Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 20, Issue: 2, Published: 2018
  • Raoultella ornithinolytica Isolation in Cloacal Microbiota of Tinamus solitarius: Preliminary Data Technical Note

    Marietto-Gonçalves, GA; Lima, EL; Nagayoshi, BA; Tonin, AA; Knöbl, T; Adreatti Filho, RL

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Raoultella ornithinolytica is a gram-negative aerobic bacterium belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family, an emerging pathogen that causes several pathogenic conditions in man, with little veterinary importance; however, its identification is underestimated by conventional laboratory techniques. The present study reports the identification of R. ornithinolytica in Tinamus solitaries, during a routine sanitary evaluation of aerobic enterobacteria in cloacal microbiota of birds belonging to the Güira Oga Center, Puerto Iguazu, Argentina. The sample was preliminary classified as Klebsiella spp.; however, after the use of the MALDI-TOF MS technique it was identified as R. ornithinolytica. The sample was submitted to an antimicrobial susceptibility test, where it showed a similar pattern profile as reported in the literature, with resistance to ampicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics. It is possible that Raoultella spp are more common in birds as it is reported. Therefore, review studies on bacteria collections of avian origin, as well as cases with confirmation of Klebsiella, should be deeply evaluated in laboratorial routine, mainly due to the pathogenic potential of R. ornithinolytica for Poultry, as well as for public health.
  • Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Profiles of Ducks Fed a Diet Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia Melanocarpa) Powder Technical Note

    Lee, GD; Shin, JH; Choi, IH

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effects of aronia powder on growth performance and fatty acid profiles of ducks. A total of 90 ducks (one-day-old pekin, 48 males and 42 females) were distributed according to a completely randomized design into two treatments (control and 1% aronia powder) with 3 replicates of 15 birds per pen for 42 d. Apart from the feed:gain ratio, the other growth performance parameters, including initial body weight, final body weight, weight gain, and feed intake, did not differ significantly between treatments (p>0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in fatty acid profiles between treatments. However, oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were significantly different (p<0.05) between treatments. Our results revealed that feeding ducks with 1% aronia powder improved the weight gained and the feed:gain ratio, but did not affect the fatty acid profiles of duck breast meat.
  • Metabolizable Energy Levels for Meat-Type Quails at Starter Phase Articles

    Muniz, JCL; Barreto, SLT; Viana, GS; Mencalha, R; Reis, RS; Hannas, MI; Barbosa, LMR; Maia, RC

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) levels on meat-type quail performance and carcass traits from 1 to 14d of age. A total of 1120 not sexed meat-type quails were randomly distributed to seven treatments, with eight replicates with 20 quails each. A basal corn and soybean meal-based diet was formulated to meet or exceed quail nutritional requirements, except for ME. Graded levels of soybean oil were added to the basal diet in replacement, to sand, to obtain dietary treatments (2,600; 2,700; 2,800; 2,900; 3,000; 3,100 and 3,200 KcalAMEn/kg diet). Data were analyzed as one-way ANOVA and optimum AMEn levels were estimated using polynomial regression model. Increasing in dietary AMEn levels elicited a linear decrease (p<0.01) in feed intake and nutrient intake (AMEn, protein and lysine). Quail weight gain and final body weight exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.03) to increased AMEn levels, being both optimized at 2820 KcalAMEn/kg diet. Graded AMEn levels elicited a linear increase (p<0.01) in carcass dry matter and fat content, whereas moisture content was linearly decreased (p<0.01). The protein content of the carcasses was not influenced (p>0.05) by AMEn. Based on the results, the dietary AMEn level that warrants adequate performance and carcass traits of meat-type quails from 1 to 14d of age is 2,820 Kcal/kg diet.
  • Effect of Dietary Lysine Regimens on Growth Performance and Meat Composition in Aseel Chicken Articles

    Hussain, M; Mahmud, A; Hussain, J; Qaisrani, SN

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A study was designed with the objective, to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine (Lys) regimens on growth performance and meat composition of Aseel chicken. In total, 540 day old chicks, 180 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 9 experimental groups in a 3 (Varieties: Mianwali (MW), Peshawari (PW), and Lakha (LK)) × 3 (Lys regimens: L1, L2 and L3:1.35, 1.30 and 1.25%) factorial arrangement under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex as block. Each experimental group was replicated 6 times with 10 birds in each with average weight of 29 gram. Feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG) and feed:gain ratio (F:G) parameters of growth performance and Dry Matter (DM), Ash, Crude Protein (CP) and Ether Extract (EE) parameters of meat composition were evaluated. The results indicated better (p=0.0006) WG and (p=0.0006) F:G was observed in MW verities. Among different Lys regimens, higher and medium level in the diet improved WG (p<.0001), F:G (p<.0001) and reduced (p=0.0001) FI. Similarly increased (p<.0001; 0.0150) ash content in thigh and breast due to increased level of lysine in the early life period. Dry matter was found to be higher (p=0.0036) only in medium Lys regimen, whereas meat CP was observed to be higher (p=0.0064) in control diet. It was concluded that, 1.30% digestible Lys level regimen can be used to improve the early growth rate of Aseel chicken. Similarly, Mianwali variety due to its better early growth can be used as a meat type chicken.
  • Determining the Contribution of Ventilation and Insulation of Broiler Breeding Houses in Production Performance Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Articles

    Samadpour, E; Zahmatkesh, D; Nemati, MH; Shahir, MH

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in order to rank broiler breeding farms in Zanjan province, Iran, regarding buildings, installations, and equipment to determine their effects on production factors. Data on 108 farms were collected using designed forms. This data was analyzed based on the effectiveness of each parameter in the production and management category according to experts’ opinion. The results indicated that ventilation systems (fans, inlets, and damper) as well as wall and roof insulation in poultry houses, constituted 66% of the technology coefficient. The stocking density increased through improvement of the mechanization coefficient. Most of these farms used longitudinal or tunnel ventilation and a combination of small and large fans. Roof insulation was mostly done using glass wool, and corrugated plastic while installing the heaters outside the poultry house. In these farms, the use of nipple drinkers and plate feeders was more prevalent. Moreover, the results showed that feed conversion and production indices have a significant correlation with mechanization coefficient so that farms with better mechanization coefficients had lower conversion ratio (p=0.04) and higher production indices (p=0.015). In general, the results indicated that ventilation and air inlet systems, as well as wall and roof building technologies have the greatest influence on the mechanization coefficient, while better mechanization coefficients translated into improvements in production efficiency and economic performance of poultry farms.
  • Efficacy of Zinc/Creatine Supplementation on Improving Growth Performance of Local Balady Chicks Articles

    Amer, NSI; Hatab, MH; Sabic, EM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT An experiment was designed to study the efficacy of Zinc and or creatine monohydrate (CMH) supplementation, either alone or in combination, on improving growth performance of Balady chicks. A total number of 144 Balady chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The first treatment was fed the basal diet and served as control, while groups 2, 3, and 4 were given the basal diet and supplemented drinking water with, 0.6 mg/ml (zinc sulphat); 0.45 mg/ml (CMH); 0.6 mg/ml (zinc sulphat) + 0.45 mg/ml (CMH), respectively. The results indicated that the live body weight, weekly body weight gain and feed efficiency were significantly (p≤0.05) improved in all treated groups compared with the control. Also, significant decrease (p≤0.05) has been recorded in water consumption values of treated groups compared to control. Moreover, significant increase was recorded in carcass yield, kidney, spleen, bursa, thymus and intestine density (weight/length) with treated groups as compared to control group. On the other hand, serum total protein, globulin, total lipids, total antioxidant, thyroxine hormone level were significantly higher in treated groups than the control. Furthermore, Red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin level, hematocrit values and antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, were significantly improved in all treated groups. Therefore, it can be concluded that Zn and or CMH supplementation improved the physiological, productive traits of Balady chicks. The best significant results of performance were recorded for group the supplemented with Zn and CMH in combination compared with those of other treatments.
  • Effect of Hatching Time on Yolk Sac Percentage and Broiler Live Performance Articles

    Özlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of broiler chick hatching time on the percentage of the yolk sac and subsequent broiler live performance. Broiler hatching eggs were obtained from a commercial flock at 55 wk of age and were stored for 2 d at 18°C and 75% relative humidity (RH) prior to incubation. Chicks were identified as hatching Early (471-477 h), Middle (480-486 h), and Late (494-510 h). All chicks were removed from the trays at 510 h of incubation. Body weight (BW) and yolk weight (YW) were determined at emergence from the shell (initial hatch time) and at placement on feed. Chicks were permanently identified by hatch time with neck tags, feather sexed, weighed, and introduced to feed and water in litter floor pens. Broiler BW and feed consumption (FC) were then determined 7, 21, and 35 d of age. Mortality was recorded daily. Although the percentage of the yolk was similar at hatch time, it was less in Early compared to Middle and Late chicks at placement (p≤0.05). Broiler chick BW was greater at placement in Late chicks compared to Early and Middle chicks (p≤0.05) but this advantage disappeared by 7 d because Late chicks consumed less feed to 7 d (p≤0.05). Early hatched broilers exhibited greater BW than Late with Middle broilers intermediate at 35 d (p≤0.05). There were no significant differences in feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 35 d of age. Additionally, late hatch chicks exhibited greater mortality. Overall, live performance of Late hatching chicks, judged by mortality and BW at 35 d, was reduced compared to Early hatching chicks.
  • Establishment of a Pathogenicity Index for Mice to Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Poultry and Swine Articles

    Emery, BD; Furian, TQ; Chitolina, GZ; Pilatti, RM; Borges, KA; Salle, CTP; Moraes, HLS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Fowl cholera is a contagious disease that results from infection by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This microorganism is extensively distributed among animal species, but little is known regarding it’s pathogenesis and specificity to various hosts. Many studies using pathogenicity evaluation methods are subjective and difficult to quantify because they are often only involved in the observation of the lethal capacity of the agent in experimental inoculation. Due to a lack of more consistent data, this study aimed to establish a classification model of P. multocida pathogenicity in mice using strains isolated from poultry and swine. A total of 94 strains of P. multocida isolated from clinical cases of FC and from lungs of swine were tested. A volume of 0.1 mL of bacterial suspension was obtained from the concentration of 106 CFU/mL and inoculated by an intraperitoneal route in five mice. The animals were observed every six hours over seven days. In addition to the mortality observed, the time of death and gross lesions were also analyzed. The Pathogenicity Indexes obtained showed significant differences (p<0.05) according to the origin of the strains. Likewise, the number of gross lesions and isolation percentages were also varied (p<0.05) among strains isolated from poultry and swine. From the observed ratios, the isolates were grouped into three pathogenicity classes: high, medium and low. This study proposed a consistent measurement and classification of P. multocida pathogenicity. The obtained results will be used to generate other adjusted models, as well as to form the basis for disease diagnosis.
  • Thermographic Images to Measure Health Risks of Workers Exposed to Artificially Refrigerated Environments Articles

    Takeda, F; Moro, A; Martins, N

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Thermography generates high-resolution imagery in real time and is a non-invasive and painless technique devoid of physical contact or exposure to any type of radiation. This technique has been successfully applied to different areas, such as health- and safety-related applications, to control cold risk in workers exposed to low-temperature environments. Thus, this study aims to analyze skin temperature variations in three body parts of the upper limbs (fingers, the center of the hands and wrists on both the left and right sides of the body) caused by exposure to low temperatures in air-conditioned and artificially controlled work environments. The objective is to assess thermography’s adequacy in controlling workers’ health risks. This study used environmental monitoring equipment and infrared radiation detection cameras to capture images of the body parts that were evaluated. The research was conducted on 20 workers from two sectors of a poultry slaughterhouse. Among the three body parts evaluated, the lowest temperatures occurred in the workers’ fingertips, which averaged 16.86ºC. This fact may relate to discomfort, pain, decreased performance, functional imbalance and cold-related diseases caused by faulty conditions and/or the equipment used to ensure the workers’ thermal comfort. It was concluded that the thermographic evaluation of activities that involve exposure to the cold is efficient, as well as feasible, when quantifying the potential threats of environmental cold to workers’ health.
  • Modulation of Physiologic Parameters in Molted Isa Brown Laying-Hens by Glutamine + Glutamic Acid Supplementation Articles

    Morales, W; Rodríguez, V; Garcia, NV

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Feed costs are the main limiting factors in poultry industry and alternative sources of food and/or feed supplements to optimize the bird´s life cycle and to extend their production period need to be explored. This study evaluated morphometric parameters of the small intestine and gonadotropin transcript levels in Isa Brown laying hens supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid (Aminogut®) during a second production cycle. Molting was induced and groups of 100 hens each, were supplemented with 0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4% Aminogut® in their diet. At the end of the experimental period, tissue sections from duodenum, jejunum and ileum were processed by the Hematoxylin-Eosin technique and samples from hypothalamus and hypophysis were collected for RT-PCR analysis of GnRH and GnRHR transcript levels. As results, the height of the intestinal villi of the duodenum and ileum was significantly (p<0.05) higher in hens supplemented with 0.8% and 1.6% Aminogut®, while in the jejunum, no significant differences were found. Hens treated with increased doses of Aminogut® tended to increase GnRH transcripts levels, whereas those of GnRHR tended to decrease proportionally. It is concluded that supplementation of Isa Brown laying hens during a second production cycle with Aminogut® developed increased villus height in duodenum and ileum that may promote better absorption of nutrients and potentially to increase the egg production. This study shows the importance of molecular techniques such as RT-PCR to support the biological effects of nutritional compounds on morphological parameters and hen productivity.
  • Technical and Economic Efficiency of Laying Hen Farms in Konya, Turkey Articles

    Dogan, N; Kaygisiz, F; Altinel, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine the technical and economic efficiency levels of laying hen farms and factors affecting the efficiency scores. For this purpose, a personal interview was carried out. Technical and economic data of 39 laying hen farms consisting their inputs and outputs over the period 2013-2015 was formed the material of this study. Efficiency levels were estimated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Mean technical efficiency score of the enterprises were determined as 98.6%. Also 48.7% of the enterprises were determined fully technical efficient. On the other hand, mean economic efficiency of the enterprises was determined as 88.8%, while only 17.9% of the enterprises were fully economic efficient. In order to determine the factors affecting efficiency scores, Tobit regression analysis was performed. According to the analysis results, chick mortality rate, hen mortality rate and feed conversion ratio had negative effects on technical efficiency scores, while education level of the farmer and capacity utilization ratio had positive effects. Egg cost, chick mortality rate, feed conversion rate and production length had negative effect while egg yield had positive effect on economic efficiency. As a result, enterprises would increase their technical and economic efficiency scores by decreasing the mortality rate, feed conversion rate, production length. Furthermore, increasing capacity utilization ratio, education level of the owner and egg yield/hen would help to increase efficiency levels of the farms.
  • Analysis of Variables Affecting Carcass Weight of White Turkeys by Regression Analysis Based on Factor Analysis Scores and Ridge Regression Articles

    Çelik, Ş; Şengül, T; Söğüt, B; Inci, H; Şengül, AY; Kayaokay, A; Ayaşan, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this study, the influence of carcass parts weights (thigh, breast, wing, back weight, gizzard, heart, and feet) on whole carcass weight of white turkeys (Big-6) was analyzed by regression analysis based on ridge regression and factor analysis scores. For this purpose, a total of 30 turkey carcasses of 15 males and 15 females with 17 weeks of age, were used. To determine the carcass weight (CW), thigh weight (TW), breast weight (BRW), wing weight (WW), back weight (BW), gizzard weight (GW), heart weight (HW), and feet weight (FW) were used. In the ridge regression model, since the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) values of the variables were less than 10, the multicollinearity problem was eliminated. Furthermore, R2=0.988 was obtained in the ridge regression model. Since the eigenvalues of the two variables predicted by factor analysis scores were greater than 1, the model can be explained by two factors. The variance explained by two factors constitutes 88.80% of the total variance. The regression equation was statistically significant (p<0.01). In the regression equation, two factors obtained by using factor analysis scores were independent variables and standardized carcass weight was considered as dependent variable. In the regression model created by factor analysis scores, the Variance Inflation Factor values were 1 and R2=0.966. Both regression models were found to be suitable for predicting carcass weight of turkeys. However, the ridge regression method, which presented higher R2 value, has been shown to better explain the carcass weight.
  • The Differential Expression and Snp Analysis of the Ovoinhibitor Gene in the Ovaries of Laying Duck Breeds (Anas Platyrhynchos) Articles

    Wu, Y; Liang, H; Zhang, H; Pi, JS; Pan, AL; Shen, J; Pu, YJ; Du, JP

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Ovoinhibitor (OIH) is the main proteinase inhibitor in the egg white. In the present study, real-time quantitative PCR and Western-Blot were used to analyze different expression pattern of OIH in ovaries as a candidate gene of reproductive traits in Jingjiang ducks (JJ ducks) and Shaoxing ducks (SX ducks) during three laying stages. To study the polymorphism of the OIH gene in those two duck populations, we designed five pairs of primers to detect SNPs of exon 3-5, 5-6, 14-16 and intron 7, 9 of the OIH gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA pool sequencing methods. The results showed that OIH expression increased during the laying stage in the ovaries of both duck breeds. The relative expression levels of OIH in the egg at hatch and 180days of age were lower in JJ ducks than in SX ducks, but higher in JJ ducks than SX ducks at 500 days of age. Only exon 5-6 locus had a novel SNP. One variation (389G>A) was detected in the two tested duck populations and it was associated with some laying traits, such as body weight of hatch, age at first egg, weight at first egg, egg number at 72weeks of age. The AG genotype was associated with inferior body weight of hatch and superior weight at first egg, age at first egg and egg number at 72weeks of age. Therefore, these results suggest that OIH may be a strong candidate gene related to some laying traits in ducks.
  • Genetic and Environmental Effects on Tonic Immobility Duration of Red-Winged Tinamou Applying Survival Analysis Articles

    Hata, ME; Caetano, SL; Boleli, IC; Queiroz, SA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Fear behavioral studies provide knowledge on animal welfare, and fearful behaviors can be used as selection criteria of individuals adapted to intensive rearing system. The survival analysis methodology was applied to estimate tonic immobility (TI) duration, as an indicator of fear, of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) reared in captivity and to determine if TI is genetically influenced. A number of 539 birds born between 2006 and 2010 were evaluated. The exploratory data analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimate (KM), and the covariates were then fit to a Cox model, considering month of observation nested within year of birth and body weight as fixed effects and the random effect of sire as frailty term. In order to predict genetic values and to estimate heritability, the model of proportional hazards was applied, using a Weibull distribution as the baseline hazard. Birds born in the last year presented shorter TI duration than those born in the previous year, as shown by the survival KM curves, indicating a decline in fearfulness from one year to the next. The Cox analysis detected that hazard function was reduced as body weight increased. The frailty term was significant (p<0.05), showing that sires induced variation in the TI duration of the offspring. Heritability estimated as 0.37, indicating the influence of additive genes. These findings suggest that the selection of for short TI duration may allow reducing fearfulness of a red-winged tinamou population after some generations.
  • Indicators of Work Accidents in Slaughter Refrigerators and Broiler Processing Articles

    Takeda, F; Moro, ARP; Machado, L; Zanella, AL

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This research aims at describing data for an epidemiological profile, as well as to contribute to the improvement of systems of information, prevention and risk control of accidents in the workplace in processing and further processing broiler plants. In this study, data from documents of 1,274 investigations of typical work accidents were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis, and the frequency and severity of accidents were calculated according to NBR 14280:2001. The results show that men tend to have more accidents than women; 69.8% of those injured had been in the company for less than 3 years; 37% of the accidents were cuts; 35.6% were bruises; the most affected body parts were hands and fingers, representing a total of 48% of all accidents; 41.6% of victims were not using personal protective equipment (PPE) at the time of the accident; the underlying causative condition of 54.9% of the accidents was the lack of personal safety. The proportion for each accident with leave was 1.7 accidents without leave but with a need for relocation of activity and 10.9 accidents without leave without relocation. There were amputation cases among some of those given leave of absence. For every million hours worked, there were 3.2 accidents with leave and 139.4 days of absence were registered. The study concludes that accident rates in in processing and further processing broiler plants are high, and that it is extremely important to establish an epidemiological profile in order to guide prevention and control actions.
  • Evaluation of Anherbal Compound, a Commercial Probiotic, and an Antibiotic Growth Promoter on the Performance, Intestinal Bacterial Population, Antibody Titers, and Morphology of the Jejunum and Ileum of broilers Articles

    Hedayati, M; Manafi, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to examine the effects of an herbal compound, a probiotic and an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on the performance, intestinal bacterial population, antibody titers, and morphology of the jejunum and ileum of broilers. A number of 240 male Ross 308 broilers were distributed into four treatments, with five replicates of 12 bird each. The experimental period was 42 days. Treatments includes: 1) basal diet; 2) basal diet supplemented with an AGP (phospho-flavomycin at 450 mg/kg of diet); 3) basal diet supplemented with a Lactobacillus-containing probiotic (250 mg/kg of diet); and 4) basal diet supplemented with an herbal compound (containing thyme, oregano, chamomile, and peppermint essential oils at 1 g/kg of diet). Body weight (BW) and cumulative feed intake (CFI) were measured weekly. Blood parameters, intestinal morphology, vaccine immunity titers, and intestinal microbial population were measured on day 42. The results showed that probiotic and herbal compound supplementation significantly increased body weight (BW) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.05), in comparison with the basal diet. A significant increase in vaccine titers against Avian Influenza, Newcastle disease, and Infectious Bursal Disease were achieved with the treatment with herbal compound supplementation. Herbal compound significantly reduced triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL concentration and ALP, AST and ALT activities and increased the HDL levels in blood serum of chicks (p<0.05). The bacterial load of E. coli, Salmonella and coliforms of the AGP-fed group was significantly lower than those fed the control diet. Significant increases in villus height and decrease in crypt depth and goblet cells were seen in the ileum and jejunum of probiotic-fed broilers (p<0.05). In conclusion, better overall immune status and blood biochemical parameters were obtained with the herbal compound than with the probiotic; however, the performance of broilers fed the probiotic was better than that of the broilers fed the herbal compound and the AGP.
  • Some Physical, Morphological, and Mechanical Characteristics of Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) Eggs Articles

    Galic, A; Pliestic, S; Janjecic, Z; Bedekovic, D; Filipovic, D; Kovacev, I; Copec, K

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The physical, morphological, and mechanical characteristics of eggs play an important role in the processes of embryo development and hatching. Some physical, morphological, and mechanical characteristics of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo; Zagorje breed) eggs collected during two laying cycles from same turkey hens were determined in this study. The average values of length, width, geometric mean diameter, weight, surface area, volume, sphericity, eggshell thickness, and eggshell density were determined as 66.61 mm, 46.84 mm, 52.66 mm, 77.74 g, 8712.42 mm2, 76553.49 mm3, 79.31%, 0.354 mm and 3.13 g cm-3, respectively. Eggs collected during second laying cycle were, on average, larger and heavier in comparison with those collected during first cycle. Average albumen, yolk and eggshell percentages of the eggs collected during two laying cycles were 58.11%, 29.50% and 12.39%, respectively. The highest breaking strength was obtained when the eggs were loaded along the X-front axis and the least breaking strength was required along the Z-axis. The average breaking strength, absorbed energy and firmness in loading along the X-front axis were found to be 73.80 N, 9.75 N mm and 280.30 N mm-1, respectively.
  • Influence of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal Used as Phytogenic Feed Additive on the Serum Metabolites and Egg Bioactive Compounds in Commercial Layers Articles

    Ahmad, S; Khalique, A; Pasha, TN; Mehmood, S; Ahmad, S Sohail; Khan, AM; Hussain, K

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Phytogenic feed additives have been increasingly used in the last decade, and several plants and their metabolites have been investigated for the said purpose. In this context, present study aimed at evaluating the effects of Moringa oleifera as feed additive on layer performance, and egg bioactive compound levels and nutrient profile. HyLine W36 layers (n=200), 50 weeks of age, were randomly distributed in four treatments with five replicates of ten birds each. Four isocaloric (2725 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP 16%) diets were formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% (w/w) of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLM). The results showed positive effects of MLM on egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio, but negative effects on egg quality (p≤0.05). The contents of bioactive compounds, like β-carotene, quercetin, and selenium, in the diet and in the egg yolk were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in the group fed1.5% MLM, with values of 8.90, 48.88, and 0.54 mg/kg feed and 4906, 241 and 56.82 µg/100g yolk, respectively. Creatinine and glucose serum levels and cholesterol levels (serum and eggs) linearly increased as a function of increasing MLM dietary levels (p≤0.05). Antibody titers against Newcastle Disease significantly improved (p≤0.05) in the group fed the diet supplemented with 1.5% MLM. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera used as phytogenic feed additive enriches eggs with bioactive and functional compounds, and improves the production performance and the health status of layers.
  • Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oils on Oxidative Status and Intestinal Barrier Function in Broiler Chickens Articles

    Tan, L; Rong, D; Yang, Y; Zhang, B

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxidized soybean oils on the growth performance, metabolic oxidative status and intestinal barrier function of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chickens were assigned to four dietary treatments with six replicates (cages) of 10 birds each. The dietary treatments comprised of a basal diet supplemented with 4% of: non-oxidized (fresh) soybean oil (control treatment, SNX); lowly-oxidized soybean oil (SLX) (oil heated for 10h at 200°C); moderately-oxidized soybean oil (SMX) (oil heated for 18h at 200°C); or highly-oxidized soybean oil (SHX) (oil heated for 30h at 200°C). Diets and water were offered ad libitum. The experiment was lasted 21d.The growth performance of broilers, determined from 1 to 14 d and from 1 to 21 d of age, was not affected by the dietary treatments (p>0.05). Broilers fed oxidized soybean oils presented higher corticosterone serum levels compared with those fed non-oxidized oil (p<0.05). Higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels onday14 and 21 (p<0.05), and lower total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and totalsuperoxide dismutase (T-SOD) values on day 21were obtained in the liver of broiler fed oxidized oils relative to those fed the non-oxidized oil (p<0.05). Broilers fed the highly-oxidized soybean oil had higher (p<0.05) MDA levels in the jejunum on day 21 compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. Chickens fed moderately- and highly-oxidized soybean oil presented lower (p<0.05) T-SOD activity inileal mucosa compared with those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. Ileal mRNA expression of claudin-1 tended to be down regulated by the dietary addition of oxidized oils (p=0.056). The mRNA expression of interleukin-22 (IL-22) of broilers fed moderately-oxidized and highly-oxidized soybean oil was higher (p<0.05), and the mRNA expression of occludin and catalase was lower (p<0.05) than those fed non-oxidized soybean oil. However, the morphology of the jejunal and ileal mucosa was not influenced (p>0.05) by the dietary oxidized oil treatments. It was concluded that oxidized oils may cause oxidative stress by reducing intestinal and liver antioxidant capacity; increase intestinal permeability by reducing mRNA expression levels of tight-junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin; and cause inflammation by increasing mRNA expression level of the inflammation-related factor IL-22.
  • The Effects of Using Garlic Extract for Quail Hatching Egg Disinfection on Hatching Results and Performance Articles

    Baylan, M; Akpınar, GC; Canogullari, SD; Ayasan, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of using garlic extract (Allium sativum) as an alternative to formaldehyde for the disinfection of hatching eggs on hatching traits and growth performance of quails. Four treatments, with 240 hatching eggs each, were evaluated: egg immersion in two different levels (2.5% and 5.0%) of garlic extract (garlic-1, garlic-2), formaldehyde fumigation (positive control), and eggs not submitted to disinfection (negative control). Mid-term and late embryomortality, pipped egg, and culled chick rates were not influenced by the (p>0.05). The highest (p<0.05) early embryo mortality rate was detected in the formaldehyde treatment (9.99%), and the lowest in garlic-2 treatment (2.68%). Hatchability of fertile eggs was the lowest in the formaldehyde group (83.78%), followed by the control (85.20%), garlic-1 (87.11%) and garlic-2 (88.72%) groups, respectively. The highest final body weight (5 weeks of age) was obtained in the garlic-2 group (304.1 g), followed by the control (294.13 g), formaldehyde (290.56 g), and garlic-1 (288.44 g), respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05). The results obtained for hatching traits and live performance parameters indicated that the immersion of eggs in garlic extract may be used as an alternative to formaldehyde fumigation for the disinfection of hatching quail eggs.
  • Optimal Standardized Ileal Digestible Arginine to Lysine Ratio for Japanese Quails in the Egg-Laying Phase Articles

    Tuesta, GMR; Viana, GS; Barreto, SLT; Muniz, JCL; Reis, RS; Mencalha, R; Hannas, MI

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible arginine to lysine (SID Arg:Lys) ratio for Japanese quails in the egg-laying phase. A total of two hundred forty-five 35-week-old Japanese quails (181 ± 1.30 g initial body weight) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups with seven replicates of seven quails. Graded levels of L-Arginine were added to a basal diet in order to produce five SID Arg:Lys ratios (101, 106, 111, 116 and 121%). Collected data were analyzed as one-way ANOVA and optimal ratio was estimated using polynomial regression model (linear and quadratic) based on performance traits. Statistical differences were considered for p<0.05. Graded SID Arg:Lys ratios did not affect performance traits assessed. Based on results, the SID Arg:Lys ratio of 101% is sufficient to warrant proper performance of Japanese quails in the egg-laying phase.
  • The Effect of Lentil-By Product on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Heavy White Turkeys Articles

    Söğüt, B; Kurbal, ÖF; İnci, H; Ayaşan, T

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The subject of this study was to figure out the effects of lentil by product (LP) on growth performance and carcass traits of the white heavy turkeys. To accomplish this goal, a total of 210 day old big-6 turkey chicks were used. The birds were divided into 7 seven groups with 3 replicates. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th groups received 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 % lentil by product, respectively. All the diets were made as izonitrojenic and izocaloric. The highest live body weights of males and females were observed in the control group at the end of the 15th week, which was the time of slaughtering of females, however the differences between the control and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were not significant (p>0.05). The same differences continued for males at the end of the 17th wk of age, which was the time of slaughtering of males. Similar results were observed in carcass traits, as well. The best FCR was noted in the control group and it was significantly (p<0.05) different than in the treatment groups. The lowest and highest feed intake was observed in the 7th and 3rd groups. No significant differences were observed between control and all treatment groups. As a result, it could be said that lentil by product could be added into turkey diets up to 15% with no negative effect on live body weight and carcass traits because there was no significant differences between control and treatment groups (5, 10,15 % LP).
  • Effect of Feedingarginine on the Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Relative Expression of Lipogenic Genes, and Blood Parametersof Arian Broilers Articles

    Pirsaraei, ZA; Rahimi, A; Deldar, H; Sayyadi, AJ; Ebrahimi, M; Shahneh, AZ; Shivazad, M; Tebianian, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of L-arginine on the growth performance, blood parameters, and lipogenic gene expression of Arian broiler chickens. For this purpose, 168 Arian broiler chicks (40.33±1.7 g) were assigned to four treatments with three replicates of14 birds each, according to completely randomized design. The experimental treatments consisted of 100, 124, 139, and 154% dietary arginine levels relative to the published requirements of Arian broilers. On 42 d of the experiment, blood samples were collected from two birds (six birds per treatment) for blood metabolite measurements. These birds were then euthanized for carcass evaluation and collection of tissue samples. Increasing dietary arginine levels reduced (p<0.05) the gene expression of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, and malic enzyme in the liver and lipoprotein lipase in the abdominal fat tissue, as well as abdominal fat relative weight. Increasing dietary arginine levels significantly increased (p<0.05) body weight, feed efficiency, carcass yield, breast and thigh relative weights, and glucose and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) blood levels, and reduced cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) blood levels. Since almost similar performance and carcass trait results were obtained both with 124 and 139% arginine levels, supplying Arian broiler diets with 124% arginine is suggested.
  • Pirarucu By-Product Acid Silage Meal in Diets for Commercial Laying Hens Articles

    Batalha, OS; Alfaia, SS; Cruz, FGG; Jesus, RS; Rufino, JPF; Silva, AF

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of pirarucu by-product acid silage meal in diets for laying hens on performance and egg quality. One hundred sixty eight Hissex White laying hens 73-wk-old were distributed in completely randomized design with seven treatments (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0%) and four replicates of six birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days divided into four periods of 21 days. Estimates of pirarucu by-product meal levels were determined by polynomial regression. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in all variables of performance, in egg weight, yolk height and yolk pigmentation, with pirarucu by-product meal inclusion in diets showed better results than control diet. The pirarucu by-product acid silage meal can be used as alternative food in diets for commercial laying hens. Up to the 2.5% inclusion level there wasn’t negative effect in performance and egg quality.
  • Distribution of Ifitm3 in Yellow-Feathered Broilers and Inhibition of Avian Reovirus Multiplication by Ifitm3 Articles

    Wang, Q; Yuan, X; Li, C; Deng, H; Wang, C

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was carried to express the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) in vitro and examine its function in inhibition of avian reovirus (ARV) replication. The recombinant prokaryotic vector expressing yellow-feathered broiler IFITM3 was successfully constructed, and the recombinant protein was expressed in competent Escherichia coli BL21 cells. New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with the purified recombinant protein to prepare a polyclonal antibody, with a titer of 1:128,000. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-PCR, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR showed that IFITM3 was distributed in the yellow-feathered broiler immune organs, and the expression of IFITM3 in bursa of Fabricius was more than in spleen and thymus. It was found that in the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius the mRNA expression levels of IFNα and IFITM3 were significantly induced after ARV infection. And it was also certified in the chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) which infected with ARV. Then the IFNα was added into the cell culture medium before CEFs were infected with ARV. The results indicated that the mRNA of IFITM3 expression was significantly increased and ARV multiplication was significantly inhibited. And when the expression of IFITM3 was knocked down by siRNA-IFITM3, the expression of IFITM3 was significantly reduced, but the ARV multiplication was significantly increased, which indicated that IFITM3 protein could inhibit the ARV replication.
  • The Effects of Threonine on Performance Parameters, Carcass Traits, Visceral Organ Indices and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Linwu Ducks, Aged 4 to 8 Weeks Articles

    Jiang, G; Li, C; Huang, X; Zhang, X; Hu, Y; Wang, X; Wu, D; Dai, Q

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to establish dietary threonine (Thr) levels for Linwu ducks, aged 4 to 8 wk. Experimental diets formulated to contain 0.56, 0.61, 0.66, 0.71, 0.76, and 0.81% Thr fed to Linwu ducks. A total of 360 healthy Linwu female ducks with similar body weight (1183.89±3.83 g) were randomly divided into six groups, with five replicates in each group, and 12 ducks in each replicate. Samples were collected at 8 wk for the determination of growth performance, carcass traits, visceral organ indices, and serum biochemical parameters. As a result of this study, Thr level had no significant influence on the final weight, the daily gain, feed/gain ratio, and average daily intake (p>0.05). Similarly, there were no significant effects of dietary Thr on carcass traits and visceral organ indices (p>0.05). The pancreatic index was highest among all the treatments when the dietary Thr level was 0.66%. The different dietary Thr levels had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the concentration of total protein (TP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH). However, the serum MDA concentration in the 0.66% treatment was lower (P=0.068) than in the other treatments. In conclusion, Thr at 0.66% concentration may have an antioxidant activity and exert positive effect on Linwu ducks.
  • The Effect of Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate on Fatty Liver and the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Overfed Landes Geese Articles

    Tang, J; Fang, Q; Lu, M; Shao, R; Shen, J; Lu, L; Niu, D

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Goose fatty liver is a delicious food product and the overfeeding will cause the abnormal physiology of the geese. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementation with hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on the fatty liver, ileal and cecal microbiota of Landes geese during overfeeding. Sixty 70-day-old Landes geese (body weight= 3.0 ± 0.05 kg) were randomly divided into three groups, two of which were overfed with whole corn supplemented with or without HSCAS for 20 days when the fatty liver reaches to the maximum size and the negative control group was ad libitum access to the corn basal diet. The intestinal contents of the ileum and cecum from three geese per group were used for high-throughput sequencing. As a result of this study, the HSCAS-treatment led to an increase in relative liver weight (p<0.05) of geese compared with the overfeeding control group. The richness and diversity of the bacterial communities decreased in the ileum and ceca after overfeeding. Overfeeding increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, especially Lactobacillus, in ileal samples. HSCAS supplementation increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, and decreased the relative abundance of Actinobacillus in the ileum and the relative abundance of Erysipelotrichi, Bacteroides and Escherichia in the ceca. Bacterial richness indicators were also increased in samples from ileum and ceca after HSCAS supplementation. In conclusion, dietary HSCAS supplementation promoted liver performance in overfed Landes geese. HSCAS treatment had a beneficial effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in geese during the overfeeding.
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