Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was designed to determine the effect of a combination of propionic-acetic acid on body weight, the relative weight of some organs, lactic acid bacteria, and intestinal pH of neonatal broilers. A total of 60 1-day-old Ross 308® broiler chickens were randomly placed in metabolic cages to two treatments, three replicates, and ten birds per replicates. The treatments consisted of a control diet (CD) and CD + 0.03% of propionic acid and acetic acid in the drinking water at a rate of 4 ml/L of water. The combination of organic acids depressed the body weight in neonatal broilers (p<0.05) and increased the relative weight (p<0.05) of gizzard, proventriculus, small intestine, and liver; also acidified the cecum with a significant decrease (p<0.05) of the pH. Also, these organic acids increased (p<0.05) the count of green bacilli with a white halo in the small intestine and decreased (p<0.05) the proliferation of irregular flat green bacilli in the cecum, although for both intestinal portions, the total lactic acid bacteria count was not different (p>0.05) between treatments. The combined use in the diet and drinking water of the propionic and acetic organic acids, respectively, reduced the bodyweight of neonatal broilers (10 days) and the cecal pH, as well as modified the relative weights of some digestive organs and the growth of some morphological groups of lactic acid bacteria.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The effects of vitamins E and C supplementation on growth performance and biochemical and haematological parameters of Japanese quail were studied. A total of 360 one-day-old Japanese female quails were randomly allocated to nine dietary treatment groups (10 birds per replicate and 4 replicates per treatment), including a control (basal diet) and the basal diet supplemented with: 250 or 500 mg/kg of vitamin C, 250 or 500 mg/kg of vitamin E, 250 mg/kg of both vitamins E and C, 250 and 500 mg/kg of vitamins E and C, 500 and 250 mg/kg of vitamins E and C, and 500 mg/kg of both vitamins E and C. Vitamin supplementation improved productive parameters and raised the blood plasma levels of protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone, calcium and phosphorus, while decreased those of glucose, uric acid, creatinine and triglycerides, as well as lowered the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Leukocyte count as well as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased and red blood cell count increased in the supplemented groups. The results obtained support that the simultaneous supplementation with vitamins E and C has greater positive effects on growth performance, metabolism indicators and haematological parameters than their supplementation separately, which in turn shows improvements over the absence of supplementation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of supplementing tea polyphenols (TP) in diet of laying hens on yolk cholesterol content and production performance. A total of 1800 Lohmann laying hens aged 48 weeks were randomly allocated to 6 groups. Each group consisted of 6 replicates with 50 layers. The feeding experiment was 4 weeks including one-week acclimatization. Layers fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 mg TP/kg diet, respectively. The results showed that average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), average egg weight (AEW), laying rate and the indicators of egg quality were not significantly affected by the diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg TP (p>0.05). However, yolk cholesterol content decreased by increasing TP concentration (p<0.01), with 18.06% reduction in layers fed diet supplemented with 300 mg TP/kg. Also, the diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg TP significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level (p<0.05). The activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was enhanced by increasing TP concentration, while the content of serum methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) was decreased by increasing TP concentration. The highest activity of GSH-Px and the lowest serum MDA content were both determined in 300 mg/kg TP group (p<0.01). In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of 300 mg TP/kg basal diet had no negative effect on the production performance laying hens, yet decreased the egg yolk cholesterol content and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of laying hens at the same time.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The analysis of Salmonella in the feces and the birds’ environment is a way of monitoring the colonization in the flocks and verifying the need for the introduction of stricter controls, in such a way that the results of the tests should be known before being sent for slaughter. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as other rapid methods represent alternatives increasingly used to detect enteric pathogens, but they need proof of effectiveness for their wide use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between the results obtained by the methods: real-time PCR (BAX® System), Modified Rappaport-Vassiliadis Semi-solid Medium (MSRV) (ISO 6579) and the traditional method of official reference in Brazil for research of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis in poultry samples. Two hundred and fifty-two samples of disposable shoe covers (DSC) and 252 samples of feces were infected with an average of 2 to 3 log CFU/g of each serovar, and the same samples without fortification were evaluated by the three methods. Five hundred and four diagnoses were obtained with satisfactory results in terms of repeatability (greater than 80%), reproducibility (mean 83,1%), sensitivity (81% to 100%), specificity (95% to 100%), and accuracy (90% to 100%). The compliance test verified that there was not a significant difference between the alternative and the official methods, allowing us to state that the methodologies have had equivalent performances.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rural communities rely heavily on chickens to meet their socio-economic needs. However, predators, diseases, and parasites deprive them of nutrients required for sustained growth and development. A cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews were conducted in selected villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa to find out the parasites and predators prevalent in indigenous chickens. Medicinal plants commonly used to control parasites as well as the household heads’ views on the preservation of indigenous chickens for sustained rural food security were investigated. Qualitative data gathered through interviews was analysed thematically using Atlas Ti version 8.1.4 while the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 25.0 was used to compute descriptive statistics and carry out cross-tabulations of quantitative data. Approximately, 72 % of the respondents reported that predation affected chicks with hens at (67 %) and cocks (63 %) following in that respective order. Snakes such as the king cobra (phakhu phakhu), birds such as the martial eagle (Goni), and wild animals, especially the genet cat (tsimba) were the predominant predators. Among the commonest parasites, fleas [Dermanyssus gallinae (thatha)] and mites [Siphonaptera (magomani)] were predominant. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and aloe (Aloe vera) were the most common medicinal plants that were used to control the parasites. It is, therefore, recommended that farmers and extension officers alike, consider the profile of major predators, parasites, medical plants, and preservation of indigenous knowledge for the sustainability of indigenous chickens and enhanced rural food security.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A total of 480 Arbor Acres Broiler chicks (mixed sex) from 1 to 35 days of age were divided randomly into 4 treatments to evaluate the impact of defatted Scenedesmus obliquus biomass (DAB) on broiler performance. The DAB was supplemented to broiler diets with levels of 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00% from one-day-old to 35 days of age. The DAB samples were analyzed in triplicates. The productive traits were measured weekly and the biochemical indices at the end of the trial. Data was statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA. It was found that slaughter body weight, body weight gain and average daily feed intake were increased in birds fed diets supplemented with DAB compared to the control ones. However, feed conversion ratio was not affected by any of the treatments. Broilers’ serum enzymes activities and markers indicated that liver function as indicated by aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and kidney’s function which indicated by serum creatine and urea were not affected by DAB supplementation. Furthermore, protein, glucose and cholesterol levels in broiler’s serum were in normal levels and not affected by treatments. No significant changes were observed in relative organ weights (spleen, bursa, liver, gizzard, proventriculus and heart) or intestine length of broilers at 35 days of age in response to DAB supplementation in their diets. It could be concluded that DAB supplementation to broiler diets from 1 to 35 days of age up to 1% had no negative impacts and might have had a positive effect on broiler performance at 35 days of age.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Pasteurella multocida causes fowl cholera which is an economically important disease in poultry industries around the world. In this study, we analyzed the capsular genotype, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) genotype, virulence-associated genes (VAGs) patterns, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity in a total of 9 P. multocida isolates from poultry with fowl cholera between 2014 and 2019 in Korea. When combining the capsular types with the LPS genotypes, two isolates of the 9 isolates were A:L3, and the others were non-typeable (NT): L3. Of the 23 VAGs, all the isolates harbored ptfA, fimA, hsf-1, hsf-2, pfhA, exbB, exbD, tonB, hgbA, hgbB, fur, sodA, sodC, pmHAS, ompA, ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, and nanH, whereas toxA gene was not detected in any of the 9 isolates. In addition, among the 11 antimicrobials, most of the isolates except for one isolate resistant to florfenicol, exhibited susceptibility to all the antimicrobials. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed 5 different sequence types (ST): ST8, ST351, ST352, ST353, and ST368. The ST351, ST352, ST353, and ST368 were identified for the first time in this study, and ST352 and ST353 isolates were largely prevalent nationwide. These STs isolates should be monitored continuously because in some cases, ST352 and ST353 isolates demonstrated high mortality rates. Although only limited numbers of isolates have been analyzed, our findings provide overall characteristics and epidemiological information of the P. multocida strains recently prevalent in Korea.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Increasing interest in multiple strain Bacillus probiotics and parietal yeast fractions as feed ingredients for egg laying hen diets has also led to food safety questions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of these products to reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization. Sixty Hy-Line hens aged 56 weeks were placed in individual cages and fed a mash diet containing one of the following treatments, control, Bacillus spp. probiotic, yeast cell wall, or a combination of yeast cell wall and Bacillus probiotic. At 60 weeks of age all hens were challenged orally with 7 x 107 CFU/bird of Salmonella Enteritidis. At 61 weeks of age, birds were humanely euthanized, by cervical dislocation and the ceca aseptically removed and cultured for S. Enteritidis prevalence and number by the Most Probable Number method. There was no significant difference in prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis between the control and any treatments. The control birds had 4.37 log10 MPN/g of S. Enteritidis detected in the ceca. The Probiotic group had 2.96 MPN/g, a reduction of 1.41(p<0.05) and the yeast cell wall group had 2.89 MPN/g a reduction of 1.48 (p<0.05). The combination had 3.60 MPN/g a numerical reduction of 0.78 (p=0.14). The yeast cell wall and Bacillus probiotic groups significantly reduced the amount of Salmonella Enteritidis in the ceca of the laying hens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of rearing systems and genotypes on production performance and egg quality. Isa Brown and New Hampshire genotypes were used in this study. These two genotypes were housed in floor and organic rearing systems. During the experimental period, which lasted one year (52 weeks), the following production performance parameters were recorded: egg production, daily egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality. Fifteen eggs per group were collected for analysis at 64 weeks of hen age. These samples were evaluated for external parameters (egg weight and egg shape index), internal parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, and the proportions of albumen, yolk and shell), eggshell quality parameters (shell thickness, shell deformation and shell breaking strength), and eggs’ chemical composition (dry matter, minerals, protein and lipids). Generally, Isa Brown hens had better production performance than New Hampshire hens. At the same time, organic New Hampshire layers performed better than floor-reared ones. Genotype had a significant effect on all ten egg quality parameters (external, internal and eggshell quality), rearing system independently affected only egg weight, and the interaction of the observed factors significantly influenced seven parameters. Genotype had a significant effect on three of the four chemical composition parameters, while no significant effect of the rearing system was established on the chemical composition of eggs. The rearing system x genotype interaction significantly affected the eggs’ protein content.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two candidate genes known to relate with reproductive traits in Vietnamese chicken. Two indigenous breeds Ri and Mia chickens were used for genotyping 4 SNPs namely intron 1 of growth hormon gene (GH), exon 5 of prolactin receptor gene (PRLR5), a 24 bp nucleotide sequence insertion-deletion at situation -358 in 5’- untranslated region of prolatin gene (PRL24); and at site C2404T of prolactin gene (PRL2402). It was shown that the SNP sites of these candidate genes were identified in two local breeds. Three genotypes of each loci were found (AA, AB and BB for GH; II, ID and DD for 24 bp indel of PRL and CC, CT and TT for PRL2402), except only genotypes of AA and BB of PRLR5 were detected (no heterozygous genotype of AB). The frequencies of the desired genotypes of AA (GH), BB (PRLR5), II (PRL24) and CC (PRL2402) were low in both indigenous Ri and Mia chickens. Based on this study it could be suggested that the study on association between these loci with egg production traits and the selection to increase the desired genotype frequency in poputions are necessary to improve egg production of Ri and Mia chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Adipokines serve as a human clinical biomarker and they regulate mammalian metabolic functions. Research on adipokine regulation of metabolic function in avian species is limited. The current study is to investigate the profile of plasma adiponectin and several biochemical variables in broilers, to establish the pattern of development. A total of one hundred and fifty-two 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were separated by different gender and homogenously divided into 2 groups (male and female), with 6 replicate pens and at least 12 chickens per pen. The data for body weight, plasma variables, and feed consumption were collected at days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 after hatching. Plasma monomer adiponectin, high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and biochemical variables, including triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were quantified. Monomer adiponectin was highly correlated with age in a negative fashion and with HMW adiponectin in a positive fashion in both genders in broilers. Moreover, body weight was highly correlated with monomer adiponectin in a negative fashion and positively correlated with HMW adiponectin in growing chickens. It was concluded that monomer adiponectin and HMW adiponectin have highly correlation with age, body weight and biochemical variables in chickens and further investigation is needed for physiological or nutritional functions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In any broiler breeder flock, there is always some mortality that is considered to be “normal” during the life of the flock. The aim of this study is to summarize the prevalence and patterns of mortality during the production period. To evaluate the mortality, each dead hen was systematically and completely examined via necropsy. In addition to post mortem evaluation, weights (whole body, liver, spleen and heart) were recorded to correlate the bird’s physical condition with the mortality category or lesion. In general, the variation in mortality was not associated with the specific weight of the organs. However, for specific diseases like fatty liver, septicemia and ascites, there was a correlation with the organ weight of the liver, spleen and heart respectively. Ovaritis was observed to be the most prevalent lesion found in dead hens during the production period followed by ovarian regression (atrophy), peritonitis, internal lay and vent pecking. The two periods with the higher total percentage of morality were onset of lay (25-30 weeks) and end-stage of the production period (56-61 weeks). During the laying period, we mainly observed metabolic disorders followed by infectious lesions. Infectious lesions, including ovaritis and septicemia, were the predominant cause for mortality at the onset production. Vent and feather pecking were also primarily concentrated during the first weeks of the production period. Metabolic diseases were observed in higher prevalence during the latter half of the production period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of protected sodium butyrate (PSB) on the intestinal development and feed nutrient metabolizability of commercial laying hens. The birds started to receive the treatment rations at 58 weeks of age. At 76 weeks of age the laying hens were distributed in a randomized block design to four treatments (0, 105, 210 and 300 g t-1/PSB), six replicates, and two birds/replicate. The nitrogen balance (NB), ether extract balance (EEB), dry matter metabolizability coefficient, nitrogen, ether extract, ash, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and AME corrected by nitrogen (AMEn) were evaluated. For assessment of intestinal development, we evaluated the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colorectal lengths, the relative intestine weight and villus height, crypt depth, and villus:crypt ratio of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. A decreasing linear effect was observed in the duodenum length, while an increasing linear effect was observed in the height of the duodenum and jejunum villi. A quadratic effect was found in the jejunum crypt depth. A linear increasing effect was found on the villus:crypt ratio of the duodenum and jejunum, and a quadratic effect was observed in the ileum. Quadratic and increasing linear effects were observed in the NB and EEB, respectively. Additionally, increasing linear effects were observed in the AME and AMEn. The dietary addition of 300 g t-1 of PSB improved intestinal development and energy metabolizability of the diet.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of biofilms formed by lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus sp. (BLA) in preventing and controlling the formation of wild biofilms and/or planktonic forms of Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), Salmonella Heidelberg (SH), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on different surfaces. The SH and SG viability was evaluated in polystyrene plates, wood shavings, and soil samples. Two protocols were developed to examine the use of BLA in a preventive and control application. For analysis of Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) BLA was used only preventively in a polystyrene plate. Results showed that BLA was effective in preventing the growth of SG and SH in all matrices. The effectiveness of BLA for MRSA was lower than for SG and SH. The efficiency of BLA in preventing CJ growth seems to be related to the initial CJ contamination. BLA proves to be a potential alternative to control food-borne pathogens commonly encountered in animal production and food industry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study aimed to explore the effect of dietary supplementation of synbiotics on growth performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broiler chicken. For this purpose, three hundred 1-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were purchased from the hatchery and randomly distributed into five dietary treatment groups. Each treatment had six replicates, each containing 10 chicks. The experimental diets were supplemented with 0, 700, 1200, 1700 or 2200 g/ton of feed synbiotics and respectively designated as A, B, C, D and E, with A being the control diet. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio data were recorded on a weekly basis. At the research trial’s end, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered to get data on carcass characteristics. Results showed that group C’s feed intake was reduced (p<0.05) when compared to control. Body weight was similar (p>0.05) among all treatments. However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved (p<0.05) in group C as compared to other dietary treatments. Nutrient digestibility was improved (p<0.05) in group B and C, as compared to control. Carcass characteristics were not significantly affected and remained the same across all treatments. However, liver weight decreased in birds fed diet C. Meat quality and antibody titer were not affected in any of the dietary treatments. It is concluded that synbiotics can be safely used up to 1200 g/ton of feed, improving bird performance without harmful effects on bird health.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study two experiments were carried out, the effect of a diet supplemented with fructans of Agave tequilana Weber, was analyzed in Hy-line hens in regards to their egg quality and production as well as on the levels of the polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine in their feces. In the first study 300 Hy-line W-36 hens per group, which were aged 36 weeks, were randomly separated as follows for each of the three treatments. One group of 100 hens was fed with a diet supplemented with 0.1% fructans. Another group of 100 hens was supplemented with 0.2% fructans and a group of 100 hens without any fructans was added as a control group. Feed consumption was lower in the supplemented groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). Egg yolk quality was measured using Haugh units. The quality of the shell was studied using an Egg Force reader (g pressure/mm2). Putrescine levels was measured in 10 animals in each group. In the second study, 1,155 laying hens, aged one day from the Hy-line W-35 genetic line were also randomly divided into three groups containing 385 hens in each one (A, B, C). Egg laying levels and weight was measured during 35 weeks. The egg laying percentage increased considerably in hens ingesting supplemented diets (p<0.05) and the egg weight was greater mainly in the supplementation with 0.1% fructans (p<0.05). Thus, it was shown that diet supplementation with fructans of agave improves egg quality and homeostasis and food consumption in the Hy-line hen.