial turkey diets with the evaluated OAB and CE product may reduce SE load. Serum OVT and AGP levels can be used as effective and fast indicators of infection, including that by SE.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Broiler energy nutrition has attracted attention due to its economic importance, particularly during the rearing period of 22-42 days of age. There are many evidences that broilers changed their feed intake capacity due to genetic selection, especially when good quality pellets are fed, which suggests that modern broiler strains may achieve good performance when fed low metabolizable energy levels. The objective was to evaluate the energy efficiency, performance parameters, bone parameters, and carcass yield of 22- to 42-d-old broilers fed diets with energy levels below or above their requirements, while maintaining the density of all other nutrients. In total, 900 male broilers were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments consisting of five ME levels (2850, 2950, 3050, 3150 and 3250 kcal/kg). As expected, increasing dietary metabolizable energy reduced feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and energy efficiency. Interestingly, body weight, carcass and cut yields, and bone quality were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary ME levels. In conclusion, 22- to 42-d-old broilers fed pelleted and crumbled diets containing 2,850 to 3,250 kcal ME/kg (14% difference) achieved the same body weight and carcass yield at slaughter. The results show that energy efficiency may provide a more accurate interpretation of broiler performance than feed conversion ratio, and that broilers are able to change their feed intake, indicating an opportunity to improve their nutritional management.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Free-range chicken production has significantly increased in recent years and it often entails exposing birds to cyclic environmental conditions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of bird strain and sex, and rearing system on the physiological responses of Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK), Ovambo (OV) and Naked Neck (NN) chickens reared in a hot environment. Body weight (BW), rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) were determined weekly for 4 weeks, in 3 slow-growing chicken strains under cyclic environmental conditions. A total of 288, 20-week old Potchefstroom Koekoek (PK), Ovambo (OV) and Naked Neck (NN) chickens were separated by sex and allocated to extensive and intensive rearing systems. Ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) were used to compute a temperature humidity index (THI). A Proc MIXED model was used to analyze fixed effects and a linear regression model was fitted to test the relationship between THI and response parameters. All factors studied influenced (p<0.05) BW while none affected (p>0.05) RT. Higher BW (p<0.05) were obtained with OV in both rearing systems. Sex influenced (p=0.0021) HR but not RR (p>0.05). Week and rearing system affected (p>0.05) RR. THI showed significant correlation with RR and HR. THI was higher in intensive than extensive rearing. Physiological responses of PK, OV and NN are comparable under similar rearing conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The VLDLR gene plays important roles in the growth and adiposity in humans and mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VLDLR gene genetic polymorphisms and growth and abdominal fat traits of the Gaoyou domestic duck. A total of 267 Gaoyou ducks were employed for testing. A 18bp deletion was identified in VLDLR signal peptide coding region. The results of c2 test suggested that the genotype frequencies of VLDLR signal peptide coding region were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Least squares analysis showed that body weight (BW) of -18bp/-18bp genotype ducks was significantly higher than those of other genotypes from six (BW6) (p<0.05) to ten weeks of age (BW10) (p<0.01). The association analysis was performed taken body weight as covariant for abdominal percentage (AFP). Results showed that there was not interaction between genotype (p>0.05) and body weight for AFP and different genotypes had a significant effect on AFP (p<0.05). The results of Bonferroni t-test revealed that the abdominal fat percentage (AFP) of -18bp/-18bp genotype was significantly lower than those of +18bp/-18bp (p<0.05). Preliminary studies have shown that VLDLR may be a candidate gene for the selection for growth and abdominal fat, and the results of the present study indicate that VLDLR strongly influences carcass abdominal fat content of Gaoyou ducks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The excellence of modern broiler production is based on the genetic improvement of broiler strains for high growth rate and high egg production, associated with technological developments in nutrition, management, and health. Over the last decades, the clinical biochemistry of broilers has been studied to determine serum biochemical component values; however, there are still many knowledge gaps on factors that determine changes in these values. In this study, the serum lipid and protein profiles of 4-week-old male and female Cobb broiler breeders were evaluated. Blood samples were collected on a commercial farm located in the city of Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. The following parameters were evaluated: total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin to globulin ratio (A/V), uric acid, urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels using an automatic analyzer. The results showed sex-specific biochemical patterns for most blood parameters evaluated. Moreover, the obtained values were different from those obtained in many published studies with broilers and commercial layers, stressing the need to develop further studies with chickens of different ages.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and stocking density on the mortality, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, European production efficiency factor, heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and liver glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of broilers. In total, 570 one-day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to three treatments, with six replicates each. G1 served as normal control and birds were provided a normal floor space (0.0465 m2/bird from day 1 to 21 and 0.0929 m2/bird from day 22 to 42) and basal diet containing vitamin E at 70 g/ton feed (n=150). G2 and G3 birds were subjected to high stocking density (0.0279 m2/bird from day 1 to 21 and 0.0557 m2/bird from day 22 to 42). G2 served as the high stocking density (HSD) control, birds were offered a basal diet with no vitamin E (n=210), whereas G3 birds were fed a basal diet containing vitamin E at 70 g/ton feed (n=210). The birds were fed with feed and water ad libitum throughout the study period. The supplementation of vitamin E to the birds subjected to HSD had a positive effect on body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), H/L ratio, and liver GSH and MDA levels with those subjected to HSD and not supplemented with vitamin E. The results of the present study indicate that the supplementation of vitamin E at 70g/ton of feed to broilers subjected to HSD could effectively reverse the negative effects of HSD, and improve broiler performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Broiler carcasses presenting cachexia, as determined by the federal inspection agency, were submitted to microbiological, physicochemical, and histological analyses. Over a 2-month period, 278 carcasses from straight-run flocks of 43- to 48-d-old Cobb broilers from two different farms were condemned due to cachexia and subjected to gross examination in the final inspection sector. Out of the 278 carcasses, 131 did not present any gross signs of infection, and were submitted to microbiological analyses (n=83), physicochemical analyses (n=28), and viscera and muscle samples of 20 carcasses were evaluated by histology. The microbiological results of cachectic carcasses complied with the current legislation on the consumption of fresh poultry meat. Lower lipid and higher protein, moisture, and volatile matter contents, and higher pH (p<0.05) were determined in the cachectic than in the control carcasses from a same flock, but no ash content differences. All carcasses were negative for hydrogen sulfide. The histological analysis showed that65% of the cachectic carcasses did not have any muscle injury, 20% showed mild hyalinization and 15% moderate proliferation of fibrous connective tissue. The findings of this study indicate the importance of further technical and scientific studies on the utilization of cachectic broiler carcasses for the manufacture of edible products, rather than whole carcasses rendering, thereby preventing the resulting economic losses.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection has frequently affected the poultry industry in recent years. The infection with REV weakens the immune responses of the infected poultry. It is reported that Enteromorphaclathrata polysaccharides are capable of regulating immune function. In order to investigate the immuno regulatory effects of Enteromorphaclathrata polysaccharides (EPS) on the response of REV-infected broilers to a live attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. Broilers were intraperitoneally injected with REV at one day of age, subcutaneously infected with EPS at 2 days of age, and vaccinated by nasal drip with a live attenuated ND (Lasota strain) vaccine at 5 days of age. Immune organ index, secretory immunoglobulinA (SIgA), peripheral blood heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L ratio), peripheral blood lymphocyte transformation rates, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were measured at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 56 days of age. The results showed that EPS increased the immune organ index, and the secretion of small intestine secretory immunoglobulin A, serum ND antibody titers, blood H/L ratio, peripheral blood lymphocyte transformation rates, and IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. These results indicate that EPS are able to enhance the immune responses of chickens both to REV infection and to ND vaccination. Therefore, Enteromorphaclathrata polysaccharides can be considered as an immune regulator in the future.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Most of the neoplastic diseases affecting poultry have a viral etiology, such as Marek’s disease, avian leukosis/sarcoma and reticuloendotheliosis. In the present paper, histopathology and molecular methods were performed, in addition of necropsy and gross morphology evaluation, for the differential diagnosis of these diseases in two green peafowls (Pavo muticus). The affected birds showed non-specific signs, such as depression, anorexia, and diarrhea. At necropsy, diffuse enlargement by several times the normal size of the liver and the spleen was observed. In one of the birds, the liver presented white to grayish discoloration was present, and focal and nodular growths in the other bird. Grossly, the other visceral organs and the peripheral nerves were normal. Microscopically, most of the tumor cells were large and uniform with pleomorphic nuclei. The PCR analysis for Marek’s disease virus (MDV), avian leukosis virus (ALV), lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV), and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)based on their specific sequences showed the presence of ALV subgroups A-E and REV. According to these results, definitive diagnosis was co-infection of ALV and REV in naturally-infected green peafowls.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is an important nuclear factor that regulates glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. However, the role of ChREBP in fatty liver development in geese remains unclear. In order to understand the function of ChREBP in lipid metabolism of geese, we first cloned the complete cDNA of the ChREBP of the Sichuan White goose (Anser cygnoides) using RT-PCR, 5’ RACE and 3’ RACE, and analyzed goose ChREBP expression in nine different tissues using real-time PCR technology. The results showed that the goose ChREBP CDS consists of 945bp nucleotides that encode 314 amino acids, and the sequence has high similarities with the swan goose (Anser cygnoides domesticus) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos) sequences, both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. The predicted ChREBP protein had a molecular mass of 35.64 kDa with pI value of 5.36. The phylogenetic analysis indicated its evolutionary relationships with corresponding orthologous sequences in swan geese and ducks. The qPCR assays revealed that ChREBP is highly expressed in liver in the Sichuan White goose. Together, these results indicate that goose ChREBP may play an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different selection methods of parent lines on the body weight of Japanese quails. For this purpose, line M55 was subjected to individual selection for body weight at 5 weeks of age, while a reciprocal recurrent selection method was applied to lines R33 and S55. Selection lasted two generations. Body weight changes, age and weight at sexual maturity, egg weight, and egg production were investigated in the parent generations as well as in the selection lines. Body weight at 5 weeks of age of the parents of the M55, R33 and S55 lines were 299.0, 285.3, and 280.4 g in the first generation, and 314.8, 316.6, and 306.8±3.11 g in the second generation, respectively. The first generation of the M55, R33, and S55 lines presented egg production rates of 73.4, 77.6, and 75.8%, respectively, and egg weights of 12.7, 11.9, and 12.1g, respectively. The second generation of the M55, R33, and S55 lines presented egg production rates of 74.6, 77.8, and 78.3%, and egg weights of 12.72, 12.59, and 12.56 g, respectively. Both egg production and egg weights were significantly different between the first and the second generations (p>0.05). As a result, despite significant increase in body weight of the selection lines, no significant differences in egg production or egg weight were determined among generations. However, reciprocal selection lines of both generations presented higher egg yield than the individual selected line.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 625 broiler chicks (Ross 308) for 5 repetitions (25 birds per each replicated) on the 5 treatments diet. Treatments included two different types of cereal grains (wheat, and barley) with or without an enzyme supplementation along with a corn-based diet as control group. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and were fed in two periods of starter and grower. Experimental traits were consisted growth performance, ileal flora numeration, villus morphology in 3 parts of the intestine, digesta viscosity and pancreatic enzyme activity, and determining the gene expression level of glucose transporter (SGLT1) and mucin producer (MUC2) in the jejunum. Results indicated that inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet with or without exo-enzymes blend on growth performance traits were significant (p<0.01). Feed intake and average daily gain in wheat diet was lower, conversely FCR was higher than other groups (p<0.01). Maximum microbial count were observed in wheat and barley diets and minimum were observed in enzyme supplemented diets respectively (p<0.01). Control group and enzyme supplemented diets had minimum counting of gram negative, coliform and clostridium, but maximum counting of lactobacilli and bifidobacter were observed in enzyme supplemented diets (p<0.01). Viscosity and activities of pancreatic a-amylase and lipase were significantly increased in chicks fed wheat and barley when compared to the control group fed on corn (p<0.01). Feeding wheat and barley diets reduced villus height in different parts of the small intestine when compared to those fed on a corn diet (p<0.01). Gene expression level of glucose transporter (SGLT1) and mucin producer (MUC2) in jejunum was significantly affected by the inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet with or without exo-enzymes blend (p<0.01). In conclusion, the inclusion of wheat and barley to corn-soy based diet without enzyme supplementation has an adverse effect on growth, ileal microflora villi morphology, digesta viscosity, pancreatic enzyme activity, and gene expression level of nutrient transporters. However, enzyme supplemented to wheat and barley diets significantly improved those traits, and restored the negative effects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Hawthorn extract has been used for ameliorating cardiac disorders and pulmonary hypertension. Flavonoids and oligomeric proanthocyanidins are considered to be responsible for the positive health effects of hawthorn extract. The effect of Hawthorn extract in the water supply on feed intake, growth, carcass traits, internal organ weight, cardiac indices, the concentration of serum proteins and the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome was evaluated in broiler chickens. At one day-of-age, 225 chickens were assigned to one of three experimental groups where 0, 0.1 and 0.2 ML of hawthorn extract was added per one liter of drinking water. Feed intake, live weight gain and carcass weight increased when hawthorn extract was included in the drinking water at a level of 0.1 and 0.2 ML/L (p<0.05). Compared to no extract, the addition of Hawthorn extract in the drinking water (p<0.05) reduced the proportion of the body attributed to abdominal fat, liver and heart (p<0.05), and decreased the percentage of birds that died or showed clinical symptoms of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (p<0.05). Serum protein concentration was (p<0.05) higher in chickens that received the hawthorn extract in the drinking water compared to no addition of extract in the drinking water. Hawthorn extract has shown potential for use as a herbal medicine to aid in the prevention of physiological cardiac disorders and pulmonary hypertension in chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A 35 d trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of co-fermented agricultural by-products, soybean hulls and Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR), with Aureobasidium pullulans on nutrients digestibility and meat quality in broilers fed on conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 400 1-d-old Ross broilers were allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens (25 birds per pen). Birds were fed the corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0% (CON), 0.5% fermented soybean hulls (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% FSHP. The broilers fed on the diet that contained fermented products had higher total tract apparent digestibility for hemicellulose than those on CON (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the birds fed on 0.5% FSHP also showed the lightest duodenum and jejunum weight among all groups. Compared with the CON, the inclusion of 1.0% FSHP in the diet significantly decreased ammonia N concentration in cecum followed by 0.5% FSHP and subsequent 0.5% FSBH group. Dietary supplementation of fermented products significantly improved WHC and increased protein content in meat as compared with the CON. Moreover, the fat content in meat decreased in the broilers that received 0.5% FSBH and 1.0% FSHP. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of co-fermented agricultural by-products, PESR and soybean meal, could improve the digestibility of hemicellulose and decrease the cecal ammonia N concentration; moreover, the increased WHC and protein level as well as decreased fat content in meat suggested the promising utilization of these low-cost materials as broiler feed additives.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The biochemical and hematological blood values of broilers fed under heat stress and that were administered Origanum syriacum (OS) essential oil were investigated in this study. In total, 400 male broilers (Ross-308; age, 1 day) were used for the period of 42-days of the study. The experiment included ten groups (n = 50/group; each group divided into five sub-groups): normal heat, 22°C: basal feed (BF)-positive control group (PC), BF + 100 ppm OS; BF + 300 ppm OS; BF + 600 ppm OS). Heat stress, 36°C: BF-positive control group (PC), BF + 100 ppm SOS; BF + 300 ppm OS; and BF + 600 ppm OS). Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured in blood collected into EDTA tubes. Total bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increased, whereas alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, urea, uric acid, Cl-, and K+ decreased (p<0.05); however, no changes were detected in the other hematological values.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of rosemary oil (RO) and trace mineral sources (MS) on the internal quality and lipid stability of brown layer eggs. The treatments consisted of diets supplemented with two trace mineral sources (inorganic or organic) and three levels (0, 100, or 200 mg kg-1) of rosemary oil (RO), and three egg storage times. Eggs were stored at a controlled temperature (CT; 25.0ºC) in Experiment I and under refrigeration (RT; 5.0ºC) in Experiment II. The following parameters were analyzed on days 0 (fresh), 15 and 30 of storage: malonaldehyde level (MDA), egg weight (EW), Haugh unit (HU), yolk index (YI), albumen and yolk pH, raw yolk color (RYC), and egg weight loss. Data were analyzed according to completely randomized design in a 2x3x3 factorial arrangement (MS x RO x storage time). In Experiment I, there was an interaction between treatments for EW, HU and ALBp. Dietary OTM inclusion improved the results for all analyzed variables. The addition of 200 mg kg-1 RO reduced MDA and increased HU, YI and RYC. In experiment II, 200 mg kg-1 of RO in the diet improved HU. The internal quality of eggs stored both at CT and under RT is adversely affected by increasing storage periods, but this effect can be minimized by the dietary supplementation of OTM and 200 mg kg-1 rosemary oil. The lipid stability of eggs stored at CT improves with the supplementation of OTM and 200 mg kg-1 rosemary oil, but not of eggs stored under refrigeration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT BMP6, a member of the subfamilies of the morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), plays a crucial role in osteogenic and chondrocyte differentiation in vitro and stimulates chondrogenesis, making chondrocytes differen-tiate on their terminal stage. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between polymorphism of BMP6 gene and slaughter traits in chicken respectively. We screened the exonic and intronic regions of BMP6 gene by DNA pool construction and amplified DNA fragment by PCR, and finally, we got nine SNPs. Association analysis revealed that BMP6 had no significant association among all slaughter traits in Yellow bantam chicken. However, BMP6 had a significant difference with femur weight, tibia weight, femur length (p<0.05), and was extremely significant with tibia length (p<0.01) in Avian chicken. Moreover, femur perimeter also had significant correlation with BMP6 in Avian chicken. These results provide useful information for further investigation on the function of chicken BMP6 gene.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selection for egg production performance of Cairo L-2 strain, as a local layer strain, after five generations of selection on productivity, ovarian morphology and some egg quality traits versus commercial Lohmann Brown-Lite (LBL) strain. The performance in the 5th generation was evaluated in Cairo L-2 and LBL strains for live body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), age at sexual maturity (ASM), first egg weight (FEW), ovarian morphology, ovarian follicles number, ovarian weights and diameter, oviduct weight, liver weight, and stroma weight and their percentages to live body weight at sexual maturity for Cairo L-2 and LBL strains. Egg traits at 36 weeks of age including: egg number (EN), egg weight (EW), shell thickness (ST), and shell index (SI) were also obtained. Current results indicated that Cairo L-2 strain had higher ASM compared with LBL strain. Also, Cairo L-2 strain had lower BWSM, oviduct, ovary, stroma, and liver absolute weights and relative ovary weight compared with LBL strain. Ovarian follicles number, weights and diameter, FEW, and EN until 36 weeks of age were higher in LBL than in Cairo L-2 strain. Also, SI of the LBL was higher than that of Cairo L-2 strain. Moreover, Cairo L-2 strain egg production until 36 weeks of age was about 80% of that of LBL strain with good ST and SI. In conclusion, there were positive responses in ovarian morphology, egg production, and egg quality traits of Cairo L-2 strain associated with breeding program.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate ducks on performance, carcass traits and economic availability, fed on different phases of nutritional plans and in different housing densities. Two hundred and forty Muscovy ducks of creole lineage were used, distributed in boxes with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement of 3x2 with three nutritional plans (3, 4 and 5 phases) and two housing densities (2 and 3 birds/m2) with four replicates. The ducks had weekly performance evaluations, and after 90 days, four birds in each treatment were slaughtered for evaluation of carcass traits. Differences (p<0.05) were observed on performance, carcass traits and economic analysis. The nutritional plans with 3 phases showed better results for feed intake and weight gain, as well as provided lower total cost production and higher operating profit. Ducks in higher densities showed smaller feed intake, weight gain, higher pro-ventricle weight and better results for total meet production, crude income and operating profit. In summary, nutritional plans with reduced phases (3 phases) and extensions of energy-protein relationships showed better results for ducks on performance and carcass traits in densities of 3 birds/m². More studies are necessary to determine other nutritional requirements for ducks in housing for a better nutritional and management control.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The experiment used 100 grey partridges (Perdix perdix L.), which were reared first in confinement and later in aviaries. Partridges were lighter and had greater body dimensions at 36 weeks compared to 12 weeks except for trunk length. Older birds showed greater values (p>0.05) of compactness and lower values of massiveness and long-leggedness. Significant differences were found for keel length in females. At 36 weeks, male and female partridges had significantly greater total intestinal length, males had significantly longer small intestine and rectum, and females were characterized by significantly longer caeca and greater (p<0.05) intestine to body length ratio. Older birds had significantly greater gizzard weight and percentage and heart percentage (males and females), as well as significantly lower liver weight (males) and spleen weight and percentage. The present study provided information on the growth and development of farmed grey partridges before release into the natural environment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the adjustment quality of nonlinear models to data organs growth, carcass and body components of meat-type (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and japanese laying-type (Coturnix coturnix japonica) quail. A total of 1350 quails from one to 42 d old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five replicates each. To determine the organs growth (gut, heart, liver and gizzard), carcass and body components (wing, thigh and drumstick, back and breast), two quails per repetition were slaughtered weekly. The data were evaluated in function of different nonlinear models (Logistical, Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and Gompertz). All models studied adjusted the data, differing in adjustment quality. Brody model showed the best description of gut length to all treatments. For the data gizzard weight, heart, liver and gut, the models that best adjusted, presenting smaller residual mean square and numbers iterations were Gompertz and Logistical. The Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models were the most adequate to describe the thigh and drumstick growth, back and breast, and Gompertz models and Logistic to describe the wing growth and carcass, showing lesser number of iterations to achieve the convergence of date, as well as low residual mean square and squares sums of the regression residuals. The Gompertz model was the most appropriate to describe the organs growth and body components in meat- and laying-type quail when evaluated in growth phase.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of transient treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU) on some reproduction traits and live weight of quails. The trial lasted 8 weeks. To accomplish this goal, 700 1-day-old quail chicks were used, randomly divided into 8 groups. PTU was added to feed by 0.1% and 0.5% /wt. The first 4 groups had 0.5% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6, 6-8 and 2-8 wk., respectively. The 5 th, 6 th and 7 th groups had 0.1% PTU at the age of 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 wk., respectively, and the 8 th group was the control with no PTU. Quails were bled at 60 days of age. Then right and left testes were taken out and weighed. At the end of the trail, least square means of the live weight of the treatment groups were higher than the control (p<0.05). Similar results (p<0.05) were observed for testis weight, testis diameter and fertility rate. As a result, it can be said that the inclusion of PTU in quail rations positively affects the live weight and reproduction traits of quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Among the several factors required in breeding laying hens, debeaking is a factor that interferes with batch performance and affects animal welfare. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate three different debeaking procedures and to verify the best technique to be used. For this, the performance of the birds, the incidence of cannibalism, and in rearing phase, the quality of the eggs were evaluated. Dekalb White birds were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments, T1 (infrared radiation debeaking) T2 (hot blade debeaking) and T3 (V debeaking).The data was submitted to Analysis of Variance and compared by Tukey’s test (95%), using statistical software R. The frequencies of mortality and cannibalism were submitted to the Chi-Square test (Software R). It was observed that mortality was lower with IR debeaking in the breeding phase. Already in the rearing phase, the mortality was similar between the debeaking techniques and the cannibalism was null. The final mean weight (g), mean weight gain (g) and average daily weight gain in the rearing and egg quality variables were higher for V debeaking when compared to other techniques. It is concluded that V-debeaking provides better bird performance, resistance and shell thickness when compared to the infrared radiations and hot blade debeaking, in addition to subjecting the birds to less stress.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The pre-slaughter management is one of the predisposing factors to the reduction in the quality of the carcass and broiler meat, mainly for being a stressful condition. This study evaluates the inclusion of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) in the water used in the diet of pre-slaughter broilers for the first time. The carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in the poultry production of an experimental sector of the Federal University of Grande Dourados - UFGD. A total of 2,594 broilers were distributed in an entirely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 3x2x2, with three different lemongrass concentrations in the form of infusion (0. 1 and 5 g/L), two sexes and two genetic strains (Ross 308® and Cobb 500®), and with four replications. After 42 days, 144 broilers were slaughtered, and the quality parameters of carcass and meat were evaluated. A higher incidence of scratches and higher water retention capacity were found in Ross 308® male (p<0.05). Less exudate of breast fillets loss was observed in broiler Ross 308® males 72 h post-mortem (p<0.05). There was an interaction between sex and lemongrass levels in the drinking water of the broilers in the sensory analysis of meat (p<0.05), more preferably of chewiness and juiciness for males undergoing free diet for juiciness and lemongrass in the female diet with 5g/L. The use of lemongrass infusions in pre-slaughter did not bring considerable benefits to the quality of carcass and meat of broiler.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chemical blend additives to duck litter on pH, ammonia (NH3) fluxes, total nitrogen (TN) under a small pen trial. One hundred twenty 1-day-old duck (pekin) were randomly assigned to 6 pens in a completely randomized design during 6 weeks. Control received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed treatment at rates of 50 g aluminum sulfate + 50 aluminum chloride/kg duck litter were mixed into the upper 1 cm of duck litter. Duck litter pH at 2 weeks through 5 weeks was significantly affected (p<0.05) by chemical blend treatments compared to controls, but not at 6 weeks. During the experimental periods, NH3 fluxes decreased (p<0.05) in chemical blend treatments. However, there were no remarkable difference (p>0.05) between treatments at 0 and 1 week. Reductions of NH3 fluxes at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks were 31, 16, 29 and 24%, respectively. Chemical blend treatments as a function of time resulted in increase in TN contents compared with control. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in TN between treatments at 2 and 3 weeks, except for 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Chemical blend decreases NH3 fluxes and increases TN positively by reducing duck litter pH.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Many kinds of feed additives can be used in chicken diets to stimulate intestinal morphological maturation and, consequently, intestinal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of zeolite on broiler performance, gut morphology and gut digestive enzyme activity. The one-day old broiler chickens Ross 308 were assigned randomly into 3 groups with 30 birds per treatment. The 3 dietary treatments were: basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 2% zeolite, basal diet + 3% zeolite. Morphological and morphometric intestinal assessments were conducted using a light microscope. There was observed increase in villus height, villus perimeter, villus section area and crypt depth throughout duodenum and mid jejunum of the broilers fed zeolite. Supplementation especially with 2% zeolite was associated with greater villus heights, villus perimeter, villus section area and crypt depth in duodenum and ileum mucosa compared to the controls. The diet with 2% zeolite also contributed to significant increase proventriculus (pepsin) and pancreas (trypsin, lipase) activity compared to the controls The results suggest that dietary supplementation of zeolite increased feed consumption, intestinal morphology parameters and enzyme activity of gastrointestinal tract in broiler which improved growth performance.