Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A total of 792 conventional healthy 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers chicks (mixed gender) with average body weight of 42.30±1.14 g (mean ± SD) were used in the experiment, which lasted for 35 days. Chicks were randomly allotted into one of four treatment diets, each one having 11 replicate cages with 18 birds each, being fed corn-soybean meal (SBM) based diets. Dietary treatments were CON (basal diet with unvaccinated birds); OA = CON + 0.1% organic acids; ACB = CON + anti-coccidium vaccine; OAACV = CON + 0.1% organic acid + anti-coccidium vaccine. Significant results were observed, with improved body weight (p=0.059; 0.064; 0.034) during days 1-7, 8-21, and overall, respectively. Significant effects were also observed on the feed conversion ratio (p=0.037) through the overall experiment, with no effects on feed intake on OAACV as compared to other treatment groups. Total track digestibility of dry matter (p=0.049) improved significantly in the OAACV treatment group. Additionally, beneficial effects were observed in the OAACV treatment group, with improvements in fecal microbial population (increased lactobacillus) and reduced NH3 gas emissions. Broilers fed the OAACV treatment tended to display reduced drip loss in the meat samples analyzed on days 5 and 7 (p=0.067, 0.072). In summary, our findings revealed that dietary inclusion of organic acid supplementation with anti-coccidium had a beneficial effect on broilers affected by coccidian infection, also improving growth performance, digestibility, fecal Lactobacillus counts, and reducing NH3.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), M. gallisepticum (MG), Ornitobacterium rhinotracheale (OR), Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) in laying hens with respiratory clinical signs in two phases of production. 140 tracheal swabs and 140 blood samples were collected from laying hens in the rearing and production phases, the chickens belonged to six farms (A-F) located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by PCR for MG, MS, OR, AP, PM and IBV and by ELISA for MG and MS. The highest frequencies observed by PCR were for MS at farms B and C with 95 and 100% positivity, followed by MG at farms D and E with 35% and 65%, IBV with 35% at farm F and ORT with 15% at farm A. All flocks were positive for MG and MS in serology. Although MG and IBV have been detected, this can be explained by the vaccination protocols, since live attenuated vaccines are widely used for immunization against these pathogens. It was also possible to detect OR and AP thorugh PCR in some flocks. The occurrence of several etiological agents that cause respiratory diseases in laying hens was confirmed by PCR and serology, with MS being the most prevalent and being present in all farms studied.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A total of 1500 day old broiler chicks were grouped into five treatments; each treatment group further consisted of six replicates. Group A was given a control diet having antibiotics. Group B and C were offered essential oil blend at the proportion of 0.1 g/kg and organic acid at the dose rate of 1g/kg. Group D was given both essential oil 0.1 g/kg and organic acid 1g/kg in combination. Group E was offered only a basal diet without antibiotics and considered as a negative control. The trial lasted for 35 days. Results indicated that the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) exhibited significant improvement but insignificant in the case of feed consumption. Bodyweight and FCR were better in group B, followed by C. Carcass characteristics like eviscerated weight and giblet weight were also improved in group B while dressed weight showed insignificant results. Total cholesterol and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) were unaffected by the treatments; however, increased blood glucose levels and decreased low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentration were significantly noticed. Treatment groups have no effect on antibody titer against ND at the end of the trial. In gut morphology, significantly higher villus height was observed in group C, but villus width and crypt depth remained unaffected. In conclusion, essential oil and organic acids have improved performance, carcass parameters, serum biochemistry, gut health, and decreased bacterial count.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A total of 160 medium-sized one-day-old male chicks reared in organic conditions were studied individually from the first day of their life until slaughter (120 days). Two weather periods were considered, being period C colder than period H. A total of 24 chickens per period were randomly selected, then the breast muscle (m. Pectoralis major) was extracted for analysis. Individual fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography and expressed in grams per 100 g of fat. From the values obtained, total lipid fractions were calculated. Near infrared spectroscopy spectra (NIRS) were recorded on the surface of the breast without manipulating. Breast from chicken reared in H period had significantly lower (p<0.05) saturated fatty acids / polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA / PUFA) ratio, and increased (p<0.05) content in PUFA and n-6. However, no significant differences were observed on the content of individual fatty acid. NIR system was not able to correctly classify the samples according to the breeding period.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and virus prevalence of the H9 subtype of avian influenza virus in non-vaccinated broiler farms of dense poultry-populated districts, Lahore and Sheikhupura of Punjab-Pakistan. A convenient sampling method was adopted for collection of blood (n=500) and oropharyngeal swab (n=500) samples from 25 broiler farms of each district for hemagglutination inhibition assay and RT-PCR test, respectively. Proportional estimates were calculated using R software and overall seroprevalence of H9 was estimated at 36.3% (95% CI 33.3-39), with no significant difference (p>0.05) between Lahore (37.2 %, 95% CI=31.2-39.59) and Sheikhupura (35.4%, 95% CI= 29.64-39.76). RT-PCR identified 2% (4/200) pool level viral prevalence. None of the farms from Lahore districts were RT-PCR positive for H9. Simple logistic regression followed by multivariable analysis, identified the presence of foot bath/dipping area at the entrance (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.52-0.93) and availability of rubber shoes for visitors (OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.26-0.48) as protective factors. History of respiratory signs (OR=1.51, 95%=CI 1.12-2.04), history of sudden death in past flocks (OR=3.26, 95% CI=2.41-4.41), and birds previously infected with avian influenza virus (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1-1.76) were significant risk factors. Negligence in preventive measures at farms level was associated with the spread of H9 infection between the farms. To control future outbreaks, biosecurity and continuous monitoring of non-vaccinated flocks are suggested.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The study was done to predict egg weight from the external traits of the Guinea fowl egg using the statistical methods of multiple linear regression (MLR) and regression tree analysis (RTA). A total of 110 eggs from a flock of 23-week-old Guinea fowl were evaluated. Egg weight (EW) and external traits: eggshell weight (ESW), egg polar diameter (EPD), egg equatorial diameter (EED), egg shape index (ESI), and egg surface area (ESA) were measured. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and regression equations using the MLR were obtained; additionally, a RTA was done using the CHAID algorithm with the SPSS software (IBM ver. 22). EW presented positive correlations (p<0.0001) with ESA (r = 0.72), EPD (r = 0.65), and EED (r = 0.49). EW can be predicted through MLR using ESA as a predictor variable (R2 = 72%). Predictive accuracy improves when adding EPD and EED traits to the model (R2 = 75%). The RTA built a diagram using ESA, EED, and EPD as significant independent variables; of these, the most important variable was ESA (F = 50,295, df1 = 4, and df2 = 105; Adj. p<0.000) and the variation explained for EW was 74%. Likewise, the RTA showed that the highest egg weight (41.818 g) is obtained from eggs with a surface area > 59.03 cm2 and a polar diameter > 5.10 cm. The proposed statistical methods can be used to reliably predict the egg weight of Guinea fowl.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on egg morphometric and quality traits in Aseel chicken. In total, 84 adult molted Aseel hens, comprising 4 varieties (Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari, and Mianwali), were divided into 3 dietary treatments (organic at 0.30 ppm, inorganic at 0.30 ppm, and without selenium) with 7 replicates (1 bird in each) under randomized complete block design. Data were analyzed using factorial ANOVA and means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results indicated greater egg length in Mushki and Mianwali, lower egg breadth in Lakha, the highest (p≤0.05) egg volume and surface area in Mianwali, and higher shape index in Lakha and Peshawari. Lakha had the highest Haugh unit and lower eggshell thickness with and without membrane than the other three varieties. Interaction of Se sources and Aseel varieties exhibited the highest (p≤0.05) egg volume and surface area in Mianwali variety when fed on organic Se supplemented diet. Similarly, the interaction showed the highest eggshell thickness with membrane in Peshawari and without membrane in Mianwali when fed on inorganic Se supplemented diet. From the findings, it can be concluded that egg physical characteristics of Mianwali variety hens can be improved by the supplementation of Se-enriched yeast, as an organic Se source, in the diet.