Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A prolonged period without feed access negatively impacts the growth and development of poultry. This study evaluated the effect of early post-hatch feeding times on the growth and carcass performance of Mule ducks reared intensively in the tropics. A total of 48 Mule ducklings were obtained from a local hatchery and assigned in a completely randomized design to 4 treatments based on 4 feeding regimes, (T) as follows: T1 3hrs, T2 24hrs, T3 36hrs and T4 48hrs post-hatch. On day 1 the ducklings were individually weighed, followed by weekly weighing until harvest at 63 days. Feed and feed refusal was measured daily for a period of 63 days. At harvest the body weight at slaughter, eviscerated and hot carcass weight, as well as the initial pH and pH24 of the breast, leg, and thigh quarters was evaluated. Weights of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract were then taken. The feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed intake and meat: skin: bone ratio was calculated. At 0-7 days cumulative feed intake and FCR was influenced by treatment (p=0.022, p=0.026; respectively). Body weight at slaughter ranged from 2969-3382.5g. Treatment did not affect the weights of the bone, fat, muscle and skin, of the breast quarter (p=0.698, p=0.893, p=0.940; respectively). However, weight of the bone for the leg and thigh quarter differed among treatments. A lower pH24 was observed for both breast and leg and thigh quarters. The study suggests that early post-hatch feeding at 3-48hrs does not affect the performance of Mule ducks.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to examine the impact of levels of dietary supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins on the production performance and egg quality of laying hens. Three hundred Hy-Line White W-36 laying hens were evaluated from 28 to 44 weeks of age. The birds were allotted to one of six treatments in a randomized block design with 10 replicates with five birds each. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated in four 28-day periods. A corn and soybean meal-based basal diet was formulated so as to meet the nutritional requirements of the animals, with the exception of fat-soluble vitamins. The treatments consisted of dietary supplementation with 0%, 33.3%, 66.7%, 100.0%, 133.3% or 166.7% of fat-soluble vitamins (100% supplementation consisted of 7500 IU, 2000 IU, 10 IU and 1.8 mg of vitamins A, D3, E and K per kilogram of diet, respectively). Eggshell weight, shell thickness, shell strength, feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion per egg mass and feed conversion per dozen eggs showed a quadratic response (p≤0.05) to the treatments, whereas egg mass responded linearly. Optimal results were obtained at an average fat-soluble vitamin supplementation level of 109%, which corresponds to 8175 IU of vitamin A, 2180 IU of vitamin D3, 10.9 IU of vitamin E and 1.96 mg of vitamin K per kilogram of diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effects of plant essential oil (PEO) on the production performance and immune function of laying hens were evaluated to provide theoretical basis for promoting the natural plant extracts. Eight thousand 1-day-old healthy laying hens were randomly divided into a control group or PEO group, with four replicates per treatment and 1000 hens per replicate. The PEO diet was supplemented with 3g/kg plant extract. Diets were fed for 56 days. The tibia length and keel length were detected on an empty stomach at the end of the trial. Blood samples were collected on the 28th and 56th days to detect the level of C3, C4, IL-1, IL-2, IL-17 and immunoglobulin in the serum. The results showed that, compared with the control, PEO supplementation significantly increased the weight gain rate (WGR) at the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 7th week (p<0.05), and decreased the WGR at the 3rd and 6th week. The tibial length was significantly increased at the 3rd, 5th, 6th and 7th week (p<0.01), and also the keel length at the 5th and 7th week in PEO group. The concentration of IgG and IgM also significantly influenced with PEO supplementation, but there was no significant difference in the complements, C3 and C4, and the IL levels between days 28 and 56. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in body weight and immune organ on day 56. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of PEO could improve the production performance and immune function in laying hens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Expression of housekeeping genes is relatively constant in different tissues and cells by RT-qPCR analysis. Housekeeping genes (HGs) are usually utilized as the reference to evaluate and compare mRNA expression abundances of target genes in different cells or tissues sampled. However, the expression stabilities of different HGs in diverse samples may appear divergence. Currently, there is no exact reference data of HGs in hen ovarian follicular tissues during egg-laying period available yet. In this study, we detected the expression of 18SrRNA, ACTB, HOXC8, GAPDH, alpha-A, and alpha-D mRNA in the varied-size ovarian follicles (1-8 mm in diameter and F5), hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, and breast muscles of the laying hens by RT-qPCR, to analyze the results via Ct value, geNorm, Normfinder, and Bestkeeper. The data showed that the expression levels of 18SrRNA, alpha-A, and alpha-D transcripts were more significantly stable than the other three genes for normalizing mRNA expression in the hen ovarian follicles examination. Moreover, alpha-D, 18SrRNA, and alpha-A were also most suitable for the expression normalization in the tissues of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and breast muscle. In contrast, 18SrRNA has the most stable mRNA expression levels in all tissues sampled, so it can serve as an excellent inner control for the evaluation of the transcription levels in chickens. It is a remarkable fact that HOXC8 as a candidate reference should be avoided. Our study establishes a set of stably expressed candidate inner references in the hen ovarian follicles and several tissues, it firstly provided an exact data for validation of the inner references in normalizing transcription levels of a target gene in chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on egg production, yolk components, cholesterol metabolism, and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in hens. Four treatment diets included a control and LAB added at 3 × 105 (low), 3 × 107 (medium), or 3 × 109 (high) cfu/kg. The treatment LAB contained equal amounts of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium. Results showed that high LAB increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg mass, and yolk phospholipid, but decreased (p<0.05) yolk triglyceride and phosvitin. Diets with LAB decreased (p<0.05) yolk and serum cholesterol content, and serum bile acid by 9.3 to 39.9%. In liver, high LAB downregulated (p<0.05) mRNA expression of serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit (PRKAA1, 2), and protein phosphatase catalytic subunits (PPP2CA, PPP2CB and PPP3CA) by 49.5 to 175.4%. In mucosa, high LAB downregulated (p<0.05) PRKAA1 and HMGR by 68.2 and 69.6%, respectively; but upregulated (p<0.05) PPP2CA and PPP2CB by 51.2 and 45%, respectively. Linear decreasing (p≤0.035) responses to LAB doses were found on cholesterol, phosvitin, bile acid, and hepatic gene expressions, and quadratic (p≤0.006) effects on yolk cholesterol and hepatic STK11. It is concluded that probiotic LAB can improve yolk components and decrease hepatic cholesterol synthesis by regulating HMGR pathway in hens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Recently the use of antibiotic growth promoter (AGPs) in poultry feed is banned in China, leading to the increasing demand for AGPs substitutes. Probiotics have been considered as a potential substitute. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic on serum biochemistry, and growth promotion of body weight and visceral organs and in Lohmann Brown chicks aged 0 to 9 weeks. Five hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks were randomly divided into three groups, with six replicates and 30 chicks in each replicate. The experiment was carried out over 70 days. Dietary treatments were: (1) basal diet alone (control group); (2) basal diet containing 0.1% probiotics (probiotic group); and (3) basal diet containing 0.01% zinc bacitracin in the feed (antibiotic group). The body weight (BW) of probiotic group was significantly higher than that of the control group during the whole trial period (p<0.05). ADG (0~70 d) in the probiotic group and the antibiotic group was higher than that in the control group (p<0.05). The Oliver weight and serum total protein (TP) in the probiotic group was higher than that in the control group on the 63rd day (p<0.05). The length of the duodenum, the weight of the spleen, duodenum and Jejunum in both the probiotic and antibiotic groups were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). The ileum weight in the probiotic group was significantly higher than those in the control group (p<0.05). The ileum length in the probiotic group was significantly longer than that in both the antibiotic and control groups (p<0.05). Probiotic mix with Bacillus subtilis and Pediococcus acidilactici play a similar role in promoting growth of body and visceral organs, and it is a promising growth promoter for Lohmann Brown chicks (0 to 9 weeks).
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supra-nutritional level of selected B vitamins in different types of diet on broiler performance. Two experiments were conducted using male and female one-day-old chicks (n=288 each; initial body weights in experiment I and II was, respectively, 47.57 ± 0.43, and 47.98 ± 0.31) reared in batteries up to 18 days. In experiment I, the chicks were fed a corn and soybean meal-based diet and, in experiment II, a diet containing oxidized animal by-product meals and soybean oil was used. Both experiments followed a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of the factors: i) supplementation levels of selected B vitamins (control, 3- or 6-times control of the vitamins riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin, folic acid and vitamin B12); ii) dietary nutritional density (low or high), totaling 6 treatments and 8 replicates of 6 birds each (3 males and 3 females). As result of this study, in Exp. I, chicks showed higher weight gain (741.1 g vs. 697.3 g) and feed intake (920.2 vs. 878.5 g) when fed low-nutritional density diet with supra-nutritional vitamin level 6-times higher than the control. However, this effect was not found in the performance of chickens fed high-nutritional density diet. Despite the poor quality of the ingredients used in Exp. II, no statistical effect was shown of the use of vitamin super-dose in rations with different dietary nutrient density. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved for chickens fed high-nutritional density diet (1.191 vs. 1.246 in experiment I, 1.244 vs. 1.275 in experiment II, p<0.01). We conclude that birds fed a vegetable diet formulated with low-dietary density improved body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) when receiving supra-nutritional levels of vitamins 6-times higher than the control.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The first aim of this study was to investigate the effects of perch cooling and different litter thicknesses on litter quality of the housing facility, welfare criteria (incidence of footpad and hock burns, gait score, plumage cleanliness and damages), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, growth, and carcass compositions of broilers reared at high ambient temperature. Secondly, the study was conducted to determine whether cooled perches would be preferred by broiler chickens exposed to a hot environment, and subsequently, whether the utilization of these perches would improve the welfare and performance of broilers, beyond those provided by non-cooled perches. A total of 459 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups based on the perch treatment (no perch, non-cooled, cooled perches) and litter thicknesses (1, 7, 14 cm) with three replicates. Aerial ammonia and litter moisture levels were lower in broilers reared at 14 cm litter thickness group than in broilers reared at 1 cm thickness group. The perch-contact incidence of chickens reared under the cooled perch was found higher than the non-cooled chickens at 36 to 42 days of age. Cooled perches and 14 cm of litter thickness tended to decrease the incidence of footpad and hock burn. The body weight gain of the broilers in cooled perch group was higher than those in no perch and non-cooled perch groups at 0-42 d (p<0.05). These results suggest that cool perches have a beneficial effect on the performance and welfare of broilers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are present on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix in all metazoans. HSPGs interact with growth factors and receptors through heparan sulfate (HS) chains. The sulfation pattern of heparan sulfate chains influences signaling events mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans located on the cell surface. SULF1 and SULF2 are two endo-sulfatases that can cleave specific 6-O-sulfate groups within the heparan chains. To determine their possible roles in tissues and satellite cells in vitro, their expression pattern was examined in tissues from 40-day-old chickens and in satellite cells from the breast muscles of 1-week-old and 2-week-old chickens using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry analyses. The SULF1 and SULF2 transcripts were widely distributed in various tissues. Upon increasing culture times in chicken´s primary skeletal muscle satellite cells, SULF1 and SULF2 expression in 1-week-old chickens was significantly higher than in 2-week-old chickens, suggesting that sulfatases play a key role in satellite cell development. Therefore, our findings increase our knowledge of sulfatase expression diversity and provide a solid basis for further research concerning this molecular mechanism.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in meat-type quails. A total of one hundred and sixty 7-d-old male quail chicks were weighed and allocated to four treatment groups of four replicates, with 10 chicks/replicate. Four groups of quail chicks were fed basal diet containing 12.44 g lysine (Lys)/kg of diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.4, 1.21 and 1.84 g Arg/kg of diet (for Arg to Lys ratios of 100, 103, 109 and 114) for 28 days. The birds were fed diets from 7 to 38 d of age. Final body weight and feed:gain tended to improve by increasing Arg:Lys ratio to 109. Relative weight of spleen and bursa were significantly (p<0.05) increased by the addition of 0.4 g Arg/kg of diet. Morphometric parameters of jejunum were not affected by the dietary treatments. The uric acid, and triglyceride concentration of the serum significantly (p<0.05) decreased by increasing the Arg:Lys ratio to 114. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentration were significantly (p<0.05) increased by increasing the Arg:Lys ratio to 114. Monocytes were decreased by increasing the Arg:Lys ratio to 114. In conclusion, our results indicated that Arg supplementation in the quail diets did not appear to have any significant positive effects on performance criteria and although increasing Arg:Lys ratio to 114 could improve serum biochemical parameters.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine (Gln) on the intestinal mucosal structure and immune cells of broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. 160 1-d-old commercial Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly selected to receive one of four treatments, each of which had 5 replicates. Each replicate consisted of 8 chicks subjected to a 21-d feeding trial. Group I served as the unchallenged (CON). All birds in groups II (SCC) - IV were challenged with 2.0 × 104 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. The birds in groups III and IV were treated with 0.5% and 1.0% Gln. The results showed that S. Enteritidis infection led to a decrease in the relative length and weight, villus height:crypt depth (VH:CD) of the jejunum and ileum, the number of intraepithelial lymphocyte cells, and number of goblet cells and an increase in the number of mast goblet cells compared with the measurements of these parameters in the CON group (p<0.05). In addition, the Gln groups had increased relative length and weight, VH:CD of the jejunum and ileum, numbers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cells, and numbers of goblet cells and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum and numbers of mast goblet cells compared with the measurements of these parameters in the SCC group (p<0.05). It was concluded that Gln added to broiler diets can effectively alleviate the intestinal mucosal damage caused by S. Enteritidis infection and improve its normal defense barrier function.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study was conducted to check the effect of emulsifier supplementation on growth performance of broiler birds on starter phase, from days 1 to 10. In the current study, a total of twelve hundred twenty-four Ross 308 broiler one day old chicks were used. Ross 308 broiler chicks were divided into two groups in such a way that each group had12 replicates, and each replicate had 51 birds. The duration of the current trial was of 10 days. Chicks were fed experimental diets with or without emulsifier supplementation. Daily feed intake, body weight, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility were recorded. Mortality was recorded on a daily basis, and feed intake was also corrected for mortality. Data collected from the experiment was interpreted by using analysis of variance method using SPSSTM under Completely Randomized Design. Results showed that emulsifier supplementation improved (p<0.05) feed intake in broiler birds on the 2nd, 6th, 7th and 9th days of the starter phase. Furthermore, emulsifier supplementation (p<0.05) affected the body weight on the 3rd and 10th day of the trial. Emulsifier supplementation also affected (p<0.05) feed conversion ratio on the 10th day of the trial. However, nutrient digestibility was not affected by the supplementation of emulsifier in the diet of broiler chicks. Results showed that emulsifier supplementation should be started on day 10.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was planned to evaluate the growth performance, morphometrics, physiological and behavioral response of Naked Neck chicken under different production systems and nutritional regimens. For this, a total of 900 Naked Neck chickens of 6-weeks of age were used; the birds were divided into 10 treatment groups consisting of 5 replicates of 18 birds each. A 2×5 factorial arrangement of treatment was employed under Completely Randomized Design. Treatments were consisted of two production systems (intensive and free range) and five nutritional regimens (100% commercial feed, 75% commercial feed +25% kitchen waste, 50% commercial feed +50% kitchen waste, 25% commercial feed +75% kitchen waste and 100% kitchen waste). Body weight, heartbeat and respiration rate were higher in birds reared under intensive system and spent most of their time sitting whereas higher feed intake and increased pecking behavior were noted in birds reared under free range system. Regarding feeding regimens, higher feed intake, cloacal temperature, body and neck length were observed in birds fed with 100% kitchen waste whereas higher drumstick, shank and wing spread were observed in birds fed under 100% commercial feed. Furthermore, higher shank and neck length were observed in birds fed 75% kitchen waste and higher body weight was observed in birds fed 50% kitchen waste. Significant interactions were also observed regarding feed intake, cloacal temperature, drumstick circumference, shank length, feeding, sitting and walking behavior. In conclusion, Naked Neck chicken perform better in free range system whereas feeding kitchen waste up to 50% may enhance growth, morphometric, physiological traits and improve behavioral response.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The current study envisaged to evaluate the role of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) extract on lipid oxidation, quality attributes, sensorial as well as microbial stability of chicken meat patties at refrigerated (4 ˚C) storage. Accordingly, 4 levels of licorice extract were added @0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.25% in chicken patties development process along with positive (0.25% butylatedhydroxyanisole) and negative control (without antioxidant). The developed patties were cooked and subjected to thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total phenolics (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), color, pH, sensory evaluation, total plate count (TPC) and Escherichia coli analysis at 0, 3rd and 7th day of storage. The findings indicated that the addition of licorice extract decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) generation along with higher pH and redness of patties (p≤0.05). The lowest MDA reported in T5 (1.25g LE/kg meat) was 0.63±0.04 whereas, the highest in T0 (control) was 0.90±0.02 that increased to 1.59±0.06 and 2.28±0.06 at the completion of the study. Also, the microbial load of chicken patties declined with treatments as indicated by the total plate count compared to the control. Conclusively, licorice extract incorporation in chicken patties is a pragmatic approach to improve oxidative stability, quality attributes and extended shelf life with preservation effect.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare the eggs of the native-Turkish Atak-S (A-S) hybrid and the foreign brown layer Isa Brown (IB) and white layer Novogen White (NW) hybrids reared in two different cage densities (468.75 cm2/hen and 312.50 cm2/hen) in terms of the internal and external quality parameters of the eggs. A total of 540 hens including 180 from each genotype were used. To determine the egg quality characteristics, one randomly selected egg was taken out of each cage every 4 weeks in the yield period of 24-68 weeks, and analysis were carried out. A total of 648 eggs were used. In the study, the effect of genotype on all parameters was found to be significant. The shell thickness, Haugh unit and albumen index were lower in the Atak-S hybrid. In the white laying hens, the Haugh unit, albumen index and eggshell destruction strength values were higher, while the meat and blood spots and yolk color values were lower. Cage density did not create a significant effect on any parameter except for the blood and meat spot ratio. Age has a significant effect on the egg weight, shape index, Haugh unit, albumen index and yolk index. Consequently, as the native hybrid had similar destruction strength values to the others despite its lower shell thickness, and it had a Haugh unit showing good quality based on the food codex despite lower values than the others, it was concluded that it could compete with the foreign hybrids in terms of egg quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fat sources and emulsifier supplementation in different phases on growth performance of broilers. Treatments were; (T1) basal ration (BR) which contained soy oil (SO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T2) BR which contained poultry fat (PO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T3) BR which contained oxidized oil (OO) and had inclusion of emulsifier for whole life, (T4) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during starter phase (T5) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase, (T6) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase, (T7) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the starter phase (T8) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the grower phase, (T9) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the grower phase, (T10) BR which contained SO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase, (T11) BR which contained PO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase (T12) BR which contained OO and had inclusion of emulsifier during the finisher phase. The Basal ration which contained SO and supplemented emulsifier during the grower phase and throughout life increased the body weight gain. The supplementation of emulsifier in the finisher phase and throughout life in a diet which contained SO had better feed conversion ratio. The supplementation of emulsifier in the finisher phase and throughout life in SO based diet increased the dry matter and crude fat digestibility. We recommend emulsifier supplementation in the finisher phase for the economic point of view.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to apply the Simulated Annealing (SA) optimization algorithm to find the ideal control of broiler housing rearing environment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of growth. Data from four types of houses using environmental control and similar flock density were recorded weekly in the morning and afternoon, during two seasons (summer and winter). The variables related to environmental and air quality data (temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, ammonia, and carbon dioxide concentrations) were registered and organized into the database to provide a descriptive analysis. The ideal rearing conditions were established as a goal, and we used the Simulated Annealing optimization algorithm to process the data. Such an approach may be applied in the cases that the ideal condition of optimization has multiple objectives, and when each variable is the result of a process. The model was implemented considering the optimal controlled environmental condition that depends on the age of broilers. Results indicated that there was a large dispersion of the data collected from the environmental variables. The process suggested that the optimized functions lead to absolute values obtained by the algorithm for each of the environmental factors of the controlled environmental system, representing the optimal condition of the environment found for each broiler age, considering the interactions of the variables. The maximum optimization was prominent to 21 and 35-d old birds, representing 40-48% of the improvement of the process. 28 and 42-d old birds might benefit from the controlled environmental optimization process by up to 30%.