Análise comparativa de dois métodos de proteção miocárdica em pacientes de alto risco para cirurgia de revascularização do míocárdio

Comparative analysis of two methods of myocardial protection

Resumos

OBJETIVO: Comparar a tradicional proteção miocárdica oferecida pela cardioplegia cristalóide gelada infundida na aorta associada à hipotermia sistêmica e ao pinçamento intermitente da aorta (Grupo I), à cardioplegia sangüínea normotérmica com indução pela aorta e manutenção por via retrógrada (seio coronário) associada a normotermia sistêmica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: No período de maio de 1992 a maio de 1994, foram selecionados de forma consecutiva, não randomizada, de acordo com pré-requisitos que acrescentavam alta morbi-mortalidade à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRVM), dois grupos de 50 pacientes. Todos os pacientes selecionados apresentavam: instabilidade ou intratabilidade clínica, mais de três ramos arteriais coronários, ou tronco de coronária esquerda ocluídos, ou gravemente obstruídos e grave disfunção ventricular esquerda de etiologia isquêmica. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto às variáveis pré-operatórias. O Grupo II teve maior média de enxertos (3,82x3,40), conseqüentemente maior tempo de pinçamento aórtico (70,74x62,6 min) e maior tempo de circulação extracorpórea (CEC) (97,50x93,86 min). O Grupo I teve maior incidência de fibrilação ventricular após despinçamento aórtico (20%x4%) p=0,032, maior necessidade de inotrópicos para sair da CEC (18%x12%) maior necessidade de assistência circulatória (14%x8%), maior incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio (20%x12%); teve ainda menor incidência de vetilação mecânica prolongada (6%x12%), maior mortalidade imediata (12%x6%), hospitalar (14%x10%) e global (26%x16%) e maior incidência de óbitos de causas cardíacas (12%x4%). CONCLUSÃO: A comparabilidade dos grupos ficou prejudicada pela maior média de enxertos do Grupo II, conferindo maior gravidade a este grupo. Mesmo assim, os resultados deste grupo foram superiores aos do Grupo I, embora isto não tenha sido corroborado pela análise estatística. Estes resultados, associados à impressão clínica, o aprimoramento técnico e o reconhecimento das limitações do método nos obrigaram a adotá-lo como forma de proteção miocárdica neste grupo específico de pacientes.

Heart arrest, induced; Myocardial revascularization; Myocardial revascularization


OBJECTIVE: To compare the tradicional myocardial protection achieved by crystalloid cold cardioplegia, which is induced through the aortic root, associated to systemic hypothermia and intermitent aortic cross-clamping (Group I) to warm blood cardioplegia using induction through the aortic root but retrograde maintenance through the coronary sinus, associated to systemic normothermia. METHODS AND MATERIAL: During the period ranging from May 1992 to May 1994, two groups of 50 patients were selected consecutively, but not randomized, according to requirements that increased the morbidity and mortality associated to the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). All selected patients presented at the time clinical instability, more than three coronary arteries (or the left main coronary artery) occluded or severely suboccluded, associated with severe LV dysfunction of ischemic ethiology. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable according to the variabilities found in the period just prior to the surgery. Group II had a larger amount of grafts (3.82x3.40), consequently a longer period of aortic cross-clamping (70.74x62.06 min) and a longer time in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (97.5x93.8 min). Group I, in average, needed more inotropic agents for the weaning process from CPB, more use of mechanical assist devices and showed a bigger incidence of acute myocardial infarction as well as ventricular fibrilation after aortic cross-clamp release. This group also had less incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation, greater early and global mortality, and also a larger number of deaths due to other cardiac causes. CONCLUSION: The two groups were not comparable due to the larger number of grafts in Group II turning them more critical than Group I. Nervertheless, the results from Group II were superior to Group I, even though the statistic analysis do not corroborate those results. That, associated with clinical data, technical improvement and recognizing the limitations of the procedure, made us use it in this specific group of patients.

Heart arrest, induced; Myocardial revascularization; Myocardial revascularization


ARTIGOS ORIGINAIS

Análise comparativa de dois métodos de proteção miocárdica em pacientes de alto risco para cirurgia de revascularização do míocárdio

Comparative analysis of two methods of myocardial protection

Fernando Antônio Roquete Reis Filho; Luiz Cláudio Moreira Lima; Giancarlo Grossi Mota; Leonardo A. Gonçalves; Maurício C. Gomes; Rodrigo de Castro Bernardes; Raul Corrêa Rabelo

Do Instituto do Coração do Hospital Madre Tereza

Endereço para correspondência

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Comparar a tradicional proteção miocárdica oferecida pela cardioplegia cristalóide gelada infundida na aorta associada à hipotermia sistêmica e ao pinçamento intermitente da aorta (Grupo I), à cardioplegia sangüínea normotérmica com indução pela aorta e manutenção por via retrógrada (seio coronário) associada a normotermia sistêmica.

CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: No período de maio de 1992 a maio de 1994, foram selecionados de forma consecutiva, não randomizada, de acordo com pré-requisitos que acrescentavam alta morbi-mortalidade à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRVM), dois grupos de 50 pacientes. Todos os pacientes selecionados apresentavam: instabilidade ou intratabilidade clínica, mais de três ramos arteriais coronários, ou tronco de coronária esquerda ocluídos, ou gravemente obstruídos e grave disfunção ventricular esquerda de etiologia isquêmica.

RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto às variáveis pré-operatórias. O Grupo II teve maior média de enxertos (3,82x3,40), conseqüentemente maior tempo de pinçamento aórtico (70,74x62,6 min) e maior tempo de circulação extracorpórea (CEC) (97,50x93,86 min). O Grupo I teve maior incidência de fibrilação ventricular após despinçamento aórtico (20%x4%) p=0,032, maior necessidade de inotrópicos para sair da CEC (18%x12%) maior necessidade de assistência circulatória (14%x8%), maior incidência de infarto agudo do miocárdio (20%x12%); teve ainda menor incidência de vetilação mecânica prolongada (6%x12%), maior mortalidade imediata (12%x6%), hospitalar (14%x10%) e global (26%x16%) e maior incidência de óbitos de causas cardíacas (12%x4%).

CONCLUSÃO: A comparabilidade dos grupos ficou prejudicada pela maior média de enxertos do Grupo II, conferindo maior gravidade a este grupo. Mesmo assim, os resultados deste grupo foram superiores aos do Grupo I, embora isto não tenha sido corroborado pela análise estatística. Estes resultados, associados à impressão clínica, o aprimoramento técnico e o reconhecimento das limitações do método nos obrigaram a adotá-lo como forma de proteção miocárdica neste grupo específico de pacientes.

Descritores: Parada cardíaca induzida, métodos. Revascularização miocárdica, fatores de risco. Revascularização miocárdica, estudo comparativo.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the tradicional myocardial protection achieved by crystalloid cold cardioplegia, which is induced through the aortic root, associated to systemic hypothermia and intermitent aortic cross-clamping (Group I) to warm blood cardioplegia using induction through the aortic root but retrograde maintenance through the coronary sinus, associated to systemic normothermia.

METHODS AND MATERIAL: During the period ranging from May 1992 to May 1994, two groups of 50 patients were selected consecutively, but not randomized, according to requirements that increased the morbidity and mortality associated to the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). All selected patients presented at the time clinical instability, more than three coronary arteries (or the left main coronary artery) occluded or severely suboccluded, associated with severe LV dysfunction of ischemic ethiology.

RESULTS: The two groups were comparable according to the variabilities found in the period just prior to the surgery. Group II had a larger amount of grafts (3.82x3.40), consequently a longer period of aortic cross-clamping (70.74x62.06 min) and a longer time in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (97.5x93.8 min). Group I, in average, needed more inotropic agents for the weaning process from CPB, more use of mechanical assist devices and showed a bigger incidence of acute myocardial infarction as well as ventricular fibrilation after aortic cross-clamp release. This group also had less incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation, greater early and global mortality, and also a larger number of deaths due to other cardiac causes.

CONCLUSION: The two groups were not comparable due to the larger number of grafts in Group II turning them more critical than Group I. Nervertheless, the results from Group II were superior to Group I, even though the statistic analysis do not corroborate those results. That, associated with clinical data, technical improvement and recognizing the limitations of the procedure, made us use it in this specific group of patients.

Descriptors: Heart arrest, induced, methods. Myocardial revascularization, risk factors. Myocardial revascularization, comparative study.

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

Trabalho realizado no Instituto do Coração do Hospital Madre Tereza. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. Apresentado ao 23º Congresso Nacional de Cirurgia Cardíaca. Recife, PE, 20 a 23 de março, 1996.

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  • Endereço para correspondência:
    Fernando Antônio Reis Filho
    Av. Raja Gabaglía, 1002 - Gutierrez
    Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. CEP: 30380-090
    Tel. 337-5933

Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    16 Dez 2010
  • Data do Fascículo
    Dez 1996
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