Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The current study was conducted to develop the correlations between muscle fiber characteristics and meat quality attributes in the biceps femoris muscle of Arbor Acres (AA) and Yellow-feathered chicken (YFC). A total of fourty pure breed birds of AA (n=20) and YFC (n=20) were used in the experiment. After slaughtering at their respective market age of slaughtering: AA 40 d and YFC 120 d, samples were collected for meat quality attributes and myosin ATPase staining for fiber types analyses. Meat quality attributes and muscle fiber characteristics i-e; diameter, cross-sectional area (CSA) and density of AA were significantly different from the YFC (p<0.05). Type I fibers number percentage was significantly higher in YFC than AA, whereas CSA and fiber diameter were higher in AA (p<0.05). Negative correlations were obtained between lightness (L*) and type I fiber number percentage in AA (p<0.05). In YFC fiber number percentage, CSA and diameter of type IIA were negatively correlated with Warner-Bratzler Shear Force. Taken together, muscle fibers characteristics of AA and YFC differ in both breeds and have influenced the meat quality attributes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of 4 different poultry waste (dead birds, hatchery waste, offal, and a mixture of all) processed under two composting systems (bin and windrow). For this purpose, 12 compost bins and 12 windrow piles having different poultry waste were placed according to 2 × 4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design. Treatments consisted of 2 composting systems (bin and windrow) and 4 compost types (dead birds, offal, hatchery waste, and a mixture of all). The bins were comprised of 3 compartments (primary, secondary, and curing) and filled with dead birds, offal, hatchery waste, and a mixture of all. A similar procedure was adopted for the windrow composting system. Samples from each experimental material were collected and analyzed for proximate, amino acid, mineral, and bacterial analysis during the initial and curing phase. Results revealed that the highest crude protein (CP) content was found in dead birds while the lowest in hatchery waste compost processed under both composting systems. The highest temperature was recorded in dead bird’s compost during the primary phase while the minimum was found in hatchery waste. Microbial count of salmonella, mycoplasma, E. coli, and total plate count was found minimum in all types of compost. Macrominerals like Na, K, and P were the highest in dead birds while the lowest in hatchery waste compost. It can be concluded that dead birds compost processed through bin composting system had ideal proximate composition having minimal pathogenic load with superior amino acid and mineral profile as compared to other waste materials.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Over-accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in goose hepatocytes leads to the formation of fatty acid liver. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase 1 (PEPCK) is regarded as the rate-limiting enzyme for gluconeogenesis, and there is evidence that PEPCK is involved in regulating hepatic glucolipid metabolism. Hence, we proposed that PEPCK may have a role in goose hepatic steatosis. To test our hypothesis, the present study was conducted to firstly determine the sequence characteristics of goose PEPCK and then to explore its role in overfeeding-induced fatty liver. Our results showed that goose PEPCK encodes a 622-amino-acids protein that contains highly conserved oxaloacetate-binding domain, kinase-1 and kinase-2 motifs. PEPCK had higher mRNA levels in goose liver, and overfeeding markedly increased its expression in livers of both Sichuan White and Landes geese (p<0.05). Besides, expression of PEPCK was positively correlated with hepatic TG levels as well as plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Additionally, in cultured goose primary hepatocyte, treatment with either oleic acid (0.8, 1.2 or 1.6 mM) or linoleic acid (0.125 or 0.25 mM) significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the expression of PEPCK. Taken together, these data suggested a role for PEPCK in the occurrence of overfeeding-induced goose hepatic steatosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the energetic values of dry residue of cassava (DRC) and the effects of its inclusion in broiler diets on performance, intestinal morphometry, protein and fat deposition rate, and carcass and cut yields. In experiment I, two metabolism trials were carried out from 11-21 and from 31-41 days of age. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design and DRC was included at levels of 10, 20, 30 and 40% in the basal diet. In experiment II, 980 male chicks were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments (0; 2; 4; 6; 8; 10; 12% DRC) and seven replicates. DRC levels did not influence (p>0.05) the energetic values. From days 1-7, weight gain (WG) had a linear adjustment, and the inclusion of up to 6% of DRC from d 1-7, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) had a tendency (p=0.060) with quadratic effect (p=0.001), and the worst FCR was observed with the inclusion of 5.81% of DRC. From d 1-21 of age, the WG decreased linearly, with the increasing of DRC while the FCR increased linearly. Breast yield decreased linearly with increasing levels of DRC inclusion. The addition of the residue reduced the protein deposition rate (PDR) and did not alter the (fat deposition rate) FDR. The metabolizable energy of DRC was 1534 kcal kg-1 (11-21 d), 1746 kcal kg-1 (d 31-42) and can be included up to 6% until d 42 in the broiler`s diet without harming the performance.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary hot pepper waste powder (HPWP) would affect the performance and small intestine histology parameters in Japanese quail chicks. A total of 160, one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were divided into 4 treatment groups of similar mean weight, comprising 4 subgroups of 10 chicks each. Chicks were fed on their basal diet supplemented by 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of dietary HPWP for each kg of starter (0 to 10 days), grower (11 to 24 days) and finisher (25 to 42 days) diets for 7 weeks. At the end of 42 days of age, 10 birds per subgroup were slaughtered and intestinal samples were taken to evaluate histomorphological analyses. The results showed that dietary HPWP supplementation did not affect performance parameters, but 400 mg/kg HPWP supplementation tended to increase the growth performance of the chicks. The villus length, submucosa layer (p<0.05), serosa, muscular layer, villus-crypt length ratio, and villus surface area increased with HPWP supplementation (p<0.01). The goblet cell numbers of the group receiving 200 mg/kg HPWP increased compared to the control and 400 mg/kg HPWP supplementation groups (p<0.05). It could be concluded that dietary HPWP supplementation could improve gut health in quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effects of either functional oil or antibiotic growth promoter supplementation on broiler breeders and their offspring were assessed in 2 experiments. In Experiment I, 16,400 broiler breeders (22 weeks old) were distributed into 2 experimental groups, one supplemented with 1,500 ppm of a commercial blend of functional oils (active ingredients: cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil) and the other with 500 ppm of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD). Laying rates, fertility, embryonic mortality, and egg characteristics were measured from weeks 25 to 46. In Experiment II, 720 one day old male chicks, born from 42 week old breeders, from each one of the two treatments in Experiment I, were supplemented with either 10 ppm of enramycin or 1,500 ppm of the same functional oils as in Experiment I to study whether there were any maternal diet carry-over effects. Functional oils decreased embryonic mortality from 11.01% to 9.64% (P < 0.03) when compared to BMD. However, a functional oil link increase in egg weight did not result in either heavier chicks or statistically significant better offspring performance. Nonetheless, a possible benefit of the functional oil supplementation on the offspring weight at 42 d cannot be excluded. The type of additive supplemented during Experiment II did not affect any performance parameters. In conclusion, functional oils could successfully replace antibiotic growth promoters in broiler breeders as embryonic mortality decreased. Finally, when functional oils were supplemented to the offspring, the performance was similar to that of a commonly used antibiotic growth promoter.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytases (the 1st produced from Escherichia coli and the 2nd from Aspergillus oryzae) with different dosages (300 and 900 Unit Phytase or FTU) on performance, organ biometry and bone quality of replacement pullets in the period of 8 to 17 weeks of age. A total of 288 Hy-Line White laying hens were used at 8 weeks of age. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme, totaling 4 treatments with 8 replicates of 9 birds each. Performance, biometric variables and bone characteristics were evaluated. There was no significant interaction between the factors for any of the evaluated variables. The conversion and the accumulated consumption were influenced (p<0.05) by the phytase dosages, with the highest results being observed for the consumption obtained with 300 FTU, and the best results for the feed conversion obtained with the dosage of 900 FTU. The relative weight of the liver was influenced by the treatments (p<0.05), presenting higher values with bacterial phytase and a dosage of 900 FTU. The sternum length and tibial deformity were influenced by fungal phytase (p<0.05). It is concluded that the use of 900 FTU superdosing and fungal phytase improves the performance and bone characteristics of light replacement pullets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This survey aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of different forms of savory essential oil (SEO) on growth performance, intestinal morphology and microbial population in broiler chickens. A total of 360 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to 6 dietary treatment groups with 5 replicates per treatment and 12 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×3 factorial arrangement including two different forms [encapsulated SEO (ESEO) and nonencapsulated SEO (NSEO)] in three levels (0, 150, and 300 mg/kg diet) of SEO. Growth performance, jejunal morphology and intestine microbial population were examined. Our results revealed that feed intake was not influenced by the dietary treatments in different experimental periods. As well as, the experimental diets did not influence body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the starter period. However, at the grower, finisher, and also whole rearing periods, broilers which received 150 mg/kg SEO had significantly higher BWG and lower FCR compared to the birds fed the control diet. The final body weight (FBW) was also higher in chickens fed with diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg SEO in comparison to the others. The results also revealed that 150 mg/kg SEO, significantly increased the concentration of Lactobacillus and decreased the intensity of coliforms in the ileal digesta in comparison to the control diet. Furthermore, villus height was significantly lower in birds fed the control diet than in the birds that consumed different levels of SEO. Eventually, the findings of this experiment revealed that dietary supplementation of SEO, especially at 150 mg/kg level, was effective in raising the populations of beneficial microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract as well as improving intestinal morphology and growth performance of broilers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the current research was to study the effect of canola meal processing methods on the traits of egg, fertility, cecal microbial population, and the carcass of broiler breeder hens. Canola meal was processed by fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis methods, then was fed to the hens. Four hundred and fifty broiler breeder hens of Ross strain weighing 3300±150 g (40 weeks) were used for 12 weeks. A completely randomized design was used with 6 treatments (unprocessed, processed by Lactobacillus Plantarum, Bacillus Subtilis, Aspergillus Oryzae, Neurospora Sitophila, and Alcalase enzyme) and 5 replications. Fifteen hens were included in each pen. The data collected were analyzed using the LSmeans procedure of SAS software. The treatment effect was significant on the fertility hatchability (p<0.05). The highest fertility hatchability was observed in the processing method by Neurospora Sitophila fungi (85%). Experimental treatments had significant effects on the germs and pH of the caecum (p<0.05). The use of processing methods reduced the population of salmonella and coliforms and increased the population of lactobacillus in the caecum. Most of the population of salmonella, lactobacillus, and coliforms of the caecum was observed in the treatments of unprocessed, Bacillus Subtilis bacteria, and unprocessed, respectively. The effect of the experimental treatment had significant effect on abdominal fat (p<0.05). Processing methods of canola caused the reduction of abdominal fat. The highest decrease in abdominal fat was observed in the treatment that processed Aspergillus Oryzae fungi (1.89%). Processing of canola meal improved its digestibility and reduced its anti-nutritional factors.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study explores the differences of appearance and the digestive systems of two birds (Lonchura striata and Copsychus saularis), which have the same eating pattern in staple ingredients. Each bird was caught naturally and euthanized in appropriate manner, followed by morphology survey on bill, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and appearance of the body parts such as Culmen, Claw, Wing, Tarsus, Toe and Tail. The results showed that the appearance feature between them presented significant differences in the beak length, wing length and tail length, which were correlated to their staple feeding habits. In addition, in the digestive system, the length of duodenum and duodenal indexes showed significant differences (p<0.05 or p<0.01), which was considered to be correlated to their predation rate. However, there were no significant differences in jejunum length, ileum length, and the whole digestive tract length and weight, the evidence showed that feeding habits still play a great role in the whole intestine. It is concluded that different staple feeding habits allow the birds to evolve different traits both in appearance and intestine, which aim to improve their predation rate and adapt to different environments. Among all features, duodenum and duodenal were the major objects to get stressed in digestive system, while beak length, wing length and tail length differed most in appearance. And it was speculated that different food compositions lead to different changes in certain positions of the body, thus might shape an explorable trail, which needs to be investigated thoroughly.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Vegetable oils (VO) and animal fats are conventional lipid sources used in feed formulations. Frying fats (FF) and calcium soaps of palm oil (CaSPO) are low-cost lipid sources. This study evaluated the productive performance of broiler chickens fed diets with CaSPO in substitution for VO or FF. Two hundred, 1-day old male broiler chickens were allocated in a randomized design with factorial arrangement (22). Diets included 2 lipid sources (FF and VO) and 2 CaSPO levels (0 and 50%). The study had two phases (starter and finisher) of 21 days each. For the starter phase there was no effect (p>0.05) of dietary treatments on the chickens’ productive performance. For the finisher phase birds fed diets with FF had higher feed intake and feed conversion ratio (main effect; p<0.01) than those fed diets with VO. Over the 42-day feeding period animals fed FF had higher feed conversion ratio (main effect; p=0.02) and tended (p=0.08) to show higher feed intake than those fed diets with VO. The CaSPO substitution for VO or FF had no effect (p>0.05) on the productive performance of broiler chickens. There was no influence of treatment on carcass yield. The drumsticks plus thighs were higher (main effect; p<0.01) in birds receiving VO than in those receiving FF. The interaction (fat source*CaSPO) was not significant (p>0.05). These results may indicate that VO is superior to FF and CaSPO may substitute for VO or FF without affecting productive performance of broiler chickens. Lipid source showed small influence on carcass characteristics.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives of the study were to investigate influence of artificial insemination (AI) in caged and floored flock in comparison to natural mating (NM) on broiler breeders’ welfare, productive performance and economic appraisal. To execute this experiment, a total of 1440 pullets of Ross-308 Parent Stock along with 168 males were picked from a commercial flock and divided into three groups i.e., AIC=AI in cages, AIF=AI on floor and third was NM=NM on floor. Each group carried 480 females (HH) while 168 males were divided into 41, 48 and 58 for AIC, AIF and NM, respectively. During both phases all procedures and studied parameters were the same except the sperm dose rates which were changed during post peak. According to the results, significantly (p≤0.05) higher levels of serum corticosterone, glucose and cholesterol were recorded in birds of AIC and respectively as compared to birds being allowed to mate naturally. Whereas, the experimental males and females of AIF and AIC kept for AI exhibited (p≤0.05) higher body weight, depletion % and feed consumption particularly in post peak phase. However, among the birds subjected to AI, the birds kept in the cages had better performance (p≤0.05) than the birds kept in the floor. Moreover, frequency rate of insemination in females and milking of males found (p≤0.05) reciprocal to the depletion, feed intake and body weight during peak but particularly in post peak. Perhaps, various sperm doses remained inert to implicit any impact on studied parameters. Similarly, egg weight was neither affected by housing systems nor by mating strategies during both phases. However, various insemination and milking frequencies noticeably swayed the productive traits under this study. AI in floored flock was found ineffective even in comparison to natural mating. In conclusion, AI in cages brought forth the better productive performance and lesser male depletion, hence, can be recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to examine the effects of garlic (G), black cumin (BC) and G+BC within the broiler rations, on performance, relative organ weights, intestinal morphology, serum biochemistry and plasma total oxidant/ antioxidant status. Two hundred broilers chicks (Ross 308) were used and they were divided into 4 groups consisting of 5 subgroups of 10 animals each. The trial was ended on the 35th day. No addition was made to the control group ration. 5g / kg garlic (G), 5g / kg black cumin (BC) and 5g / kg G + 5g / kg BC were added to the experimental group rations, respectively. There was no statistical difference among the trial groups in terms of BWG, FI, FCR and relative organ weights (p>0.05). Serum total protein (p<0.05) and albumin (p<0.001) levels were higher in BC and BC +G groups as compared to G and control group. Serum AST activity were lower in G group as compared to control and other experimental groups (p<0.05). On histological examinations, regarding the duodenal epithelium; there was no difference among the trial groups. Hyperemia was observed, especially in the G group, in macroscopic exams of lamina propria and other viticular areas. The lymph follicles were more wide spread in the G + BC, G and BC groups than in the control. The results of the study showed that the combination of BC and G can have beneficial effects, and different doses of G and BC may be used to see positive or negative effects.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare the eggs of the native-Turkish Atak-S (A-S) hybrid and the foreign brown layer Isa Brown (IB) and white layer Novogen White (NW) hybrids reared in two different cage densities (468.75 cm2/hen and 312.50 cm2/hen) in terms of the internal and external quality parameters of the eggs. A total of 540 hens including 180 from each genotype were used. To determine the egg quality characteristics, one randomly selected egg was taken out of each cage every 4 weeks in the yield period of 24-68 weeks, and analysis were carried out. A total of 648 eggs were used. In the study, the effect of genotype on all parameters was found to be significant. The shell thickness, Haugh unit and albumen index were lower in the Atak-S hybrid. In the white laying hens, the Haugh unit, albumen index and eggshell destruction strength values were higher, while the meat and blood spots and yolk color values were lower. Cage density did not create a significant effect on any parameter except for the blood and meat spot ratio. Age has a significant effect on the egg weight, shape index, Haugh unit, albumen index and yolk index. Consequently, as the native hybrid had similar destruction strength values to the others despite its lower shell thickness, and it had a Haugh unit showing good quality based on the food codex despite lower values than the others, it was concluded that it could compete with the foreign hybrids in terms of egg quality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Chicken coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by one or more species of Eimeria infection with severe consequences. The NF-κB signaling pathway and TGF-β4 play an important role in the inflammation and immune response caused by coccidiosis infection. This study was designed to investigate the changes of NF-κB signaling pathway and the effects of TGF-β4 silencing on the expression of NF-κB signaling pathway in chicken’s intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) after infecting with E. tenella sporozoites. TGF-β4 small interfering RNA (TGF-β4 siRNA) sequences were transfected into chicken IECs for reducing TGF-β4 expression. The results showed that compared with uninfected control group (Con.), the proinflammatory factors of NF-κB, IL-6, IL-2, IL-1β increased significantly in the E. tenella infected group (ET) (p<0.05). In comparison with the IECs in the ET, the expression level of NF-κB, IL-6, IL-2, IL-1β dropped significantly in the group infected both by E. tenella and TGF-β4 siRNA vector (ET+siRNA) (p<0.05). The results of this experiment indicate that NF-κB signaling pathway is closely correlated with TGF-β4 in IECs infected with coccidia sporozoites. TGF-β4 plays an important role in regulating the immune function of coccidia-infected chicken epithelial cells through NF-κB signaling pathway and preventing immune-mediated pathological changes.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate, by culture and PCR, the occurrence of Mollicutes, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in free-living Muscovy-ducks (Cairina moschata) from the Rio Zoo, RJ, Brazil. Tracheal swabs were obtained from 82 asymptomatic ducks and the samples were submitted to culture of mycoplasmas and PCR for identification of Mollicutes Class, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Samples were also analyzed directly by PCR, without prior culture, for Mollicutes, MG and MS. Eighteen (18/82) Muscovy-ducks were positive for Mollicutes by culture, all isolates were confirmed as Mollicutes and seven were identified as MG. Of the samples analyzed directly by PCR, without prior culture, 17,1% (14/82) was positive for Mollicutes, being 35,7% (5/14) identified as MG and 21,4% (3/14) as MS. The occurrence of Mollicutes class bacteria was detected in Muscovy-ducks. MG and MS were identified in these animals suggesting the circulation of these agents in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo and may present a risk for the health status of the other birds.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Post-hatch delayed placement damages the physical and physiological development of broiler chicks. This study was designed to find adequate levels of betaine inclusion in pre-hatching and pre-starter feed, in order to minimize the negative effects of post-hatch delayed placement on broiler chicks. Newly-hatched chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, five replicates of ten birds each. Five dietetic levels of betaine (control, 0.070, 0.130, 0.200 and 0.260%) were used in the pre-starter ration, offered to the chicks in the transporting box and during the pre-starter phase. Performance, yolk sac retraction, plasma glucose concentration, weight and histomorphometry of the small intestine were evaluated, after 24 hours of feed access and at 7 days of age. A metabolic trial was performed from seven to ten days of age. Betaine supplementation linearly influenced the chick’s ileum crypt depth after 24 hours in the transportation box. There was a quadratic effect, with an increase in feed intake up to 0.152% betaine supplementation. There was an improvement in the quality of the jejunum with betaine supplementation above 0.1%. The metabolizable coefficient of the ether extract was improved until reaching 0.163% of betaine supplementation. Betaine supplementation around 0.150% increases feed intake, the use of ether extract and interferes with the intestinal villi of chicks at seven days of age.