Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 21, Issue: 4, Published: 2019
  • Effect of In Ovo Feeding of L-Glutamine to Chick Embryos* Original Article

    Rufino, JPF; Cruz, FGG; Costa, VR; Silva, AF; Melo, LD; Bezerra, NS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In ovo feeding (IOF), injecting nutrients into the amnion of the avian embryo may enhance hatchability, gastrointestinal development and serum metabolism changes. This hypothesis was evaluated with 5 IOF solutions containing L-glutamine. Were used 315 fertile Rhode Island Red eggs were used (breeders with 32-weeks). The experimental design was completely randomized with the treatments constituted by two controls and five solutions containing L-glutamine levels with 45 replicates each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Differences (p>0.05) were observed in hatchability and intermediary mortality, with a gradual lower of decrease in hatchability from the IOF of L-glutamine. The yolk sac was higher (p<0.05) after the IOF (control and L-glutamine) in the in ovo fed embryos at 0.5% L-glutamine. IOF of L-glutamine alone enhanced the blood pH and reduced the other serum parameters (p<0.05), which may have fuelled more embryo development, mainly vital organs how as the heart and the liver due to the larger concentration of available nutrients for the embryo. The results of this study indicate that until 0.5% L-glutamine may be supplemented in-ovo to chick embryos without negative influence on chick weight and gastrointestinal tract development, acting as serum biochemical metabolism regulator and obtaining better hatchability.
  • Optimal Available Phosphorus Levels in Diets Containing Different Dicalcium Phosphate Particle Sizes for Japanese Quails Original Article

    Nascimento, MQ; Vargas, JG; Pinto, CEL; Demuner, LF; Petrucci, FB; Vieites, FM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects available phosphorus levels and dicalcium phosphate particle size on the live performance, and egg parameters and bone parameters of Japanese quails in lay. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal and formulated to contain 2900 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)kg-1, 200 g kg-1 crude protein (CP) and 30.5 g kg-1 calcium (Ca). Feeds were supplied ad libitum. Laying Japanese quails (n=720, 20-wk-old)were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement, with five levels of available phosphorus (avP; 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 g kg-1) and two dicalcium phosphate particle sizes (fine orcoarse), totaling ten treatments with eight replicates of nine birds each. Egg laying rate, feed intake per bird per day, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio per egg mass and per dozen eggs, eggshell, yolk and albumen relative and absolute weights, as well as bone ash, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium contents were evaluated. Based on the results, avP recommendations for 20- to 32-wk-old laying Japanese quails varies according with phosphate source particle size and the dietary avP levels of 4.40 g kg-1 and 3.85 g kg-1avP levels when using fine and coarse particle dicalcium phosphate, respectively, yielded the best results.
  • Physical-Chemical and Sensorial Quality of Eggs Coated With Copaiba Oil Biofilm and Stored At Room Temperature for Different Periods* Original Article

    Brasil, RJM; Cruz, FGG; Rufino, JPF; Oliveira, PA; Freitas, BKM; Viana, GB

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a coating based on copaiba oil on the quality of eggs stored for different periods. Eggs were coated with copaiba oil solutions (4, 8, 12, 16, or 20% copaiba oil) or not (control) and stored for 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 or 35 days at room temperature. The following parameters were evaluated: egg weight loss, egg components (albumen, yolk, and eggshell) relative weights, egg specific gravity, Haugh units, eggshell quality, and sensorial attributes. Eggs stored for 35 days presented the highest weight losses. Coating (20% copaíba oil solution) reduced egg weight loss up to 41.02%. Coated eggs presented better internal quality (yolk and albumen heights, specific gravity, and eggshell strength). Sensorial attributes were negatively affected by storage time (aroma and flavor), and copaiba oil solution (aroma, appearance, and flavor), with the natural odor of copaiba described by the tasters. Egg internal, external, and sensorial quality worsened with storage time. Solutions containing 16 and 20% copaiba oil can be used as a biofilm to coat eggs, preserving its internal and external quality, and may affect their sensory characteristics, and therefore, may be a viable alternative for maintaining the internal quality of eggs stored at room temperature for long periods.
  • Effects of Flammulinavelutipes Stem Base on Microflora and Volatile Fatty Acids In Caecum of Growing Layers under Heat Stress Condition Original Article

    Wang, S; Mahfuz, S; Song, H

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Flammulinavelutipes stem base (FVS) on growth performance, microbial flora and volatile fatty acids of growing layers under heat stress condition. A total of 72 ISA Brown hens were randomly divided into six treatments: thermoneutral temperature control group (CON), heat stress control group (HS), heat stress antibiotic group (ANT) as positive control and heat stress FVS groups (20, 40 or 60 g/kg FVS). The experimental period had a duration of 28 d (days 84-112). On day 98, daily gain average was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the FVS groups than in the HS group. The number of bands in the FVS groups were higher (p<0.05) than in the HS group on day 98. The microbial similarity between the 60 g/kg FVS group and the HS group were the lowest on day 98. FVS group’s specific bacteria were mainly Coprococcus comes, [Clostridium] papyrosolvens, Butyricicoccuspullicaecorumon day 98. Whereas on day 112, the FVS groups specific bacteria were mainly Parabacteroides distasonis, Coprobacterfastidiosus, Elusimicrobiumminutum. The content of acetic acid and butyric acid were higher (p<0.05) in 20 g/kg FVS group than in the CON group on day 112. In conclusion, FVS can lighten the adverse effect of heat stress by increasing the diversity of intestinal flora in growing layers.
  • Assessment of 47Ca Distribution and Biological Half-Life in Japanese Quail Chicks Original Article

    Hassanin, WF; Ibrahim, NS; El-Barkouky, EE; Abu-Taleb, AM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A study was conducted to assess 47Calcium (47Ca) distribution and biological half-life in different body organs of Japanese quail chicks. A total of 85, 4 week old chicks, were dosed with 1ml/chick volume of 1% (w/v) CaCl2 solution containing 7.51x10-08 Ci 47Ca which is equivalent to 1.27x10-13 g. 47Ca activity, in terms of decay per minute (DPM), was measured in different body organs at 12 hours time intervals, after 24 hours from ingestion for five days. The total activity of 47Ca for each organ and activity per gram of organ (D.min-1.g-1) was calculated. Data were Statistically analyzed using completely randomized design (CRD), one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as per the procedure given by SPSS (2002), 9.0 version for Windows. The results obtained indicated that following 47Ca administration most of the total 47Ca concentration was found in the bones with count rates of 110267±550 DPM. While in the fifth day following administration, most of the 47Ca was found in the feathers with a total activity of 13322±760 DPM. The biological half-life time was found to be highest in the heart and kidneys, respectively compared to the other body organs. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the main excretory pathway for Ca is through the skin. Regarding organ dependency on Ca for the normal functioning, the results obtained in our study suggest that the heart is the most dependent organ on Ca.
  • Fish Waste Oil in Laying Hens* Diets Original Article

    Brelaz, KCBTR; Cruz, FGG; Brasil, RJM; Silva, AF; Rufino, JPF; Costa, VR; Viana, GB

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate increasing levels of fish waste oil in laying hens diets on performance, egg quality, and sensory features of the eggs. 192 Hisex White laying hens with 29 weeks of age were used, with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized consisting of eight treatments corresponding to the inclusion levels of fish waste oil (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5%) in the diets, with four replicates of six birds each. Data collected were subjected to polynomial regression at 5% of significance. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in feed intake and egg mass. Feed intake increased until 2.50% of fish waste oil in the diets. Differences were not observed (p>0.05) in all variables analyzed. Differences were observed (p<0.05) in flavor. Eggs from birds fed diets up to 2.00% present better acceptance by the tasters. Above this level, there was a considerable drop in acceptance. From these results, the present study indicates that the use of fish waste oilin laying hens diets did not affect the egg quality. However, its high inclusion negatively affected the feed intake, egg mass, and egg flavor.
  • Effects of Supplemented Growth Promoters on Performance and Intestinal Morphology in Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities Original Article

    Altaf, MT; Mahmud, A; Mehmood, S; Saima,

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different growth promoters on broiler performance and intestinal morphology reared under various stocking densities. A total of 900 day old (Ross-308) straight run broilers were randomly divided into fifteen treatment groups according to a completely randomized design. A 5 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatment was employed. Treatments were consisted of four growth promoters (antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics) and a control group with three stocking densities (0.046, 0.056, 0.065m2). Each treatment was replicated 6 times with 10 birds in each. Regarding growth performance, feed intake (p=0.0008), body weight (p=0.0085) and feed conversion ratio (p=0.0001) were improved with the supplementation of symbiotic in the diet whereas lower body weight was noted in the control group. In terms of intestinal morphology, villus height (p=0.0011) and villus to crypt ratio (p=0.0001) were significantly higher in the symbiotics treatment groupas compared to the control group. Moreover, birds reared under 0.065m2 stocking density showed improvement in body weight, feed conversion ratio and livability as compared to the other treatment groups. It can be concluded that the supplementation of symbiotics in the diet of commercial broiler reared under 0.065m2 stocking density had a positive influence on overall growth performance and intestinal morphology.
  • Effects of Glutamine on Digestive Function and Redox Regulation in the Intestines of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis Original Article

    Wu, Q; Liu, Z; Li, S; Jiao, C; Wang, Y; Wang, Y

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim was to investigate the effect of glutamine (Gln) on broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis. 240 1-day-old birds were divided into four groups in a completely randomized design, each of which included 6 replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Group I served as the unchallenged, untreated control (CON). All birds in groups II (SCC) - IV were challenged with 2.0 × 104 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Birds in group III and IV were treated with 0.5% (Gln 1) and 1.0% (Gln 2), respectively, of Gln. The results indicated that S. Enteritidis infection led to a decrease in the average body weight at d 7, 14, and 21 (p<0.05). Chickens fed the Gln showed improved average body weights in comparison with the SCC group (p<0.05). At d 4, 7, 14, and 21, the Gln groups increased digestive enzyme (trypsin, lipase and amylase (except the amylase activity of jejunum at d 14 and d 21)) activities in the intestine (p<0.05), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (at d 14 jejunum; except at d 4, ileum) and catalase (CAT) (at d 4, and d 21, jejunum; d 4, ileum) activity in the serum (except at d 14) and intestinal mucosa (p<0.05), and the mRNA expression of SOD, CAT and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2) of the intestinal mucosa compared with the SCC group (p<0.05). These results suggest that Gln as a feed additive could be effective for reducing the detrimental effects of S. Enteritidis infection of broilers.
  • Genetic Diversity and Phyletic Evolution of Eleven Chinese Indigenous and Three Commercial Chicken Breeds by mtDNA Sequences Original Article

    Yu, C; Qiu, M; Jiang, X; Zhang, Z; Du, H; Li, Q; Xia, B; Song, X; Hu, C; Xiong, X; Yang, L; Peng, H; Chen, J; Wang, Y; Yang, C

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Chinese indigenous chicken breeds are geographically widespread, and a total of 116 indigenous chicken breeds are listed as Chinese national genetic resources. However, these indigenous chicken breeds are facing serious challenges as declining population and germplasm degeneration because lots of commercial chicken breeds had been introduced. In this study, the genetic variations of eleven Chinese indigenous chicken breeds of Sichuan province and three commercial chicken breeds were investigated based on the partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 487bp in length. 147 individuals from 14 breeds were examined and 34 haplotypes were observed. Genetic diversity analysis showed that the highest haplotype diversity level was found in Dahen Chicken (DH) population, while the Arbor Acres Chicken (WF) and Roman layer (RM) showed lower genetic diversity levels. The long-term artificial selection may lead to reduced nucleotide diversity. Genetic population differentiation analysis indicated that most of the variation (80.80%) was attributed to variations among breeds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these individuals were divided into four distinct genetic clades, including cluster A, B, C and D. Eighteen haplotypes were classified as cluster A, eight haplotypes were classified as cluster B, five haplotypes were classified as cluster C and three haplotypes were classified as cluster D. There was no breed-specific clade. Our study firstly identified the population’s genetic structure of Chinese indigenous chickens and the most important commercial breeds in Sichuan province, though the genetic diversity of indigenous breeds did not suffer obvious decrease, but could be helpful for efficient artificial breeding selection and genetic resources conservation.
  • Performance, Growth Curves and Carcass Yield of Four Strains of Broiler Chicken ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nogueira, BRF; Reis, MP; Carvalho, AC; Mendoza, EAC; Oliveira, BL; Silva, VA; Bertechini, AG

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass yield and growth curves of different commercial strains of broiler chicken. 2400 day-old chicks, males and females of the Cobb500, RossAp95, Hubbard Flex and a new Francesa line were used. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement 4x2 (line x sex), forming eight treatments with 10 replicates each. The birds were fed with the same diet. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were determined. At 42 days, it was determined at the request of carcass and cuts of each lineage. The Gompertz model was applied to a growth curve for each line. The RossAP95 line shows the best performance results. Growth curves showed lower sexual dimorphism in the Hubbard Flex line. The Hubbard Flex strain presented higher thigh yield and a Cobb500 genetics the higher breast yield. Based on the results found it was observed that the RossAP95 performed better. Hubbard Flex line exhibits the least sexual dimorphism. The Cobb500 have better yield for breast and as Hubbard Flex birds greater thigh yield.
  • EFFECTS OF VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM HORMONES AND GENE EXPRESSION OF ANTI-SEASON BREEDING XINGGUO GREY GEESE (ANSER CYGNOIDES) Original Article

    Yin, L; Ran, J; Lian, T; Yang, C; Li, S; Liu, Y

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of dietary vitamin E supplementation on laying performance, serum reproductive hormones concentration and gene expression in ovary and follicles of anti-season breeding goose. A total of 210 anti-season breeding geese were divided into seven treatments with six replications. Each group was supplied with diets containing different vitamin E (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) contents (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320mg/kg). We observed that the egg production and laying rate improved significantly at doses of 10 and 80 mg/kg, while the highest egg weight appeared in the 320 mg/kg group. Meantime, 80 mg/kg of vitamin E supplementation significantly improved the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) in serum (p<0.05). Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR, LHR and ESR1 at a dose of 80mg/kg, while PRLR increased at doses of 10 and 20mg/kg (p<0.05). It was found that the mRNA expression of Dicer increased at doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg of vitamin E supplementation in the ovary, SWF, LWF and SYF, respectively. Thence, Dietary vitamin E supplementation could improve egg laying performance, plasma reproductive hormones and the mRNA expression of reproductive hormone receptor genes in ovary, as well as the mRNA expression of Dicer in ovary, SWF, LWF and SYF. It was supposed that 80 mg/kg of vitamin E supplementation in dietary was appropriate to improve the fertility of anti-season breeding Xingguo grey goose.
  • Comparison of the Dietary Supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum, and Fermented and Non-Fermented Artemisia Annua on the Performance, Egg Quality, Serum Cholesterol, and Eggyolk-Oxidative Stability During Storage in Laying Hens Original Article

    Lee, AR; Niu, KM; Lee, WD; Kothari, D; Kim, SK

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Artemisia annua L. is a widely distributed medicinal plant and well-known for treating malaria due to the artemisinin content. We previously found enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented A. annua dried leaves in vitro. The present study compared the effects of the dietary supplementation of L. plantarum, fermented (FA) or non-fermented (NFA) A. annua on laying performance, egg quality, serum cholesterol, and egg yolk oxidative stability during storage in 40-weeks-old Hy-Line Brown layers. In total, 180 layers were randomly allocated into four treatments for 6 weeks: basal diet (CON), basal diet + 0.5% L. plantarum only (LO), basal diet + 0.5% NFA, and basal diet + 0.5% FA. Each treatment comprised five replicates with nine birds each. Egg weight of NFA and FA groups were significantly higher as compared with the CON and LO groups (p<0.01). The FA group displayed higher Haugh unit (HU) compared with the NFA group (p<0.05). Eggshell color of the FA group was significantly increased compared with the other groups (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and VLDL+LDL cholesterol among the different groups. During egg storage, the HU of FA groups was significantly increased as compared with the CON group after 3 weeks storage (p<0.05). The malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the stored eggs was significantly lowered by feeding of FA as compared with the CON and LO groups (p<0.05). Altogether, the fermented A. annua displayed positive effects in promoting egg quality of layers.
  • Hematology and Histopathology of Broiler Chickens Supplemented with Tuna Black Flour ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Rebolledo, OFP; Barrera, JEM; Márquez, JG; Vázquez, AR; Casillas, ACG

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effect of the sex and dietary intake of tuna black flour (TBF)on the hematology and histopathology of broiler chickens. A total of 200 sexed broilers (Ross 380) were distributed according to a completely randomized design into four treatments (25 males and 25 females/experimental group).Different levels of inclusion of TBF (0, 1, 2, and 3%) were offered as a source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), for 42 d. At the end of the experiment, blood samples and tissues were collected. The hematocrit value (Hemat), total protein (PROT-T), hemoglobin concentration (Hemog), erythrocytes concentration (Erythro) and total count and differential of leucocytes (Leuco): lymphocytes, heterophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils were determined. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Analysis of Variance test, Duncan’s multiple range test, and descriptive analyses (p<0.05). Samples of heart, liver, and bursa of Fabricius were processed with the routine histological technique. The sex had no significant effect on the hematology. The feeding additional with 3% TBF had lower level of Hemat value and PROT-T. The Leuco had lower value with 1 and 2% of TBF. The Monocytes showed low value with 1 and 2% of TBF, and the eosinophils had high level with 1% of TBF. No cardiac lesions were detected in the broiler chickens in all treatments, normal deposition of fat in the epicardium, endocardium and pericardium were seen in all treatments.
  • Effects of the Dietary Inclusion of Xylanase on the Performance and Jejunum Morphometry of Meat-Type Quails ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Grecco, ET; Marcato, SM; Oliveira, TMM; Stanquevis, CE; Grieser, DO; Perine, TP; Finco, EM; Benites, MI

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of two xylanase products to diets with reduced metabolizable energy fed to meat-type quails during the starter phase (1-14 days). A completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial arrangement two reduced metabolizable energy (ME) diets, inclusion or not of xylanase, and a control diet with no enzyme addition) was applied, totaling seven treatments with five replicates of 45 quails each. At 14 days of age, jejunum segments were collected for morphometry evaluation. No interaction between the studied factors were detected for performance and jejunal morphometry parameters. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not influenced by enzyme inclusion. Reduced ME diets (-70 or -140 kcal/kg) did not affect performance, except for feed intake. Xylanase inclusion increased villus height and villus:crypt ratio. Therefore, xylanase supplementation can be effective in corn and soybean meal-based diets, without causing any impairment in the performance of 1- to 14-day-old quails. Xylanases A and B were more efficient when dietary energy level was reduced in 140 kcal ME/kg, and were also shown to effectively improve the jejunal morphometry of starter meat-type quails.
  • Effect of Photoperiod on the Egg Production, Plasma Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, Gonadal Hormones, and Mrna Levels of Lh and Fsh in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis of Pigeons Original Article

    Wang, Y; Li, YB; Yang, HM; Wang, ZY

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT We investigated the egg production, changes in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadal hormones, and their mRNA levels in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of White King pigeons submitted to different photoperiods. The treatments consisted of three photoperiods (8 h light (L):16 h dark (D), 12L:12D, and 16L:8D), with three replicates of twelve pairs of adult pigeons. The birds were exposed the photoperiods for 45 days. Egg production performance was recorded daily. Six pigeon pairs per replicate were selected for plasma collection, and six pigeon pairs per replicate for the resection of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Egg production was significantly improved by long-day lighting (16L:8D), while no differences in egg shape index were detected. Higher average egg weight was obtained in 16L:8D group, whereas broken egg percentage was higher in the 8L:16D group. Female LH level was significantly higher in long-day lighting, and the FSH level significantly lower in short-day lighting. The females in the 16L:8D group had higher estrogen level. The photoperiods had a minor effect on plasma LH and testosterone in males, whereas the FSH level was significantly higher in the 16L:8D group. The level of LH mRNA expression was higher in both females and males of the 16L:8D group. Similar trends in FSH mRNA expression observed in both females and males. The 16L:8D photoperiod not only improved egg production, but also stimulated plasma LH, FSH, gonadal hormones, and promoted LH and FSH mRNA expression in pigeons.
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Soy Isoflavones on the Performance and Egg Quality in Native Chinese Breeder Hens ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Abdelghani, E; Xing, W; Li, Y; Shen, D; Alsiddig, MA; Li, C

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of soy isoflavones (ISF) on the laying performance of Xueshan breeder hens at different phases of the egg production cycle, 32 weeks (wks) old local Chinese breeder hens were assigned to two groups with three replicates (750 hens/replicate) for control and treatment groups. Then every group was divided into three sub-groups following 4, 12, and 20 wks administration of control or ISF diet. General Linear Model procedure was used (2× 3), and treatments were considered of two factors (diets and time) with different levels (control and ISF diets; 4, 12, and 20 wks of diet supply time). Basal diet with 3 mg/kg ISF was used. Performance, egg quality, organs relative weight and cholesterol level were measured at three time-points of 36, 44, and 52-wks of age old. The results showed that both diets and time significantly affected the production performance and physiological parameters. In details, ISF inclusion significantly (p=0.02) decreased average egg weight and average feed intake compared to control at 52-wks of age old, however, feed conversation ratio was not affected by ISF diet. Moreover, ISF diet caused to an increase hatching rate (p=0.01) at 36-wks old hens, an abnormal egg rate decrease (p=0.02) at 44-wks old, an increase in yolk color (p=0.035) and Haugh unit (p=0.039), and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (p=0.03) at 52-wks of age old. ISF diet also increased spleen relative weight (p=0.041) and total antioxidant capacity compared to the control group. The results revealed that ISF inclusion exerted some benefits, thus it could be a potential feed additive for the breeder hens.
  • Immunomodulation Properties of Solid-State Fermented Laetiporussulphureus Ethanol Extracts in Chicken Peripheral Blood Monocytes In Vitro Original Article

    Lin, WC; Lee, MT; Lin, LJ; Chang, SC; Lee, TT

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Laetiporus sp. is recognized as a fungal species traditionally used for medicinal purposes. This study investigated the in-vitro effects of solid-state fermented Laetiporussulphureus ethanol extracts (LSE) for their immunomodulatory potential. Bioactive levels detected in the LSE on different days throughout the fermentation period revealed that the 12th day was the most efficient, with 7.19 ± 0.66 GAE/g DM crude phenolic content, 2.71 ± 0.03 UAE/g DM crude triterpenoid content, 12.93 ± 0.88 GCE/g DM crude polysaccharides, and 96.44 ± 0.2 mg/g DM ergosterol content. In-vitroLSE tests on chPBMC showed no cytotoxicity within a range of 0.05-1 mg/mL, but LPS-inhibited cell viability was improved, as well as LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and mRNA levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interleukin (IL)-1βwere attenuated Furthermore, the direct application of LSE on chPBMC showed a small but not significant increase in NFκB, TLR4, and iNOS mRNA expression compared with the control group. These results indicate the potential of LSE to modulate LPS-triggered inflammation processes involving TLR4 and NFκB mediation. However, further experiments are required to determine the specific pathway.
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Red Algae Powder (Chondrus crispus) on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Lymphoid Organ Weights and Intestinal pH in Broilers ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Martínez, Y; Ayala, L; Hurtado, C; Más, D; Rodríguez, R

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with red algae powder (Chondrus crispus) on the growth performance, carcass traits, lymphoid organ weights and intestinal pH y in broiler chickens. A total of 300 1-day-old B34 line male broiler chickens were randomly allotted to three treatments, four replicates per treatment and 25 birds per replicate. The experimental treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0) and dietary supplementation of 0.30 (T2) and 0.40% (T2) red algae powder. Body weight at 1, 21 and 32 days did not show significant differences (p>0.05) among treatments. At 21 days, T1decreased (p<0.05) the feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, from 22 to up to 32 days, these productive indicators increased (p<0.05) with the use of the natural product (red algae powder) tested. Meanwhile, T1 improved (p<0.05) the carcass and breast yields and decreased the abdominal fat yield, and T2increased (p<0.05) the relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and the thymus. The relative weight of the spleen, the other edible parts and the intestinal pH did not change (p>0.05) with the red algae supplementation. The dietary supplementation of 0.30% red algae improved the growth performance (at 21-day-old) and some edible parts; also, the dietary supplementation of 0.40% increased the relative weight of the lymphoid organs, without changing the intestinal pH of broilers.
  • Performance Parameters, Plasma Lipid Status, and Lymphoid Tissue Fatty Acid Profile of Broiler Chicks Fed Camelina Cake ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Anca, G; Hăbeanu, M; Lefter, NA; Ropotă, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The effects of dietary camelina cake (CAMC) on broiler chicks’growth performance, plasma lipid status and fatty acid profile (FA) of lymphoid organs were evaluated. Six hundred broilers (3-week-old, Cobb 500) were randomly allotted for 20 days in a feeding trials into 2 groups: control (C; corn-soybean meal-canola meal basal diet) and experimental (CAMC; 80 g CAMC/kg diet replaces canola meal from C diet). Blood samples (n=12/group) were collected on day 42 for plasma profile analysis (glucose, Glu; total cholesterol, TC; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C; triglycerides) and immune organs (spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius) for FA analysis. The FA profile of lymphoid tissue was determined by gas chromatography. Feeding the CAMC diet did not influence broilers performance parameters or relative weights of lymphoid tissue, except the weight of bursa that decreased (p<0.05). Plasma lipids profile was affected by decreasing (p<0.05) the concentrations of Glu, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C in broilers fed the CAMC diet. In all lymphoid tissue, the total content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.001) and the total level of n-6 PUFA decreased (p<0.001) as the effect of the CAMC diet. The n-6:n-3 ratio decreased (p<0.001) up to 5:1 in all lymphoid tissue. The higher (p<0.05) concentration of arachidonic acid was found in the spleen, followed by the thymus and the bursa of the chicks fed the CAMC diet. Our results indicate that feeding 80 g/kg camelina cakes in broiler chicks finisher diet had no negative impact on productivity, beneficially alter the plasma lipid status and fatty acids profile of lymphoid tissue.
  • Effects of Methionine Deficiency on the B Lymphocyte and Immunoglobulins of Cecal Tonsil in Cobb Broilers ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Zhu, M; Ruan, T; Zeng, Q; Wu, B

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted on one-day-old broilers to investigate the effects of methionine deficiency on B lymphocytes and immunoglobulins (sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM) in the cecal tonsil of Cobb broiler chicken. Methods including immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) were used, and the study lasted for 6 weeks. It was found that the IgA+ B lymphocytes mainly existed in the diffuse lymphoid tissues and lymphoid follicles of the cecal tonsil. The data indicated that the number of IgA+ B lymphocytes was decreased in the methionine deficiency group, and the WB and qRT-PCR results suggested that the protein and mRNA expression of CD19 were reduced in the methionine deficiency group. Besides, the contents of sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM determined by ELISA decreased in the methionine deficiency group. It could be concluded that methionine deficiency exerts significantly negative effects on the humoral immune function of the intestinal mucosal immunity.
  • Determining Factors Affecting Consumer’s Decision to Purchase Organic Chicken Meat ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Kaygisiz, F; Bolat, BA; Bulut, D

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In the present study, the effect of consumers’ perception levels (product, price, and benefit perception), consciousness levels (health, environment, and animal welfare), and sociodemographic characteristics on the purchase decision of organic chicken meat were examined.Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the purchase decision of organic chicken meat and the perception level, consciousness level, sociodemographic characteristics. As a result of the analyses made, it has been determined that organic chicken meat naturalness perception, value-quality perception, health control awareness, awareness of animal life quality, and income level havestatistically significant effects on the probability of purchasing organic chicken meat.In conclusion, to raise consumer awareness the issues that need to be emphasized are that organic meat is natural, reliable, healthy and suitable for animal welfare.
  • Stabilization of Rice Bran in Broiler Feed with Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants and Heat Treatment ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gopinger, E; Krabbe, EL; Avila, VS De; Surek, D; Lopes, LS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the oxidative stabilization of rice bran (RB) in the diet of broiler chickens using natural antioxidant additives, synthetic antioxidant additives and heat treatment on performance, breast meat quality and liver fat content and the nutrient digestibility coefficients. Furthermore, the study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat treatment and antioxidants, antioxidant additive treatments, without antioxidants, natural, and synthetic, and to three heat treatments, without heat, dry-heat and moist-heat, after the rice bran was stored for 90 days and then incorporated into the experimental diets. 1080 broilers were arranged in a 3 x 3-factorial randomized design with 10 replicates per treatments. The wet heat treatment of the meal resulted in a higher daily feed intake and body weight at 28 days and better feed conversion than did the meal without heat treatment. No significant interactions were observed between the tested factors on the apparent digestibility of dry matter and ether extract as well as the values of apparent metabolizable energy and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen. However, there was significant interaction between the tested factors on the nitrogen retention coefficient; the natural antioxidant and dry heat-treated meal combination presented a lower crude protein digestibility coefficient than those without heat treatment. In conclusion, thermal treatment of this bran proved to be more effective as demonstrated by the performance responses of the birds. Broiler chickens reared up to 28 days of age consuming diets containing 6.5% RB stabilized by heat treatment showed better performance, and the use of antioxidants was not necessary.
  • An Outbreak of Intestinal Obstruction by Ascaridia Galli in Broilers in Minas Gerais Original Article

    Torres, ACD; Costa, CS; Pinto, PN; Santos, HA; Amarante, AF; Gómez, SYM; Resende, M; Martins, NRS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Industrial broilers raised on helminthic medication-free feed were diagnosed with a severe disease caused by Ascaridia galli, characterized by intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. A. galli was identified based on the morphological features of the nematode. Broilers were raised for a longer period (63 days) for weight recovery, grouped as stunted (n=500), had low body score and had fetid diarrhea. The duodenum-jejunum segment was the most severely affected with obstruction and had localized accumulation of gas. The intestinal mucosa was severely congested with petechial and suffusive hemorrhages. The outbreak resulted in morbidity of about 10% and mortality of up to 4% and was associated to the absence of preventive medication on feed and slack biosecurity. The reemergence of A. galli is discussed in view of the alternative poultry management and raising conditions for drug free and welfare.
  • Requirement of Digestible Methionine + Cystine to Molted Laying Hens ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Oliveira, PA; Cruz, FGG; Rufino, JPF; Silva, EM; Viana, GB; Silva, FM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to determine the ideal requirement of digestible methionine + cystine to molted laying hens. The experimental period lasted 105 days, divided into five periods of 21 days. 144 Hisex White laying hens with 84 weeks-of-age were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with treatments constituted for six levels of digestible methionine + cystine (0.45, 0.50, 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, and 0.70%) in the diets, with four replicates of six birds each. Data collected were evaluated by polynomial regression at 5%. There was a significant effect (p<0.05) of digestible methionine + cystine on feed intake, energy intake, protein intake, egg production, and egg mass. Internal egg quality presented positive linear effect (p<0.05) on albumen height and yolk color. External egg quality was affected (p<0.05) in eggshell %, eggshell thickness and eggshell resistance, where the level of 0.60% of digestible methionine + cystine in the diets provided eggshells with better quality (higher percentage, thicker and breaking resistance). Differences (p<0.05) were also observed in glucose and triglycerides concentration, with 0.60% of digestible methionine + cystine in the diets presenting better equilibrium. Results of the present study suggested that higher levels of digestible methionine + cystine improved the performance and internal egg quality of molted laying hens. The level of 0.60% of digestible methionine + cystine provided better eggshell and equilibrium on blood biochemistry.
  • Effect of Exogenous Protease, Mannanase, and Xylanase Supplementation in Corn and High Protein Corn DDGS Based Diets on Growth Performance, Intestinal Morphology and Nutrient Digestibility in Broiler Chickens ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Hussain, M; Mirza, MA; Nawaz, H; Asghar, M; Ahmed, G

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation in high protein (Hi-Pro) corn DDGS-based diets on broiler growth performance, intestinal health, and nutrient digestibility. A total of 200 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments with five replicates of 10 birds each. A basal diet (CON) was formulated (CP: 20%; ME: 2900 Kcal/kg) containing 15% of dietary crude protein share from Hi-Pro corn DDGS. Three experimental diets were developed using basal diets; diet one was supplemented with protease (CON-P), diet two with an enzyme mix of mannanase and xylanase (CON-MX) and diet three with a protease and enzyme mix of mannanase and xylanase. A digestibility assay was carried out using Celite (insoluble acid ash), from day 29 to day 35. On day 35, four birds from each replicate were picked randomly and killed by cervical dislocation to collect ileal digesta. In addition, duodenum, jejunum and ileum lengths were measured, and tissue samples were collected from midpoints of jejunum to note villus height and crypt depths. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments during the entire study period (p>0.05). Likewise, no difference in carcass characteristics, soft organ weight, intestinal morphology, apparent amino acids digestibility and visible ileal digestible energy was observed by the dietary treatments (p>0.05).Supplementation of exogenous protease and enzyme mix (mannanase and xylanase) had no effect on growth performance, intestinal integrity and nutrient availability of broiler chickens fed Hi-Pro DDGS-based diets.
  • Effect of Egg Position in the Incubator on Broiler Hatching Results ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Boz, MA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated whether the effect of egg location during incubation on hatching results in broiler eggs. For this purpose, a total of 756 broiler eggs were incubated for 21 days. The eggs were divided near the door and near the fan, and distributed on top (216 eggs), 324 in the middle (324 eggs), and in the bottom (216 eggs) according to a completely randomized design (CRD). As a result of this study, no significant effect of egg location on incubation yield, hatchability, and embryonic mortalities was found (p>0.05). In some locations the eggs which were closer to the fan had generally higher hatchability (top fan 86.9%, middle fan 69.6%, and bottom fan 81.7%). The value of the incubation yield was among 67.3-85.2%. Embryonic mortalities were also analyzed according to the locations and were found as 0,00-2.57% for the early period, 0.00-1.00% for the middle period, 11.0-16.5% for the late period and 0.00-8.65% for pipped eggs. At different hatching times, the effect of the egg position on the hatching rate was found insignificant (p>0.05). The hatching rates support the result that temperatures measured in different locations of the machine were suitable for chick hatching. As a result, the effect of egg position in the machine was not statistically significant on the hatching results. However, the eggs closer to the fan had earlier hatching than the ones close to the door.
  • Influence of Artemisia Annua on Broiler Performance and Intestinal Microflora ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Panaite, TD; Criste, RD; Vlaicu, PA; Saracila, M; Tabuc, C; Olteanu, M; Turcu, RP; Buleandră, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Artemisia (Artemisia annua) supplementation as essential oil and powder, in broiler diet on performance and intestinal microflora. One hundred and eighty Cobb 500 broiler chicks assigned to three experimental groups (six replicates with 10 broilers per replicate) were housed in an environment-controlled house. Compared to the control diet, the experimental diets included 0.05 g kg-1 Artemisia essential oil (E1), 0.05 g kg-1 essential oil plus 0.1 g kg-1 powder of Artemisia (E2), respectively. Growth performance was monitored throughout days 14-42. Artemisia supplementation (E1, E2) did not influence growth performance of the chicks. Compared to the C and E1, the chicks from E2 group had a lower count of Enterobacteriaceae in the intestinal and caecal content, both at 35 and at 42 days. The Artemisia supplements did not influence the staphylococci populations from the intestinal content of the chicks (42 days), but in the caecal content samples, this count was lower in E2 (8.836 log10 cfu g-1) than in C (8.876 log10 cfu g-1) and E1 (8.870 log10 cfu g-1). The count of lactobacilli increased in the intestinal and caecal contents of chickens fed the diet supplemented with Artemisia at the 35th and 42nd day. Diet supplementation with A. annua essential oil and powder could be an effective solution in maintaining the proper microflora balance in the chicks’ intestine.
  • Effect of Different Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing Methods on Chemical Composition, Quality Indicators and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Full-Fat Soybean ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Lehmali, IF; Jafari, MA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to study the effect of thermal and non-thermal processing methods on chemical composition, quality indicators and apparent digestibility of soybean nutrients. For this, four processing methods (unprocessed, extruded, thermal, and gamma radiation) were applied on two soybean varieties (Katol & Caspian). Rations were formulated based on kinds of soybean (processed and unprocessed). The experiment was continued using 600 male Ross broiler chickens during 3 feeding phases (starter, grower, and finisher). Traits were measured and analyzed with the Lsmeans procedure by SAS software. The results showed the interaction effects of soybean varieties and processing methods were significant on the crude fiber, calcium, and phosphorus (p<0.05). The effect of soybean variety was significant on the crude protein, crude fiber, and phosphorus (p<0.05). Also, the effect of processing methods was significant on the dry matter, crude fiber, and phosphorus (p<0.05). The effect of soybean variety, processing methods, and their interaction were significant on urease activity, KOH protein solubility, and Protein dispersibility index (p<0.05). The results of the current study showed that the best soybean variety and the processing method is the Caspian and thermal, respectively.
  • Morphological Investigations of the Effect of Thermal Manipulation During Embryogenesis on Body Performance and Structure of Pectoral and Thigh Muscle of Ross Broiler Chicken Original Article

    Dalab, AS; Ali, AM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the optimum timing of thermal manipulation during early, mid, late and long lasting embryogenesis that may result in improvement of body performance and myofiber development (fiber diameter and thickness of perimysium) of pectoral and thigh muscles by a comparative morphometrical investigation on post-hatch day 35. 1440 fertile Ross broiler eggs were divided randomly and equally into 5 treatment groups: control (no TM), TM1, TM2 TM3 and TM4 were thermally subjected to 39ºC for 18h with 65% relative humidity daily during embryonic days ED 7-11, ED 11-15, ED 15-18 and ED 7-18 respectively. Out of TM conditions that were investigated, TM1 resulted in a significant improvement of hatchability rate (95.14%)and body performance when compared to the control. On post-hatch day 35, there were significant differences in BW, skinned carcass, breast, thigh and gut weight for all groups when compared to each other with a higher significant in TM1 and TM2 when compared to those of the control. FCR in this study was lower in TM groups when compared to the control group. In TM3 and TM4 the chicks show a significantly lower value of body performance when compared with those of the control group, TM1 and TM2.The histological evaluation of Pectoral muscle revealed myofibers of different diameter (38.39-40.27 µm) and perimysial thickening (17-30.5 µm), while myofibers diameter of thigh muscle ranged between (29-32.9 µm) and the perimysial thickening ranged between (14.36-22.15 µm). Thus, these results indicate that TM duringED7-11 improved muscle growth and body performance and this finding may be applied by commercial breeders to produce more enhanced broiler chickens.
  • Effects of Varying Essential Oil Mixture Concentrations Applied Underconditions of Different Temperature Stress on Cardiac Markers and Other Blood Parameters ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Bayraktar, B; Tekce, E

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Cardiac troponin (cTnI) and erythrocyte distribution width (RDW) have been used as specific markers for the evaluation of cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial diseases. In this experimental study, we aimed to determine the dose-dependent administration of an Essential OilMixture (EOM) (Eucalyptus globulusLabill, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon nardus, and Syzygiumaromaticum) on the serum erythrocyte indices and myocardial damage. We used 400 male, one-day-old, Ross-308 chicks. Each group ((n=8) (22°C Control (C), C+250 mL/1,000 L, C+500 mL/1,000 L, C+750 mL/1,000 L), 36°C (stress control (SC), SC+250 mL/1,000 L, SC+500 mL/1,000 L, SC+750 mL/1,000 L) was further divided into eight groups with 50 animals. Each group of 50 chicks was further subdivided into five groups with 10 animals in each compartment. The results showed that the WBC, RBC, HGB, HCT, RDW-SD, RDW-CV, and Lymphocyte decreased in groups without exposure to temperature stress (22ºC) compared to the 22ºC control group; whereas, CnTnI, MCHC, NEUT, and IG (p<0.05) increased compared to the control group. In groups exposed to temperature stress (36ºC), the WBC, HGB, HCT, RDW-SD, and Lymphocyte decreased compared to the control group, but MCH, MCHC, NEUT, and IG increased compared to the control. However, cTnI, CK, creatinine, RBC, and RDW had no effect on CD, MONO, EO, and BASO (p<0.05). EOM mixture had no effect on hematological and biochemical parameters.
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