Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, Volume: 22, Issue: 1, Published: 2020
  • Sodium Requirement for Muscovy Ducks in Housing1 Original Article

    Santos, ANA; Cruz, FGG; Oliveira, PA; Farias, TM; Rufino, JPF; Viana, GB

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to determine the ideal sodium levels for muscovy ducks in housing. Two hundred and forty muscovy ducks of creole lineage were used, distributed in boxes with water and food ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized, where treatments were constituted by six nutritional plans (initial, growth and termination) with different sodium levels, and four replicates of 10 muscovy ducks each. The birds had weekly performance evaluations, and after 90 days, eight birds (four males and four females) in each treatment were slaughtered for evaluation of carcass traits. Data collected were subjected to Tukey test at 5% of significance. Differences were observed (p<0.05) in performance (feed intake and feed conversion), where average levels of sodium presented better results. In carcass yields, average levels presented a positive influence (p<0.05) on muscovy duck growth. Male muscovy ducks presented better feed efficiency than females in the same period. The present study indicates that nutritional plan 3 (initial = 0.25%; growth = 0.30% and termination = 0.35%) showed better nutritional requirements of sodium for muscovy ducks in housing, obtaining better performance and carcass development.
  • Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Binzalkonium Chloride, Iodine, Gluteraldehyde and Hydrogen Peroxide Disinfectants against Avian Salmonellae Focusing on Genotypic Resistance Pattern of the Salmonellae Serotypes toward Benzalkonium Chloride Original Article

    Aksoy, A; El Kahlout, KEM; Yardimci, H

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Using disinfectants in poultry houses is a common practice to ban the zoonotic pathogens like Salmonella. A major concern in using disinfectants is the emergence of bacteria strains that resist some disinfectants. This phenomenon is manifested in the resistance of some Salmonella serotypes against quaternary ammonium compounds. Such resistance is attributed to qacEΔ1 gene which may be possessed by some Salmonella serotypes. This work aimed to evaluate the resistance of Salmonella serotypes (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis and S. Entiridis) against different disinfectants (benzalkonium chloride, iodine, gluteraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide). The effect of the disinfectants were evaluated by treatment of the bacteria with different concentrations (1:100, 200 and 400) at different temperatures and periods. Bacterial count was performed before and after the treatment. PCR for presence of qacEΔ1 gene was also performed before and after the treatment. The biocidal effect of the disinfectants found to be dependent on concentration, temperature and treatment period in addition to the type of the disinfectant. Hydrogen peroxide proved to be the most active agent followed by gluteradehyde, iodine and benzalkonium chloride. A link between the resistance against benzalkonium chloride and the existence of qacEΔ1 gene was proven in S. Typhimurium, whether treated or not treated with benzalkonium chloride.
  • Digestible Threonine to Lysine Ratios for Meat-Type Quails Original Article

    Castro, MR; Pinheiro, SRF; Oliveira, RG; Abreu, LRA; Mota, LFM; Miranda, JA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Three experiments were conducted to estimate the optimal digestible threonine to lysine ratios (Thr:Lys) of meat-type quails during the pre-starter (1 to 7 days), starter (8 to 14 days) and grower I (15 to 21 days) phases. In each experiment, 600 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments, consisting of five dietary Thr:Lys ratios (0.66, 0.71, 0.76, 0.81 and 0.86%), with eight replicates of 15 quails each. Performance parameters and intestinal morphology were evaluated. During the pre-starter phase, feed intake, threonine intake, weight gain, and ileal villus height linearly increased (p<0.01) as dietary digestible Thr:Lys increased. During the starter phase, increasing digestible Thr:Lys ratios had a linear effect (p<0.01) on threonine intake and livability, and linear and quadratic effects (p<0.01) on feed intake. During the grower I phase, increasing digestible Thr:Lys ratios promoted linear increase in threonine intake and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05), and a linear decrease in weight gain. The estimated digestible Thr:Lys ratios recommended for meat-type quails are 0.85, 0.73 and 0.66%, for the pre-starter, starter and grower I phases, respectively.
  • Potential Value of Using Insect Meal As an Alternative Protein Source for Japanese Quail Diet Original Articles

    Hatab, MH; Ibrahim, NS; Sayed, WA; Sabic, EM

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A feeding trial was conducted to determine the potential value of replacing 100 % of meat and bone meal (MBM) ingredient as the major animal protein source in Japanese quail diets by 50% and 100% of insect meal derived from S. littoralis Larvae. A total of 360, 7 days-old quail chicks, were randomly divided into three equal groups (120 chicks) with three replicates each. They were offered three different diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The Diet 1 contained MBM only as a major source of animal protein, diet 2 had both MBM (50%) and insect meal (50%) while diet 3 contained insect meal (100%). Results: Partial or total replacement of S. littoralis larvae with MBM increased body weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio (p≤0.05). Moreover, treated groups with insect meal were economically much more profitable than conventional MBM. On the other hand, serum total protein, albumin, globulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, total antioxidant, thyroxin, estradiol-17B, and testosterone hormones level were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in treated groups than in the control one. While, serum alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in all treated groups were within equal range and did not differ among them. The inclusion of insect meal protein as a replacement for MBM up to 100% replacement has no adverse effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, hematological and serum biochemical indices of growing Japanese quail chicks. Moreover, it can be used as one of a protein source for lowering the production costs of poultry diets.
  • Effects of Phytase Inclusion in Broiler Breeder Diets During Early Lay on their Fecal and Egg Characteristics Original Article

    Arguelles-Ramos, M; Nusairat, B; Qudsieh, R; Brake, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of phytase inclusion in broiler breeder diets on fecal and egg characteristics. A total of 48 female broiler breeders were evaluated in this study from 21 to 31 weeks of age. The dietary treatments were fed from 30 to 31 wks of age, and included a Positive Control (PosCon) diet, containing 3.0% calcium and 0.50% available phosphorus (AvP); a Negative Control (NegCon) diet, with 3.0% calcium and 0.25% AvP; Negative Control diet + 275 FTU/kg phytase (NegCon+275), and Negative control diet + 550 FTU/kg phytase (NegCon+550). Egg, yolk, albumin, and eggshell weight, albumin height, and eggshell thickness were measured. Fecal parameters included fecal moisture, liquid portion, and mineral content. After 14 d on the experimental diets during the onset of lay, the NegCon+550 diet increased (p<0.01) fecal moisture content. In general, hens fed the highest enzyme level (NegCon+550) excreted fewer (p<0.05) divalent and trivalent cations, which included Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn. Fecal Na and K levels were not affected by dietary treatments. The NegCon+550 diet increased fecal P when compared with the NegCon and the NegCon+275 diets. The NegCon+550 and PosCon diets exhibited similar fecal P. No significant effects on egg characteristics were observed. It was concluded that during early lay, various signs of fecal changes would probably be observed at phytase dosages above approximately 500 FTU/kg characterized by increased fecal moisture content and excretion of P in broiler breeders.
  • Influence of Pine Bark Tannin on Bacterial Pathogens Growth and Nitrogen Compounds on Changes in Composted Poultry Litter Original Article

    Arzola-Alavarez, C; Castillo-Castillo, Y; Anderson, RC; Hume, ME; Ruiz-Barrera, O; Min, BR; Arzola-Rubio, A; Beier, RC; Salinas-Chavira, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT To study the antimicrobial and uric acid-preserving activity of pine bark tannin on poultry litter composting, antibiotic-free wood chip-based poultry litter was distributed (11 g) to 50-mL conical centrifuge tubes and immediately amended with 1.3 mL0.4 M sodium phosphate buffer (control) or with 1.3 mL condensed tannins from pine bark (Pinus palustris; 9 % tannin wt/vol in water). All tubes (n = 3 tubes/treatment) were inoculated with a novobiocin and naladixic acid-resistant Salmo-nella typhimurium (STNN) to achieve 3.0 log10 CFU/g and incubated at 37oC for 3 days to simulate an initial compost period. Wildtype E. coli and the challenge STNN strain as well as concentrations of ammonia, uric acid and urea were measured on days 0 and 3. Pine bark tannin treatment decreased (p<0.01) STNN populations in the litter by 0.6 log units compared to the controls. Wildtype E. coli populations were unaffected by tannin treatment (p>0.05). Ammonia accumulation decreased (p<0.01) 23% in tannin-treated litter compared to the control (2.8 ± 0.1 µmol/g). Conversely, the residual uric acid concentration was 1.6-fold higher (p=0.02) in litter treated with the pine bark tannin than in the control litter. Urea concentrations were unaffected by tannin treatment (p>0.05). Results suggest that pine bark tannin treatment may preserve uric acid and reduce ammonia volatilization in composted litter while aiding Salmonella control.
  • Coconut Cake in Diets for Quail in the Laying Phase Original Article

    Moraes, SS; Pereira, AA; Almeida, VVS; Lima, DM; Silva, WA; Mariz, CBL; Vieira, GMN; Silva, WA; Moreno, GMB

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Currently, agro-industrial by-products have increasingly been used in animal feeding, as they constitute an alternative source of nutrients for the animal diet and a way to simultaneously reduce environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to examine increasing levels of inclusion of coconut cake in Japanese quail diets in the laying phase on their production performance and egg quality. A total of 360 Japanese quails were allotted to eight treatments with nine replicates and eight birds per experimental unit, in a randomized-block design. Five diets were formulated: a diet without inclusion of the by-product; and diets containing 3, 6, 9, and 12% coconut cake. The experiment lasted 63 days, with evaluations occurring at every 21 days. The following variables were analyzed: feed intake, laying rate, feed conversion, egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk, albumen and shell percentage, shell thickness, and shell weight. The treatments elicited a positive linear response from laying rate, whereas feed conversion per egg mass decreased linearly. In terms of egg-quality traits, shell percentage was influenced, increasing linearly. Coconut cake inclusion at 12% in the diet of Japanese quail in the laying improved feed conversion per egg mass and increased egg-laying rate and eggshell percentage.
  • Arthrospira (Spirulina) Platensis Can Be Considered as a Probiotic Alternative to Reduce Heat Stress in Laying Japanese Quails Original Article

    Hajati, H; Zaghari, M; Oliveira, HC

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis, SP) on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, hen day egg production, intestinal microflora, heat stress biomarkers, and HSP70 gene expression in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) suffering heat stress condition. A total of 250 female quails were allocated to 5 treatments, 5 replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental treatments included: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet+ 0.03 % probiotic, 3) basal diet+ 0.1 % SP, 4) basal diet+ 0.3 % SP, 5) basal diet+ 0.5 % SP. During the last 6 days of the experiment, the quails were exposed to 8h of 34±1°C. The birds had free access to feed and water during the experiment. The results showed that using probiotic and different levels of Spirulina had no significant effect on laying performance of Japanese quails (p>0.05). Probiotic supplement increased Lactobacil bacteria population in laying quails’ ileum under heat stress (p<0.05). Different levels of SP decreased Escherichia coli population in laying quails’ ileum suffering heat stress (p<0.05).SP at the level of 0.5% caused the lowest blood Malondialdehyde level, heterophil, and H/L ratio (p<0.05).However, HSP70 gene expression in the heart or the liver of laying quails was not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that SP at the level of 0.5 % has the potential to be considered as a probiotic alternative in the diet of laying quails suffering heat stress condition.
  • Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Proportion in Feed on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Original Article

    Castro-Tamayo, CB; Rios-Rincón, FG; Castillo-Lopez, RI; Contreras-Pérez, G; Molina-Barrios, RM; Heredia, JB; Muy-Rangel, MDI; Portillo-Loera, JJ

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This investigation was carried out to determine the effect of Essential Fatty Acids proportion (EFAs [n-6, n-3]) in feed through the mixture of soy, olive, canola or chia oil on EFA profile in eggs as well as productive and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. We used 120 quail from 7 to 22 weeks of age, in 15 cages in groups of 6 females and 2 males assigned according to the completely randomized design to 3 treatments with 5 replicates. The treatments were n-6:n-3 proportions 10:1 (control), 4:1 and 1:1. FA profile in yolk, feed intake, laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, and embryonic mortality were measured. In the egg yolk, n-6 content was similar in the proportions (p>0.05), while n-3 content increased (p<0.01) as n-6:n-3 ratio decreased in the feed. Feed consumption per quail was similar between treatments (p>0.05). In 4:1 and 1:1 proportion laying percentage was greater, but egg weight was lower (p<0.01). Fertility and hatchability were similar between proportions n-6, n-3 (p>0.68). Early and total embryonic mortality was lower in 10:1 and 4:1 proportion (p<0.01); while intermediate and late mortality was similar (p>0.30). The results of the experiment indicate that the mixture of soy, olive, canola or chia oil, to obtain n-6:n-3 proportion of 1:1, 4:1 and 10:1 does not modify feed consumption, laying rate, egg weight, fertility, and hatchability; but, 4:1 and 10:1 proportions favor a lower embryonic mortality.
  • New Isospora and Host Species in Brazilian Passerines Original Article

    Barreto, C; Vilela, DAR; Houri, BF; Lara, LB; Torres, ACD; Silva, ASG; Castro, RPL; Costa, CS; Martins, NRS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Normal passerines (n=216) were evaluated for oocysts of Isospora in feces at the Triage Center for Wild Animals (CETAS, IBAMA, Belo Horizonte; August 21 to September 21, 2012). The positive samples with oocysts represented 13.0% of Cardinalidae (n=23), 11.2% of Emberizidae (n=107), 50% of Icteridae (n=10) and 60.3% of Thraupidae (n=68). The probability of fecal oocysts attributable to the host in Thraupidae is higher than in Cardinalidae, Emberizidae, Fringillidae and Turdidae, but similar to Icteridae. No oocysts were found in Fringillidae and Turdidae. Within Thraupidae, Isospora was for the first time described in Paroaria dominicana and Schistochlamys ruficapillus and within Icteridae, in Gnorimopsar chopi. Saltator similis presented a higher risk, 66.9% greater than Lanio pileatus and Sporophila caerulescens and with a 27.9% greater probability than Sporophila nigricolis. The new coccidian species described were Isospora dominicana [ellipsoid oocysts, 25 (30-20) x 25 (28-20) µm] in Paroaria dominicana; Isospora beagai [ovoid oocysts, 28 (32-17) x 25 (29-16) µm] and Isospora ferri [ellipsoid oocysts, 20 (22-16) x 18 (22-15) µm] in Saltator similis; Isospora ruficapillus [spheric to subspherical oocysts, 25 (26-23) x 24 (25-21) µm] in Schistochlamys ruficapillus; and Isospora chopi [spherical to sub-spherical oocysts, 24.5 x 22 (30-20 x 25-20) µm] and Isospora gnorimopsar [sub-spherical to ovoid oocysts, 27 x 23 (32-22 x 28-20) µm] in Gnorimopsar chopi. The morphometry and features were compared with previously described Isospora in passerines. New coccidian species and new passerine hosts are described for Isospora and recommends for constant monitoring during rehabilitation, especially for the hosts of Thraupidae and Icteridae.
  • Escherichia coli in Chicken Carcasses in Southern Brazil: Absence of Shigatoxigenic (STEC) and Isolation of Atypical Enteropathogenic (aEPEC) Original Article

    Cerutti, MF; Vieira, TR; Zenato, KS; Werlang, GO; Pissetti, C; Cardoso, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) in frozen chicken carcasses sold at stores in southern Brazil. Typical E. coli colonies were enumerated in 246 chicken carcasses, and the presence of stx1, stx2, eae genes was investigated in their rinse liquid and in E. coli strains isolated from those carcasses. Strains of E. coli were also investigated for the presence of bfp gene. A median of 0.6 cfu.g-1(ranging from <0.1 to 242.7 cfu.g-1) of typical E. coli colonies was found in the carcasses. Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx1 and stx2) were not detected, indicating that the chicken carcasses were negative for STEC. The intimin protein gene (eae) was detected in E.coli isolated from 4.88% of the carcasses; all tested strains were negative for the bfp gene and were classified as aEPEC. Twenty-two aEPEC strains were tested for resistance to ten antimicrobials and subjected to macrorestriction (PFGE). All the tested aEPEC strains were fully susceptible to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin and colistin. Resistance to sulfonamide (65%), ampicillin (55%), tetracycline (50%) and gentamicin (45%) were the most frequent. The PFGE profile demonstrated a low level of similarity among the resistant strains, indicating that they were epidemiologically unrelated. The results indicate that aEPEC strains can contaminate chicken meat, and their association with strains implicated in human diarrhea needs to be further investigated.
  • Effects of E. Coli Infection on the Expressions of TGF-β/Smads Signaling Pathway in Broiler Intestine Original Article

    Juang, J; Yin, H; Zhang, C; Wang, J

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This experiment aimed to investigate whether Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection could affect the TGF-β/smads signaling pathway in the jejunal tissue of chickens. One-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly divided into 2 groups and treated with intraperitoneal E. coli or broth injection. Clinical signs of the birds were assessed every day. Spleen and bursa of Fabricius of the birds, post-infection (pi), were collected to evaluate immune organ index. Jejunal tissues were collected to ascertain the expression of TGF-βs, TβRs, and Smads. The results showed that the infected birds had significantly higher index of the spleen (24hrs and 48hrs pi) compared with birds in the control group (p<0.05). The relative gene expression of TGF-β4 increased (p<0.05), while the expression of Smad7 down-regulated in the E. coli group (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in TGF-β2, TGF-β3, TβR I, TβR II, Smad2, Smad3 expression (p>0.05). In conclusion, TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was associated with the immune response of broilers in E. coli infection and TGF-β4 was the main subtype interacting with E. coli infection.
  • Effect of Selenium Supplementation in Broiler Diets on Breast Meat Deposition Original Article

    Vieira, VI; Durau, JF; Schramm, VG; Bassi, LS; Oliveira, SG; Maiorka, A

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to evaluate the deposition of selenium in the breast muscle of broilers fed different selenium sources during different periods. Two experiments were carried out with broilers fed 45% sodium selenite (SS) or 2% hydroxy-selenomethionine (HSM) to determine the selenium deposition rate in the muscle tissue. In Experiment 1, 48 broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments with eight replicates each, consisting of diets containing 0 Se (0), 200 or 400 µgSS/kg (200 SS, 400 SS), or 100, 200, or 300 µgHSM/kg (100 HSM, 200 HSM, 300 HSM) for 10 days. The highest Se breast content was obtained with 300 HSM diet, followed by 200 SS diet compared to the other treatments. Experiment 2 had a completely randomized design following a plot scheme subdivided in time, and consisted of a basal diet supplemented with 300 µg SS/kg (300 SS), basal diet with 200 µg HSM/kg (200 HSM) or basal diet supplemented with 100 µgSS/kg and 100 µgHSM/kg (100 SS+100 HSM). Dietary Se sources did not influence Se breast content measured on days 3 and 6. However, on days 9 and 12, higher Se breast contents were measured in broilers fed 200 HSM and 100 SS+100 HSM diets compared with those fed 300 SS diet. In conclusion, the supplementation of broiler diets with HSM at 2% for a short period is more efficient to increase selenium deposition in the breast muscle than sodium selenite.
  • Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Fumaric Acid on Growth Performance, Blood Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Chronic Heat Stress Original Article

    Ding, J; He, S; Xiong, Y; Liu, D; Dai, S; Hu, H

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fumaric acid (FA) on the growth performance, hematological parameters and serum biochemistry in broilers under heat stress (HS) condition. A total number of 200 broilers were allocated to five treatments including the thermoneutral group, which was reared at standard ambient temperature and fed basal diet (CONT) and four heat-stressed groups, which were held at 32 ± 1ºC aged from 22 to 42 days and fed the basal diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10 and 15 g/kg FA, respectively. On day 42, body weight and feed intake were measured and feed conversion ratio was calculated. Blood was collected for the estimation of hematological and biochemical parameters. HS impaired the growth performance, but the addition of FA made a higher final body weight, average daily gain and European broiler index in comparison with HS group. The hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume of HS broilers were significantly lower than those of the CONT birds. Birds administered 5g/kg FA diet had significantly (p<0.05) higher erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentration compared with birds in the HS group fed basal diet. Also, the HS group exhibited significant increase in glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine when compared with CONT group. Dietary 5g/kg FA increased the serum total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HS group. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the importance of using FA as feed additives to improve the growth performance of heat-stressed broilers through haematological and biochemical regulation.
  • Correlations between Breast Yield and Morphometric Traits in Broiler Pure Lines Original Article

    Erensoy, K; Noubandiguim, M; Cilavdaroglu, E; Sarica, M; Yamak, US

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Broiler pure lines are valuable breeding species and morphometric traits are advantageous for the selection of breast yield since they could be applied practically and without any negative impact on welfare. In this study, live weight (LW), carcass weight and ratio (CW and CR), breast weight and ratio (BW and BR), abdominal fat weight and ratio (AFW and AFR), morphometric traits such as breast width, length and index (BWD, BL and BI) were investigated in broiler pure lines. The research material consisted of 3 dam (A1, A2 and A3) and 2 sire (B1, B2) pure lines of 42 days of age. LW, CW, BW, AFW, AFR, BR, BL, BWD and BI values were different between the two lines (p<0.05). LW, CW, BW and BI were higher in sire lines. The relationship between breast weight and index were also higher in sire and dam lines than the relationships between breast width and length separately (in sire lines: BWD: 0.73; BL: 0.79; BI: 0.79, in dam lines: BWD: 0.79; BL: 0.74; BI: 0.84). In addition, high r 2 values were determined in regression equations for BW estimation in dam and sire lines (0.836 and 0.857, respectively). Because of the significant correlations between breast yield and its morphometric traits, it is seen that more feasible, ease of measurement, protection of breeding resources and welfare. It is thought that the use of breast index which shows a higher correlation compared to these traits will increase selection efficiency instead of using breast width and length separately.
  • Influence of Levels of Dietary Fiber Sources on the Performance, Carcass Traits, Gastrointestinal Tract Development, Fecal Ammonia Nitrogen, and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers Original Article

    Sittiya, J; Yamauchi, K; Nimanong, W; Thongwittaya, N

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fiber source levels on the fecal ammonia nitrogen, growth performance, carcass traits, gastrointestinal tract development, and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 420 one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks were individually weighed and randomly divided into 5 groups, each with seven replicates of twelve chicks. Rice hulls (RH) and soybean hulls (SH) were ground through a hammer mill with a 2-mm screen. The RH and SH experimental diets were as follows: 0% (control); 2.5% RH; 2.5% SH; 5% RH; and 5% SH. No significant differences were found in growth performance and fecal ammonia nitrogen among the dietary treatment groups (p>0.05). Compared with the control, the experimental diets with 2.5% SH significantly decreased the wing weight of chickens (p<0.05), while no significant differences in the weight of the other visceral organs were observed. Compared with the control, broilers in the 5% SH group had a longer jejunum and ileum (p<0.05). Feeding the broilers SH and RH had no effect on the villus area and crypt depth of the intestine. Compared with the control, the experimental diet with 2.5% RH significantly increased the duodenal villus height of chickens (p<0.05). These findings suggest that the inclusion of 5% SH in the diets resulted in improved intestinal morphology without negatively affecting growth performance and carcass traits.
  • Effect of Fat Sources and Emulsifier Levels in Broiler Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Carcass Parameters Original Article

    Kamran, J; Mehmood, S; Mahmud, A; Saima,

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of the current study was to check the effect of fat types and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) levels in broiler diets on broilers performance. For this purpose, three sources of fat {soy oil (SO), poultry oil (PO), and oxidized oil (OO) (oxidized soy oil)} and four levels of PGPR were used in a 3×4 factorial arrangement. The trial had 12 different dietary treatments: (T1) basal ration (BR) containing SO without PGPR supplementation, (T2) BR containing PO without PGPR supplementation, (T3) BR containing OO without PGPR supplementation, (T4) BR containing SO with PGPR supplementation (0.025%), (T5) BR containing PO with PGPR supplementation (0.025%), (T6) BR containing OO with PGPR supplementation (0.025%), (T7) BR containing SO with PGPR supplementation (0.035%), (T8) BR containing PO with PGPR supplementation (0.035%), (T9) BR containing OO with PGPR supplementation (0.035%), (T10) BR containing SO with PGPR supplementation (0.045%), (T11) BR containing PO with PGPR supplementation (0.045%), (T12) BR containing OO with PGPR supplementation (0.045%). Results revealed that interaction was present for fat sources and PGPR levels in the current experiment (p<0.05) for feed conversion ratio, body weight, dry matter (DM) and crude fat (CF) digestiblities (p<0.05). In overall trial, interaction results of PGPR and fat sources showed that performance of birds and nutrient digestiblities of DM and CF was increased in birds received diet contained SO and PGPR @ 0.35%. It is concluded that PGPR @ 0.035% could be successfully used in broiler ration contained soy oil to improve the performance.
  • Quality of Eggs from Layers Reared under Alternative and Conventional System Original Article

    Popova, T; Petkov, E; Ayasan, T; Ignatova, M

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The study aimed to compare and assess some of the quality characteristics (morphology, colour of the yolk, total carotenoid content and fatty acid profile) of eggs obtained from hens reared conventionally or in alternative system having access to pasture. Twenty eggs of each rearing system were analysed for the above characteristics. The eggs obtained from the layer reared under the alternative system were significantly heavier than the conventional ones, displayed higher diameters of the albumen and albumen index, as well as increased diameter and weight of the yolk. On the other hand, their shell thickness and Haugh units were lower when compared to the eggs from conventionally reared hens. The colour of the eggs from the alternative system was darker and they had lower values of L* and higher of a* in the yolk, corresponding to the significantly higher content of the total carotenoids in comparison to the eggs obtained from the hens reared conventionally. Furthermore, the eggs from the hens having access to pasture showed clear advantage in the fatty acid profile and the related lipid nutritional indices. In general, the rearing in alternative system reduced considerably the content of C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C16:1n-7 and C18:1n-9, as well as the saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). On the other hand, with the exception of C20:3n-6, the contents of both individual and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were dramatically increased in the eggs from the hens reared in the alternative system. This led to favourably decreased values of n-6/n-3 ratio as well as values of both atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices but augmented ratio between hypo- and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids.
  • Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Full-Fat Canola Seeds on Productive Performance, Blood Metabolites and Antioxidant Status of Laying Japanese Quails Original Article

    Ibrahim, NS; Sabic, EM; Abu-Taleb, AM; Abdel-Moneim, AE

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of full-fat canola seeds (FFCS) on productive performance, blood metabolites and antioxidant status of laying Japanese quails. A total of 360, 8-week-old quails were divided into a completely randomize design with 4 dietary experimental groups and three pens each, each pen containing 30hens. The experimental groups were fed iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets supplemented with FFCS at levels 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg diet. The experiment lasted 16 weeks. All supplemented groups showed significant effects in the final body weight (g), hen feed consumption (g/hen/day), egg mass (g egg/hen/day) and hen-day egg production (%). However, egg weight (g) at 8-12 weeks of age reduced significantly. Moreover, feed conversion ratio (g feed/g egg), did not alter among groups. Egg quality criteria were not affected by FFCS supplementationexcept for the egg shape index which decreased significantly at 10 and 15% FFCS groups. Serum total protein, albumen, uric acid, creatinine, hepatic enzyme activities, triiodothyronine, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterolconcentrations were not altered. However, serum triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol showed significant reduction in all treated groups. Furthermore, serum glutathione peroxidase level was greatly influencedin supplemented groups, while malondialdehyde level reduced significantly. In conclusion, FFCS inclusion in Laying Japanese quail diets up to 15% enhanced the laying performance, blood lipids profile and anti-oxidative status. Thus, it can be regarded as alternative sources of energy and protein in poultry rations.
  • Hybrid Phytase and Carbohydrases in Corn and Soybean Meal-Based Diets for Broiler Chickens: Performance and Production Costs Original Article

    Bavaresco, C; Krabbe, E; Gopinger, E; Sandi, AJ; Martinez, FN; Wernik, B; Roll, VFB

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of using 500 FTU/kg of hybrid phytase (created from three bacteria - Natuphos E), with or without xylanase and glucanase (560 TXU/kg; 250 TGU/kg) - Natugrain TS, in corn and soybean meal-based diets, with nutritional reductions in metabolizable energy (ME), Ca, and available phosphorus (AP), on performance parameters and production costs in broiler chickens. The 1875chickens were housed in boxes and distributed among 5 treatments with 15 replicates of 25 chickens each. The experiment included a positive control (the diet of which met the nutritional requirements of the birds), two negative controls (with ME reductions of 70 and 100 kcal/kg, and fixed reductions in Ca [0.16%] and AP [0.15%]), and two treatments with identical nutritional reductions in addition to enzyme supplementation. The treatments included the following: PC= positive control (basal diet (BD) corn and soybean meal); R_70 = BD with reduction of 70 kcal/kg, Ca and AP;R_100 = BD with reduction of 100 kcal, Ca and AP; R_70 + P =BD with reduction of 70 kcal/kg, Ca and AP + phytase (500 FTU/kg); R_100 + P + XG =BD with reduction of 100 kcal/kg, Ca and AP + phytase (500 FTU/kg) + xylanase (560 TXU/kg) + glucanase (250 TGU/kg). Performance parameters, carcass yield, and production costs (USD/ton chilled carcass) were evaluated. In conclusion, the reductions of 70 kcal/kg, 0.16% Ca, and 0.15% AP did not affect performance in chickens over 42 days, if diets were supplemented with hybrid phytase (500 FTU/kg). Supplementation with hybrid phytase and carbohydrases in diets with reductions of 100 kcal/kg, 0.16% Ca, and 0.15% AP led to lower production costs.
  • Effects of β-mannanase on Egg Production Performance, Egg Quality, Intestinal Microbiota, Viscosity, and Ammonia Concentration in Laying Hens Original Article

    Zheng, L; Cho, SH; Kang, CW; Lee, KW; Kim, KE; An, BK

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of β-mannanase on egg production performance, egg quality, intestinal microbiota, viscosity, and ammonia concentration in laying hens. In Exp. 1, two hundred and seventy 30-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were assigned to 6 diets arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial of three levels of MEn and CP [(a corn-soybean meal based diet (HEHP), a diet containing 50 kcal of MEn/kg and 1.0% less energy and CP than the HEHP (MEMP), and a diet containing 80 kcal of MEn/kg and 1.5% less energy and CP than HEHP (LELP)], and β-mannanase supplementation (0 or 0.04%). In Exp. 2, A total of two hundred and sixteen62-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were assigned to 6 dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. In Exp. 1, β-mannanase supplementation increased egg production rate in hens fed LELP diet, but not in those fed HEHP or MEMP diet (interaction, p<0.01), and the interaction was significant (p<0.01) for egg mass. β-mannanase supplementation decreased (p<0.05) ammonia concentration. In Exp. 2, the supplementation of β-mannanase increased egg production rate and egg mass in hens fed LELP diet, whereas no differences were found in those fed HEHP or MELP diet (interaction, p<0.01). The supplementation of β-mannanase in a lower energy and protein diet resulted in similar production performance when compared to high-energy and high-protein diet during early and late stages of egg production.
  • Effect of Infectious Bursal Disease (Ibd) Vaccines on Infection of Salmonella Heidelberg in Broiler Chickens Original Article

    Marín-Gómez, SY; Martins, NRS; Fernando, FS; Coelho, HLG; Freitas, OC

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) has represented a great concern to the Brazilian poultry industry in the last years. It is known that immunosuppression in poultry is a contributing factor to increase Salmonella faecal shedding and to disturb control programmes. Not only infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus but also some live vaccines have been reported to induce immunosuppression. In the present study we assessed the effects of two live vaccines against IBD on SH-infected broiler chicks. At 7 days of age, birds of three groups (vaccinated with recombinant HVT-IBD vector, with immune complex-IBD vaccine and unvaccinated) were orally challenged with 1 x 108 CFU of SH. A group of hatchmates remained unvaccinated/unchallenged to serve as negative controls. Caecal colonization and systemic invasion were evaluated by bacterial enumeration at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days post-infection (Dpi) and SH faecal shedding assessed by cloacal swabs at 3, 7, 10 and 14 Dpi. The counts of SH in caecal contents were higher in birds vaccinated with immune complex-IBD than in those that received the HVT-IBD vector vaccine at 5, 7 and 14 dpi (p<0.01). There were no statistical differences in bacterial counts in liver and spleen among birds of different groups. Cloacal swabs also indicated that the birds vaccinated with immune complex-IBD shed more SH than those vaccinated with HVT-IBD vector or those unvaccinated (p<0.01). The results of the present study suggested that the immunosuppressive effect of the immune complex-IBD vaccine helped to increase the SH-faecal shedding in the infected birds.
  • Dried Cassava Residue in Laying Quail Feeding Original Article

    Almeida, AZ; Eyng, C; Garcia, RG; Nunes, RV; Sangalli, GG; Nunes, KC

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated the performance, egg quality, relative weight of the gastrointestinal organs, and the intestinal morphometry of laying quails fed diets containing levels of dried cassava residue (DCR). A total of 120 150-day-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0.0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; and 10.0% of DCR), four replicates, and six birds per experimental unit. The dietary inclusion of DCR did not affect (p>0.05) performance, internal egg quality, yolk color, and the values of villus height, crypt depth, and villus height/crypt depth ratio for the segments of the small intestine. However, a linear increase (p<0.05) was found for eggshell thickness, relative weight of the gizzard, and small intestine with increased dietary levels of the residue. For the relative weight of the pancreas, a quadratic effect (p<0.05) was observed, with the lower relative weight estimated at 4.04% DCR inclusion. Comparing to the control group (0% of DRC inclusion) the quails fed 5% of DRC showed a lower relative weight of the pancreas. The inclusion of up to 10% of dried cassava residue in laying quail’s diets does not interfere with the performance. Among the organs of gastrointestinal tract, the inclusion of dried cassava residue increased the relative weight of gizzard and small intestine. In addition, it improves eggshell quality by increasing eggshell thickness.
  • High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Recovered from Broiler Chickens and Chicken Carcasses in Brazil Original Article

    Rodrigues, IBBE; Silva, RL; Menezes, J; Machado, SCA; Rodrigues, DP; Pomba, C; Abreu, DLC; Nascimento, ER; Aquino, MHC; Pereira, VLA

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The extensive use of antimicrobial agents has contributed to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) in Salmonella, an important zoonotic pathogen that causes outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in humans. The study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella strains isolated from poultry in Brazil. A total of 230 Salmonella strains, isolated from cloacal swabs (n=56) and broiler carcasses swabs (n=174) before and after chilling from slaughterhouses under Federal Inspection Service within the period 2012-2017, were analyzed. Serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed on all the isolates. Serotyping results showed that 41% of the strains were Salmonella Heidelberg, 29% S. Minnesota, 12% S. Saintpaul, 6.5% S. Enteritidis, 3.9% S. Anatum, 2.2% S. Cerro, 2.2% S. Senftenberg, 1.7% S. Newport, 0.4% S. Ealing, 0.4% S. O:4,5 and 0.4% S. O:9,12. MDR rates of the isolates were 67.4%. S. Heidelberg 89.5%, S. Minnesota 51.5%, S. Saintpaul 82.1%, S. Anatum 66.7%, S. Cerro 60%, S. Senftenberg 40%. Out of the 230 strains, 41.3% presented resistance to Penicillins + beta-lactamase inhibitor, Penicillin, 1st and 2nd Generation Cephalosporin, 3rd and 4th Generation Cephalosporin, Tetracycline and Sulfonamide. Salmonella Heidelberg, S. Saintpaul, S. Anatum, S. Cerro, S. Senftenberg and S. Minnesota were isolated after chilling tank highlighting a food safety concern for the industry of poultry and poultry products indicating a risk to collective health. The high prevalence of MDR nontyphoidal Salmonella obtained in this study limit the options available to treat infectious disease in humans and animals.
  • Circulation of Major Respiratory Pathogens in Backyard Poultry and their Association with Clinical Disease and Biosecurity Original Article

    Batista, IA; Hoepers, PG; Silva, MFB; Nunes, PLF; Diniz, DCA; Freitas, AG; Cossi, MVC; Fonseca, BB

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY Raising backyard birds is a common practice in Brazil, mainly in the countryside or suburban areas. However, the level of respiratory pathogens in these animals is unknown. We sampled two hundred chickens from 19 backyard flocks near commercial poultry farms and performed ELISA to Infectious Bronchitis Virus, avian Metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. We evaluated the association between the predictive ability of ELISA and Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI)by comparing results from eight flocks positive to Mycoplasma gallisepticum on ELISA. Besides, we assessed essential biosecurity measures in the properties (multiple species birds, rodent control, hygienic conditions, and water quality for the bird`s consumption). We could access the vaccination program only on four properties; in three of them, the birds were supposedly vaccinated for IBV. Overall the properties had a poor score for the biosecurity measures, and the seroprevalence in backyard poultry flocks for IBV, a MPV, MS, and MG were respectively 87.5% (14/16), 89.5% (17/19), 100 (19/19) and MG 84.21% (16/19). We found low specificity and predictive value between ELISA and HI in MG analysis and a positive correlation between the presence of clinical symptoms and mean MG titers. Backyard chicken are pathogens’ reservoirs and pose a risk for the commercial poultry farms in the region, and further efforts of the governmental entities and private sector of poultry production should consider these information to avoid future economic losses.
  • Requirement of Sodium to Molted Laying Hens1 Original Article

    Melo, RD; Cruz, FGG; Melo, LD; Feijó, JC; Rufino, JPF; Brasil, RJM; Oliveira Fº, PA; Silva, FMF

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the ideal requirement of sodium to molted laying hens. The experimental period lasted 105 days, divided into five periods of 21 days. Hisex White laying hens 150 with 84 weeks-of-age were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (5x3) with treatments constituted by five levels of sodium (0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30%) in the diets, and three postmolt stages (early = 21 days, medium = 63 days, and final = 105 days). Performance and egg quality results were evaluated by Tukey test at 5%. Eggshell resistance and weight gain results were evaluated by polynomial regression at 5%. Except the yolk height, all performance and egg quality variables were affected (p<0.05) by the sodium levels and the hens’ age postmolt. The level of 0.15% of sodium in diets to postmolt laying hens provided better performance and egg quality, especially in the eggshell. Higher levels of sodium negatively affected the performance and egg quality. Hens in the early stage of postmolt period presented better performance and egg quality. At long-term, the postmolt hens presented worst results.
  • Preventive, Behavioral, Productive, and Tissue Modification using Green Synthesized Selenium Nanoparticles in the Drinking Water of Two Broiler Breeds under Microbial Stress Original Article

    Ali, AA; Soliman, ES; Hamad, RT; El-Borad, OM; Hassan, RA; Helal, MS

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT A study was conducted to investigate the influence of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPS) and inorganic selenium supplementation in the drinking water on behavior, performance, and immunity of Arbor Acres® and Ross®308 broilers exposed to E. coli O157:H7 1.6 × 108 challenge at the 10th day of age. 180 one-day-old female broilers were divided into six groups, each with 30 chicks. G1 and G4 were supplied with 1 mL SeNPS 100 mg.L-1/L, G2 and G5 were supplied with 1 mL inorganic selenium 100 mg.L-1/L, and G3 and G6 were supplied with non-supplemented water. Where, G1, G2, and G3 were Arbor Acres®, while G4, G5, and G6 were Ross®308 broilers. A total of 1280 samples (160 sera, 160 intestinal swabs and 960 organ samples including liver, spleen, bursa, heart, breast muscles, and thymus) were collected in a study period of 38 days. A highly significant increase (p<0.01) of weight gain, feed conversion, performance index, total protein, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, immunoglobulin G and M, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase was recorded in G4 Ross®308 compared to other supplemented and control groups. G1 Arbor Acres® and G4 Ross®308 broilers, also revealed a highly significant decline (p<0.01) in total bacterial and enterobacteriaceae counts of intestine and breast muscles compared to G2 Arbor Acres® and G5 Ross®308 broilers and to controls. Photomicrographs revealed a higher degree of cellular and tissue protection in G4 and G5 Ross®308 compared to G1 and G2 Arbor Acres® broilers. An improvement from SeNPS supplementation was detected on behavior, performance, bacterial load, immunological, antioxidant profiles, and tissue architecture in broilers breeds with special reference to Ross®308 compared to Arbor Acres® broilers.
  • Phytobiotic Activity of Piper Auritum and Ocimum Basilicum on Avian E. Coli Original Article

    Aguilar-Urquizo, E; Itza-Ortiz, MF; Sangines-Garcia, JR; Pineiro-Vázquez, AT; Reyes-Ramirez, A; Pinacho-Santana, B

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Natural antimicrobials, known as phytobiotics, are used in bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe phytobiotic activity, in vitro and in vivo, of an extract and an essential oil of Piper auritum and Ocimum basilicum on avian Eschericia coli serotype O2 in broiler chickens experimentally infected. For the in vitro test, extracts at 4, 8, 12 and 16% in water-based solvent or alcohol at 70% were prepared from leaves of both plants. In the essential oils, solvents at 10% were used. A concentration of 1×108 CFU mL-1 of bacteria was seeded and on each sense disc, 25 µL of the extract or essential oil were poured, except on the positive or negative control. The diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of bacterial growth was measured. In the in vivo test, 40 chickens were inoculated, by intratracheal route, with a bacterial suspension of 1 × 108 CFU mL-1. E. col was identified and isolated from the organs; mortality, morbidity and relative weight of the organs were measured, and postmortem lesions and histopathologic findings were observed. A completely randomized design and the Kruskal-Wallis test for data analysis was used. By increasing the concentration of the extract, DIZ was greater; at the time of slaughter, differences in body weight (p<0.05) were found and the majority of lesions were observed in lungs. It is concluded that leave extracts of P. auritum and O. basilicum had phytobiotic activity on E. col serotype O2.
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Salmonella spp. in Broilers Technological Processing and Determination of a Performance Objective (PO) for Frozen Chicken Breast Original Article

    Machado, SCA; Pereira, VLA; Aquino, MHC; Giombeli, A; Rodrigues, DP; Nascimento, ER

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The present study investigated the frequency, level of contamination and serotyping of Salmonella strains isolated from broiler flocks in different processing sites and the fulfillment of a Performance Objective (PO) in frozen chicken breasts, as a risk assessment to measure the efficacy of prevention and control programs applied to reduce the risk of Salmonella spp. in raw poultry meat that contribute to reach food safety and public health goals. From 1,800 samples of cloacal swabs, carcasses before and after immersion chilling and frozen breasts derived from 20 broiler flocks slaughtered at two processing plants located in the mid-west and southern regions of Brazil, 278 samples were positive for Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) automated BAX System (DUPONT QUALICOM, USA), and 118 were enumerated by miniaturized most probable number technique. 122 Salmonella spp. strains were serotyped at the National Reference Laboratory of Cholera and Enteric Diseases of Oswaldo Cruz Institute Foundation (FIOCRUZ), showing a dominance of Salmonella Minnesota in every processing steps of the slaughterhouse located in the Brazilian mid-west region. Only 1 lot failed to reach the expected result for the Performance Objective (PO), using a maximum of 10% positivity acceptance for Salmonella spp. in frozen chicken breasts. Qualitative and quantitative results combined may be considered an effective tool to evaluate the effect of prevention and control programs for Salmonella spp. on the safety of the final product.
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