Fetal cardiac interventions: an update of therapeutic options

Intervenções cardíacas fetais: atualização de opções terapêuticas

Shi-Min Yuan About the author


This article aims to present updated therapeutic options for fetal congenital heart diseases.


Data source for the present study was based on comprehensive literature retrieval on fetal cardiac interventions in terms of indications, technical approaches and clinical outcomes.


About 5% of fetal congenital heart diseases are critical and timely intrauterine intervention may alleviate heart function. Candidates for fetal cardiac interventions are limited. These candidates may include critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The advocated option are prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of atrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing.


Fetal cardiac interventions are feasible at midgestation with gradually improved technical success and fetal/postnatal survival due mainly to a well-trained multidisciplinary team, sophisticated equipment and better postnatal care.

Fetal Heart; Heart Defects, Congenital; Prognosis

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