Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed at investigating the effects of broccoli residues fermented with probiotics (BF) on the growth performance, immunity, and gut health in broilers challenged with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). A total of 600 broilers (one day old) were randomly allotted into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each and were reared until 42 days of age. The treatments included a positive control (PC, fed a basal diet and reared on uncontaminated litter), a negative control (NC, birds reared on litter contaminated with C. perfringens and fed a basal diet), and NC plus BF at 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of diet. The BF contained yeast 3.1 × 107cfu/g, lactic acid bacteria 9.5 × 106cfu/g and Bacillus subtilis 3.5 × 106cfu/g. Birds in the NC group showed lower (p<0.05) feed intake and body weight gain, whereas BF supplementation recovered (p<0.05) the growth performance to the levels of PC group. Dietary BF at 50and 75 g/kg reduced (p<0.05) broiler mortality. Similarly, compared to the NC group, BF increased (p<0.05) immune organ weights and serum immunoglobulins A, G, and M to the levels of PC group. The ileal populations of Escherichia coli and Gram-negative bacteria were decreased (p<0.05) by BF to the levels of PC, and C. perfringens was also decreased (p<0.05) by BF. The serum profiles of mono- and di-amine oxidase were decreased (p<0.05) by BF. BF at 75 g/kg reduced (p<0.05) monoamine oxidase compared with the other BF doses. The results suggest that broccoli residues fermented with probiotics can be a novel biological feed additive to protect the performance and health of broilers against C. perfringens infection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the performance, intestinal morphology and carcass yield of broilers fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or corn-SBM-soybean hull (SH) with or without b-mannanase supplementation. Thousand four hundred and forty Cobb Slow-male- chicks were housed design following a factorial scheme 2 x 2 (corn-SBM diet and corn-SBM-SH diet vs with and without b-mannanase), composing 4 treatments and 9 replicates each treatment, with 40 birds each replicate. At 21 days, corn-SBM diet supplemented with b-mannanase resulted in better (p<0.05) feed conversion. At 42 days, the weight gain (p<0.05) and feed intake (p<0.05) of the birds fed diets containing SH was 2.6% and 2.9% higher than that of birds fed corn-SBM diets, respectively, independent of b-mannanase supplementation. Birds supplemented with b-mannanase had a lower length of villi (p<0.05) and absorption area (p<0.05) of jejunum mucosa, and higher (p<0.05) relative liver weight. Diets with SH and without addition of b-mannanase resulted in higher relative liver weight (p<0.05) and lower percentage of fat in the carcass. It was not found statistical differences (p>0.05) in the quality of the poultry litter with the inclusion of the enzyme in the diet. The use of b-mannanase in diets with higher concentration of fiber improves the feed conversion of broilers from 1 to 21 days and can be an important nutritional and economic strategy in situations of unavailability of raw material of better quality. Corn-SBM-SH diet resulted in greater weight gain at 42 days than corn-SBM diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Enteric diseases affect poultry and cause important economic losses in many countries worldwide. Avian parvovirus has been linked to enteric conditions, such as malabsorption and runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), characterized by diarrhoea, and reduced weight gain and growth retardation. In 2013 and 2016, 79 samples were collected from different organs of chickens in Ecuador that exhibited signs of diarrhea and stunting syndrome, and analysed for the presence of chicken parvovirus (ChPV). The detection method of ChPV applied was Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), using primers designed from the conserved region of the viral genome that encodes the non-structural protein NS1. Out of the 79 samples, 50.6% (40/79) were positive for ChPV, and their nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationship with the sequences reported in the United States, Canada, China, South Korea, Croatia, Poland, Hungary, and Brazil. Strong similarity of nucleotide and amino acid sequences among all analyzed sequences and between the analysed and reference sequences was demonstrated, and the phylogenetic analysis clustered all the sequences within the same group, demonstrating a strong relation between the studied strains and the reference chicken parvovirus strains.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study, a method utilizing PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of a mitochondrial gene was developed for the identification of chicken (Gallus gallus), quail (Coturnix coturnix), and common pigeon (Columba livia) meat. PCR products of ~440 bp were obtained from the 12S rRNA gene of these three birds using a pair of universal primers. The three terrestrial birds can be distinguished using one restriction endonuclease, Alu I, which was selected based on species-specific variations in the mt 12S rRNA gene sequence using 9 newly-obtained and 44 published chicken, quail and pigeon sequences. This method was also successfully used to identify commercial quail and pigeon meat products, which were found to be adulterated with chicken meat. Additionally, our method had relatively high sensitivity for detecting a meat mixture. Ten percent of chicken meat in the mixed quail and pigeon sample was detectable. This assay can be useful for the accurate identification of meats from terrestrial birds, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in meat products.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The region around the municipality of Bastos, state of São Paulo, accounted for about 7% of Brazilian egg production in 2015. In 2012, it experienced a heat wave that resulted in the death of approximately 500,000 hens, according to information released at the time. Considering the impact of heat waves on layer mortality, the objective of this study was to analyze how heat waves impact the layer farming in the region of Bastos, considering the climate change scenarios forecasted by the IPCC for the next years. This study was conducted in three stages: i) analysis of the IPCC reports to understand climate change scenarios; ii) analysis of historical temperature data in the region of Bastos; iii) analysis of how climate change, through heat waves, may impact layer mortality in this region. All the IPCC scenarios indicate that both average temperature and the number of extreme events, such as heat waves, are expected to increase. Historical data showed that since the mid-1980s, maximum temperature has increased, as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves. The association of layer mortality due to heat waves with the IPCC climate change forecasts for that region indicates a trend of increasing layer mortality in egg production operations which sheds are not equipped with air conditioning.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary inclusion with linseed and pumpkin seed meals on growth performance, carcass traits and breast meat fatty acids profile of helmeted guinea fowls. A total of 120 meat-type helmeted guinea fowl females of 12 weeks of age were fed with 0 (T0), 100 (T1) and 200 (T2) g/kg of linseed (LM) and pumpkin seed meals (PSM) for 56 days, in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates per treatment and four birds per replicate. The inclusion up to 200 g/kg of LM and PSM did not affect the livability, initial live weight and feed intake (p>0.05). However, final live weight and feed:gain ratio improved significantly (p<0.05). The T1 increased (p<0.05) the carcass yield and the T2 improved the breast weight and weight and yield of leg. Also, these experimental diets did not affect the carcass weight, breast yield and sensory quality of meat (p>0.05). The oleaginous seeds (LM and PSM) decreased (p<0.05) the mystic, palmitic and octadecanoic acids and the w-6/w-3 ratio, as well as increased the linoleic, a-linolenic, eicosapentanoic and docosahexanoic acids (p<0.05), but did not modify the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (p>0.05) and the eicosatrienoic and arachidonic acids in breast meat (p<0.05). It is recommended the inclusion of 100 g/kg of LM and PSM to improve the live weight, weight and yield of the edible portions and the essential fatty acids in breast meat of guinea fowl, without affecting the sensory quality of the meat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to elucidate the clinical effect of ochratoxin A in Gallus gallusdomesticus and to ameliorate its toxic effects by the development and characterization of highly porous carbon-based adsorbent derived from coconut shell. A series of experiments were performed on one day-old chicks (Group A to F). Clinical signs of the positive control (group B fed on 400 ppb ochratoxin A contaminated feed) included depression, diarrhea, increased water intake, low body weight, high degree of genotoxicity, swollen and hemorrhagic kidneys and liver. Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and urea concentration significantly increased while albumin, globulin and total proteins were found significantly low. All these lead to increased mortality. Among adsorbents treated groups, chickens in group C (0.3% of the prepared adsorbent mixed in OTA contaminated feed) and D (0.6% of the prepared adsorbent mixed in Ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed) showed very low pathological effects while group E (0.9% of the prepared adsorbent mixed in OTA contaminated feed) and F (1.2% of the prepared adsorbent mixed in OTA contaminated feed) showed normal behavior, blood biochemistry and well maintained histological structure like that in group A. As a whole, the adsorbents treated groups fed with ochratoxin A contaminated feed, supplemented with different levels of the prepared adsorbent helped to ameliorate the toxic effects of OTA and nearly showed normal clinical signs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to determine the effects of the licorice root (Glycyrrhriza glabra) in laying hens diets on performance, egg cholesterol, some plasma parameters and antioxidant capacity. One hundred, 40-week old laying hens were divided into four groups, each group consisted of 25 hens and were placed in individual cages. The mean of the initial body weight of laying hens was 1829.18±9.595 g. Commercial laying hen diet was supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% levels of licorice root powder and four different dietary groups were formed. From the experimental findings, it was ascertained that the licorice root supplementation had no significant effect on egg weight and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05), but feed consumption decreased with increasing licorice root (p<0.05).Egg yield was recorded as 88.94%, 89.56%, 86.82% and 85.02% in the groups of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively (p<0.05).Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and egg yolk cholesterol level decreased with the addition of licorice root, while plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was increased with licorice root addition (p<0.05). Licorice root addition had a positive effect on total antioxidant capacity (TAS) of plasma. It was determined that the total antioxidant capacity was increased by increasing amount of licorice root. From the overall findings, it can be concluded that licorice root could be used as a feed additive without any adverse effect on performance. It has been demonstrated that the licorice root enables the production of functional eggs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) and coated sodium butyrate (CSB) on intestinal morphology, disaccharidase activity and intramuscular fat of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 1-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly allocated into four groups: (1) control; (2) LPS, in which broilers were fed a basal diet and intraperitoneally injected with 500 μg/kg LPS on days 38, 40 and 42; (3) TB, in which LPS-challenged broilers were fed basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg TB; and (4) CSB, in which LPS-challenged broilers were fed basal diet supplemented with 877 mg/kg CSB. Addition of TB and CSB inhibited (p<0.05) the decrease in villus height in the duodenum and ileum of LPS-challenged broilers, respectively. Both TB and CSB increased (p<0.05) activity of maltase in the small intestine, and TB increased (p<0.05) activity of isomaltase in the ileum. Additionally, dietary addition of TB and CSB decreased (p<0.05) the content of intramuscular fat. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of TB was more effective than CSB in improving intestinal morphology and disaccharidase activity of LPS-challenged broilers, and they both reduced intramuscular fat in the breast and legs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The possibility of using mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (FVW) in layer diets was explored in this study. A total of 180, 40-week-old ISA Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 6 replications of 6 birds for each group. Layers were fed a standard basal diet as control; antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin); 2% FVW; 4%FVW; and 6% FVW. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed on hen daily egg production, egg weight, egg mass, unmarketable eggs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and live weight among experimental groups. Haugh unit was found higher (p<0.05) in FVW fed groups than in antibiotic fed groups. Shape index, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk weight, yolk index, yolk weight and albumen weight were not affected (p>0.05) by feeding FVW in this study. Yolk color was found higher (p<0.05) in FVW fed groups than in control and antibiotic groups. The shell color was higher (p<0.05) both in 4% FVW and 6% FVW fed groups than in control and antibiotic groups. Calcium retention and calcium in egg shell deposition were higher (p<0.05) both in 4% FVW and 6% FVW fed groups than in control and antibiotic groups respectively. Apparent nutrient retention for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, and organic matter were higher (p<0.05) in FVW fed groups than in control and antibiotic groups. FVW at 6% level in layer ration can be used for organic eggs production which would be safe and sound for human consumption.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) and Banana flour (Musa cavendishii) on performance of laying hens. Fifty laying hens (3 months of age) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 10 laying hens. The groups were control (10 laying hens); L6 (Leucaena, 6 g/day (10 laying hens)); L8 (Leucaena, 8.0 g/day (10 laying hens)); L10 (Leucaena, 10 g/day (10 laying hens)); and L12 (Leucaena, 12 g/day (10 laying hens)), in addition, five levels of Banana flour control (10 laying hens); 25% (10 laying hens); 50%, (10 laying hens); 75% (10 laying hens); and 100% (10 laying hens), were assessed respectively. The experimental period lasted from 4 to 8 weeks. The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between of treatments L6, L8, L10, and L12 for body weight during the first 30 days compared with the control, whereas for weight gain, statistically significant differences were observed between the control compared with the treatments L6, L8, L10, and L12 for days 10, 20 and 30 (p<0.05). Additionally, statistically significant differences were found between different levels of Banana flour for weight gain (g) between the control with the levels 25, 50 75, 100%, respectively for days 20 and 30. In the case of feed intake (g) statistically significant differences were found during day 30 between the control and 100%, also between the control and levels 25, and 75%, respectively. From the results, it can be concluded that the inclusion of Leucaena and banana flour have effects on weight gain, body weight and feed intake of laying hens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Hilly chickens were characterized from January 2015 to September 2016 considering climate factors (light and heat). The experimental birds were divided into three groups (heat stress; light and control). The heat was generated in the chicken’s shelter by a black shaded light (Lantern) for two to three hours more after sunset. A lighting device (Lantern) was kept in the chicken’s shelter for the same period for increasing daylight duration. The individual chicken’s egg production, egg weight and mature live weight were studied from onset of egg production. It was observed that reddish brown hilly type chicken produced more (100.80 no/year/chicken) and larger sized (43.21g) eggs than spotted chicken (83.4 no/year/chicken and 40.46g). Among the three treatments, the lighting group produced 7.71 and 5.60 more eggs than the control and heat stress group, and one hour lighting lengths increased egg production 4 to 5.8%. Fifty-five blood samples were collected, and DNA was isolated from whole blood. For genetic characterization, 10 microsatellites markers from FAO recommendation list were used in this study. PCR amplification was performed in an MJ PTC-200 Peltier Thermal Cycler. The gene flow among breeds and genetic differentiation was assessed by computing between-breed genetic parameters: molecular co-ancestry (fij). It was found that genetic diversity of these two types of chickens was moderate. Results indicated that they were originated from the same ancestor. Therefore, priority should be given for implementation of appropriate breeding programme and strategies are necessary to avoid loss of genetic diversity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of dietary phytogenic feed additive (PFA) on growth performance, caecal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 480 Ross-308 one-day-old male broilers chicks (body weight 43±3 g) were randomly assigned to 32 replicate pens of four experimental groups, each experimental group consisting of 8 replicates (each replicate pen consisting of 15 chicks). A basal diet was formulated based on corn and soybean meal that was fed to the control group. Other dietary treatments received a commercial PFA at 100 mg/kg (PFA100), 125 mg/kg (PFA125), and 150 mg/kg (PFA150). Body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate of broilers were recorded on 1-21, 22-42, and 1-42 days of age. One bird was slaughtered on the 21st and 42nd days and caecal contents were aseptically collected. Jejunal tissue samples were also collected on the same days. Total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, and lactobacilli were counted in the caecal contents. Villus height, villus diameter, crypt depth, muscular thickness, and goblet cell number per villus were recorded. There was no difference among the dietary treatments for growth performance and caecal microbe populations at any phase. However, the dietary PFA supplementation increased the villus height, villus width, muscularis thickness, and reduced the crypt depth and goblet cell number per villus in broilers compared to those fed control diets. In conclusion, this study suggests that dietary supplementation of a PFA consisting of blend of different spices and essential oils did not improve growth performance and caecal microbial populations despite a positive improvement in the jejunal morphometry of broilers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate whether resveratrol (RES) could inhibit NF-κB activity and protect in vitro cultured chicken lymphocytes from apoptosis induced by continuous LPS stimulation. Blood lymphocytes of chickens were collected and cultured. LPS was added to the samples of treatment group, while the same volume of normal saline (NS) was supplemented to those of the control group. In the treatment groups, four different concentrations of RES (0, 20, 40, and 80 µg/ml) were admixed. Then, the following indicators were tested: lymphocyte apoptotic rate, lymphocyte viability, NF-κB activity, TNF-a level, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Fas/FasL and Caspase-8). The results indicated that the application of different concentrations of RES could significantly increase the viability of lymphocytes and decrease the apoptotic rate (p<0.05) after continuous stimulations by LPS. The activity of NF-κB levels of TNF-a and ROS in the RES treatment subgroups was significantly decreased in comparison with that in the RES-blank subgroup (p<0.05). The cells in the treatment group that had been treated with 20, 40 and 80 μl/ml of RES exhibited a significantly lower Fas and Caspase-8 expression level than that in the RES-blank subgroup (p<0.05). These findings revealed that RES could substantially diminish the concentrations of ROS and TNF-a, down-regulate NF-κB activity, decrease the expression of Fas and Caspase-8, stimulate the activity of peripheral lymphocytes, and lower the rate of their apoptosis, induced by continuous LPS stimulation in chicken lymphocyte cultures.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary L-Threonine supplementation on broiler performance, carcass characteristics, duodenal histo-morphology and litter analysis. It was hypothesised that the overall broiler performance would be improved in threonine adequate diets with reduced environmental impact when using L-threonine supplementation. A total of 144-sexed Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 8 birds per replicate (4 male and 4 female). Treatment group 1 served as threonine deficient group, fed with a diet with all limiting amino acids met except threonine as no synthetic form was supplied. Treatment group 2 served as threonine adequate high crude protein, where L-Threonine adequacy was achieved with higher level of crude protein. Treatment group 3 served as L-Threonine adequate but achieved it through L-Threonine supplementation. Treatment effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, intestinal morphology and litter quality were determined. Results compared to group 1 showed that group 3 at the end of the experimental period (28 days) had improved final body weight P < 0.05, live and carcass weights P < 0.01, dressing yields P < 0.05, relative wing weights P < 0.01 and relative heart weights P < 0.05. However, group 2 showed numeric improvement in all aforementioned parameters but not enough to show significance. Litter moisture and nitrogen content was affected by dietary L-Threonine fortification P < 0.05. The lowest moisture and nitrogen content were noticed in group 3. Meanwhile, group 2 showed the highest nitrogen and group 1 showed the highest moisture content among all groups. Intestinal villi length and villus: crypt ratio was affected by dietary treatments P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Group 3 showed the highest villus length and villus: crypt ratio followed by group 2 and group 1. In conclusion correcting L-Threonine deficient diet by adding L-Threonine significantly improved live weight gain and carcass characteristics, while numerically improved feed conversion ratio and breast weight. Correcting the deficit by supplying crude protein had no significant effect. Additionally, dietary L-Threonine supplementation reduced environmental burden by reducing both litter nitrogen and moisture content.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine slaughter and carcass traits of geese with different feather colour and gender. The study was conducted with Turkish geese in free-range production conditions in Kars, Turkey. A total of 282 geese (251 females, 31 males) were grouped by feather colour as black (n=49), white (n=77), black pied (n=127), and brown and brown tawny (n=29). Geese were weighed before slaughter and then the slaughter and carcass traits were determined. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc Tukey HSD test was applied to compare feather-colour means and the independent sample t-test was used to compare gender means. Feather colour did not influence (p>0.05) slaughter and carcass traits, except for hot carcass, feather and heart percentages (p<0.05). Males showed statistically higher feet (p<0.001), heart (p<0.01), liver (p<0.05) and gizzard (p<0.01) weights compared with females, as well as significantly higher (p<0.05) feet, heart, liver and gizzard yields. In conclusion, feather colour did not influence the evaluated slaughter and carcass characteristics of geese reared under semi-intensive conditions in the province of Kars, Turkey, and higher feet, heart, liver and gizzard weights and yields were obtained in males than in females.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass yield of broilers submitted to heat stress during different rearing stages. A total of 840 one-day-old CobbAvian48TM male broilers were housed in an experimental house equipped with conventional ventilation system and foggers. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design into four treatments, with six replicates of 35 birds each. The treatments consisted of: T1 (control) - birds reared under natural temperature and relative humidity conditions from 1 to 42 days of age; T2 - birds submitted to heat stress (HS) from 16 to 21 days of age; T3 - birds submitted to HS from 22 to 42 days of age; and T4 - birds submitted to HS from 16 to 42 days of age. Birds were submitted to heat stress daily for one hour (12:00-13:00h).On day 42, performance data were determined. Six birds per replicate were selected and sacrificed to obtain carcass, parts, and giblet weights and yields. Performance parameters were not influenced by the treatments. Broilers submitted to 1-h cyclic heat between 16 and 42 days of age presented lower deboned breast weight compared with those maintained in natural temperature and relative humidity conditions. It was concluded that the performance of broilers submitted to short cyclic heat periods is not impaired.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The subject of this study was to evaluate the effects of lentil byproduct (LP) on growth performance, carcass traits and egg yield of quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). To achieve this goal, a total of 600 0-day-old quail chicks were used. The birds were divided into 5 groups with 3 replicates. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% lentil byproduct, respectively. All the diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. As a result of this study, the highest live body weights of quails as Laudadio mixed gender were observed in the 3rd (195.5 g) and 5th (195.3 g) groups at the end of the study, however the differences between the control and treatment groups were not significant (p>0.05). Similar results were observed in the carcass traits, as well. The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted in both the 2nd and 3rd groups as 3.04 and it was significantly (p<0.05) different than in the control and other treatment groups. The least feed intake (FI) was observed in the 2nd group. The highest and the lowest egg yield percentages were in the 3rd (90.78 %) and 5th (66.57 %) groups, and differences were significant (p<0.01). Linear increments were observed in the yolk color when LP increased in the diet. As a result, it could be concluded that lentil by product could be added into quail diets up to 15% with no negative effect on live body weight (BW) and carcass traits and to get better yolk color.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets formulated with corn plus soybean meal (CSM) or with 21% autoclaved castor meal (ACM), with the addition of two enzyme complexes (EC1 and EC2), on the performance and egg quality of laying quail. Two hundred and sixteen quails were selected by egg production and weight uniformity and distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments (in a 2 × 3 cross-factorial arrangement) and six replicates with six birds each. Three CSM and three ACM diets supplemented withEC1, EC2, or unsupplemented were established. The trial lasted three cycles of 21 days. Feed intake, laying rate, egg mass, feed conversion per egg mass, and feed conversion per dozen eggs did not differ. The use of ACM diet reduced egg (EW), yolk (YW), and eggshell (SW) weights, egg specific gravity and increased yolk color. However, EW and YW were similar among quails fed diets containing CSM and ACM when supplemented with CE1.The use of enzyme complex containing xylanase, b-glucanase, and phytase is recommended when 21% autoclaved castor mealis included in the diet of laying quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was planned to evaluate subsequent effects of rearing under various lysine regimens on egg quality traits in Peshawari, Mushki, Mianwali and Lakha varieties of native Aseel. Ninety six pullets and 12 cockerels (24♀ and 3♂) from each variety were randomly chosen, placed in three-tiered cage units of equal space and standard conditions were followed for their maintenance. These birds were reared on three lysine regimens (L1, L2 and L3), wherein L1 containing 1.3% lysine was given in one phase from week 1-6 of age, L2 regimens entailing 1.4 and 1.2% lysine was smeared in two phases from week 1-3 and 4-6 of age, while in L3 regimen, lysine @ 1.5, 1.3 and 1.1% in diet was fed in three phases from week 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 of age, respectively. Data were analyzed using two-way factorial ANOVA technique in SAS 9.1under randomized complete block design and significant means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Statistical analysis showed that weight of egg and shell, albumen weight, diameter and index, yolk weight and Haugh units (p≤0.05) improved significantly in L3 in Peshawari Aseel depicting the better egg quality traits. It was concluded that L3 regimen has positive impact on egg characteristics of Aseel chicken.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin at differing inclusion levels on performance and carcass characteristics of broilers and litter moisture. 960 broilers of 21-42 days of age were used in a completely randomized design with six crude glycerin inclusion levels (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15%), with eight replicates containing 20 broiler chickens per experimental unit. There was a quadratic effect (p<0.05) for weight gain, feed intake and feed:gain ratio from 21 to 42 days of age. Higher levels of crude glycerin in diets increased (40.24%, p<0.05) the litter moisture and reduced (6.04%, p<0.05) the viability of of the birds. There were no effects (p>0.05) on carcass yield, breast, or liver percentages. However, there was an increase (6.17%, p<0.05) in leg yield and a decrease in (p<0,05, 7.05%) the drumstick yield. For the wing yield and abdominal fat, a quadratic effect (p<0.05) was observed. The protein and fat deposition rates, as well as the dry matter content of the carcass, showed a quadratic effect (p<0.05) due to the inclusion levels of crude glycerin. Crude glycerin may be used in broiler diets from 21 to 42 days, at up to 6% without harming the performance of the broilers, the yield and carcass quality, litter moisture, and the viability of broilers. It is recommended that crude glycerin can be fed at 5.63% from 21 to 42 days, while for lower feed conversion it is recommended that the level of 3.72% is used.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Layer hybrids are more superior in the egg yield than pure breeds. But this superiority causes some problems in the bones during the production period. There are a lot of differences among genotypes in the production period that have been examined extensively, however, the differences throughout incubation period aren’t known yet. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in femur properties of pure breed and layer hybrid embryos during the incubation period. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were used from one hybrid (Lohman White) and two pure breeds (Denizli & Gerze). The eggs were incubated. Hatching eggs from each genotype at the beginning of embryonic days (E) 19 and E21 were examined. At these embryonic ages, 12 eggs were selected from each genotype. The eggs were opened and embryos were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Both femurs were dissected from each embryo and then structure, mineral composition and mechanical properties of femur were determined. The genotype affected the length, width and Zn level in the femur of embryos. Weight, length, width, load of yield and ultimate, ash and all examined minerals increased with embryonic development. These results showed that some femur properties of embryos were influenced by the genotype and layer hybrid embryos are beginning to be advantageous in terms of Zn level in the femur at E21. This study leads to better understanding femur development during the incubation period in layer hybrid and pure breeds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Serum samples (n=687) from Gallus gallus domesticus were collected for the investigation of antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV-A) in the family poultry of the surrounding counties of Santa Maria/RS and the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte/MG, totaling twenty different counties. Additional samples of seventeen (n=17) free-flying ducks (C. moschata pure or hybrid with Anas platyrhynchos) were collected in Belo Horizonte. The chosen tests for the survey were performed as described by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), including agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for antibodies to AIV-A nucleoprotein (N) and haemagglutination- inhibition (HI) for antibodies to subtype H1. Out of the 704 serum tests performed by AGID, eight (8/704) were revealed positive for antibodies to AIV-A N protein, with six (6/704) retested positive for subtype H1. Two sera tested positive by AGID were shown to be non reactive to the H1 subtype, suggesting specificity to another subtype. A low occurrence of antibodies to influenza A (1.13%) was found, and mostly (75%) specific to subtype H1. This represents an approximately 0,85% overall occurrence for subtype H1 antibodies, with an unknown subtype specific antibodies detected in one free-flying anatid. The low occurrence of antibodies in the family poultry may suggest a low AIV-A activity during the period of study, information which remains to be confirmed by virus detection.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although in-feed antibiotics work for broiler chicken´s growth, they are a source of public health hazard. Therefore, there is a need for alternates which can act as growth promoter without deleterious effects on the health of meat consumers. Moringa oleifera is one such phytobiotic which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on meat quality and bone morphometry of broiler. One-day-old chicks (n=100), divided into five groups (four replicates with n=5), were fed a basal diet (control group) or same diet supplemented with 6, 9, 12 or 15 g/kg MOLP. On d-35, two birds per replicate were euthanized to collect samples of breast muscle, blood and tibia bone. The MOLP supplementation significantly increased pH of breast muscle and ash percentage of tibia bone. The diameter of breast muscle fibres and also weight and weight length index of tibia bone significantly increased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP. The water holding capacity (WHC) of breast muscle was significantly higher with 9 and 15 g/kg MOLP; whereas robusticity index of tibia bone significantly decreased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP inclusion compared to the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (12g/kg) increased pH, water holding capacity, and muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle and also weight, ash percentage and density indices of tibia bone in broiler chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The 21 days feeding trial was conducted on 90, Cobb 500 broilers (aged 14 days), assigned to 3 groups (C, E1 and E2) housed in an experimental hall at 32° C constant temperature and 23 h light regimen. During the growth period (14-35 days), the conventional diet (C) had corn and soybean meal as basic ingredients. Unlike the conventional diet formulation (C), the diet formulations for the experimental groups also included 0.005% Artemisia annua oil (E1) and 0.005% Artemisia annua oil plus 1% Artemisia annua powder (E2). Six broilers per group were slaughtered at 35 days of age in order to measure the weight of the carcass and internal organs of broilers, and samples of intestinal and caecal content were collected for bacteriological assessment (Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, staphylococci, Lactobacilli, Salmonella spp.).The following parameters were monitored during the experimental period: bodyweight (g); average daily feed intake (g feed/broiler/day); average daily weight gain (g/broiler/day); feed conversion ratio (g feed/g gain). Under heat stress (32 ºC), E2 broilers (mixture of A. annua oil and powder) had a significantly (p<0.05) higher average of daily feed intake than the broilers receiving the C diet or the diet supplemented just with A. annua oil (E1). Both samples of intestinal and caecal content, showed the lowest count (p<0.05) of Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and staphylococcus colony forming units in E2 broilers. Diet with A. annua oil and powder provided proper conditions for lactic acid bacteria proliferation in the intestine and caecum of heat stressed broilers.