Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Usually only FDA-approved oxygenators are subject of studies by the international scientific community. The objective of this study is to evaluate two types of neonatal membrane oxygenators in terms of transmembrane pressure gradient, hemodynamic energy transmission and gaseous microemboli capture in simulated cardiopulmonary bypass systems. Methods: We investigated the Braile Infant 1500 (Braile Biomédica, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil), an oxygenator commonly used in Brazilian operating rooms, and compared it to the Dideco Kids D100 (Sorin Group, Arvada, CO, USA), that is an FDA-approved and widely used model in the USA. Cardiopulmonary bypass circuits were primed with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (Hematocrit 40%). Trials were conducted at flow rates of 500 ml/min and 700 ml/min at 35ºC and 25ºC. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a custom-based data acquisition system. For gaseous microemboli testing, 5cc of air were manually injected into the venous line. Gaseous microemboli were recorded using the Emboli Detection and Classification Quantifier. Results: Braile Infant 1500 had a lower pressure drop (P<0.01) and a higher total hemodynamic energy delivered to the pseudopatient (P<0.01). However, there was a higher raw number of gaseous microemboli seen prior to oxygenator at lower temperatures with the Braile oxygenator compared to the Kids D100 (P<0.01). Conclusion: Braile Infant 1500 oxygenator had a better hemodynamic performance compared to the Dideco Kids D100 oxygenator. Braile had more gaseous microemboli detected at the pre-oxygenator site under hypothermia, but delivered a smaller percentage of air emboli to the pseudopatient than the Dideco oxygenator.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Composite graft of left internal thoracic artery and great saphenous vein in revascularization of the left coronary system is a technique well described in literature. The aim of this study is to analyze blood flow dynamics in this configuration of composite graft especially in what concerns left internal thoracic artery's adaptability and influence of great saphenous vein segment on left internal thoracic artery's flow. Methods: Revascularization of left coronary system with composite graft, with left internal thoracic artery revascularizing the anterior interventricular artery and a great saphenous vein segment, anastomosed to the left internal thoracic artery, revascularizing another branch of the left coronary system, was performed in 23 patients. Blood flow was evaluated by transit time flowmetry in all segments of the composite graft (left internal thoracic artery proximal segment, left internal thoracic artery distal segment and great saphenous vein segment). Measures were performed in baseline condition and after dobutamine-induced stress, without and with non-traumatic temporary clamping of the distal segments of the composite graft. Results: Pharmacological stress resulted in increase of blood flow values in the analyzed segments (P<0.05). Non-traumatic temporary clamping of great saphenous vein segment did not result in statistically significant changes in the flow of left internal thoracic artery distal segment, both in baseline condition and under pharmacological stress. Similarly, non-traumatic temporary clamping of left internal thoracic artery distal segment did not result in statistically significant changes in great saphenous vein segment flow. Conclusion: Composite grafts with left internal thoracic artery and great saphenous vein for revascularization of left coronary system, resulted in blood flow dynamics with physiological adaptability, both at rest and after pharmacological stress, according to demand. Presence of great saphenous vein segment did not alter physiological blood flow dynamics in distal segment of left internal thoracic artery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To compare pulmonary function, functional capacity and clinical outcomes amongst three groups of patients with left ventricular dysfunction following off-pump coronary artery bypass, namely: 1) conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); 2) late open lung strategy (L-OLS); and 3) early open lung strategy (E-OLS). Methods: Sixty-one patients were randomized into 3 groups: 1) CMV (n=21); 2) L-OLS (n=20) initiated after intensive care unit arrival; and 3) E-OLS (n=20) initiated after intubation. Spirometry was performed at bedside on preoperative and postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and pulmonary shunt fraction were evaluated preoperatively and on POD1. The 6-minute walk test was applied on the day before the operation and on POD5. Results: Both the open lung groups demonstrated higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second on PODs 1, 3 and 5 when compared to the CMV group (P<0.05). The 6-minute walk test distance was more preserved, shunt fraction was lower, and PaO2 was higher in both open-lung groups (P<0.05). Open-lung groups had shorter intubation time and hospital stay and also fewer respiratory events (P<0.05). Key measures were significantly more favorable in the E-OLS group compared to the L-OLS group. Conclusion: Both OLSs (L-OLS and E-OLS) were able to promote higher preservation of pulmonary function, greater recovery of functional capacity and better clinical outcomes following off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, in this group of patients with reduced left ventricular function, initiation of the OLS intra-operatively was found to be more beneficial and optimal when compared to OLS initiation after intensive care unit arrival.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare three different surgical approaches for combined coronary and carotid artery stenosis as a single stage procedure and to assess effect of operative strategy on mortality and neurological complications. Methods: This retrospective study involves 136 patients who had synchronous coronary artery revascularization and carotid endarterectomy in our institution, between January 2002 and December 2012. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique used. Group I included 70 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with on-pump technique, group II included 29 patients who had carotid endarterectomy, followed by coronary revascularization with off-pump technique, group III included 37 patients who had coronary revascularization with on-pump technique followed by carotid endarterectomy under aortic cross-clamp and systemic hypothermia (22-27ºC). Postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results: Overall early mortality and stroke rate was 5.1% for both. There were 3 (4.3%) deaths in group I, 2 (6.9%) deaths in group II and 2 (5.4%) deaths in group III. Stroke was observed in 5 (7.1%) patients in group I and 2 (6.9%) in group II. Stroke was not observed in group III. No statistically significant difference was observed for mortality and stroke rates among the groups. Conclusion: We identified no significant difference in mortality or neurologic complications among three approaches for synchronous surgery for coronary and carotid disease. Therefore it is impossible to conclude that a single principle might be adapted into standard practice. Patient specific risk factors and clinical conditions might be important in determining the surgical tecnnique.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study aims to assess the preoperative nutritional status of patients and the role it plays in the occurrence of clinical complications in the postoperative period of major elective cardiac surgeries. Methods: Cross-sectional study comprising 72 patients aged 20 years or older, who underwent elective cardiac surgery. The preoperative nutritional assessment consisted of nutritional screening, anthropometry (including the measurement of the adductor pollicis muscle thickness) and biochemical tests. The patients were monitored for up to 10 days after the surgery in order to control the occurrence of postoperative complications. The R software, version 3.0.2, was used to statistically analyze the data. Results: Clinical complications were found in 62.5% (n=42) of the studied samples and complications of non-infectious nature were most often found. Serum albumin appeared to be associated with renal complications (P=0.026) in the nutritional status indicators analyzed herein. The adductor pollicis muscle thickness was associated with infectious complications and presented mean of 9.39±2.32 mm in the non-dominant hand (P=0.030). No significant correlation was found between the other indicators and the clinical complications. Conclusion: The adductor pollicis muscle thickness and the serum albumin seemed be associated with clinical complications in the postoperative period of cardiac surgeries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods: To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS) and Cochrane (LILACS), Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results: The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58%) reported descriptive data and 6 (50%) established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion: The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise interpretation of the test.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a cycle ergometer exercise program on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle function in hospitalized patients with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation with intravenous inotropic support. Methods: Patients awaiting heart transplantation were randomized and allocated prospectively into two groups: 1) Control Group (n=11) - conventional protocol; and 2) Intervention Group (n=7) - stationary cycle ergometer exercise training. Functional capacity was measured by the six-minute walk test and inspiratory muscle strength assessed by manovacuometry before and after the exercise protocols. Results: Both groups demonstrated an increase in six-minute walk test distance after the experimental procedure compared to baseline; however, only the intervention group had a significant increase (P =0.08 and P =0.001 for the control and intervention groups, respectively). Intergroup comparison revealed a greater increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.001). Regarding the inspiratory muscle strength evaluation, the intragroup analysis demonstrated increased strength after the protocols compared to baseline for both groups; statistical significance was only demonstrated for the intervention group, though (P =0.22 and P <0.01, respectively). Intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in the intervention group compared to the control (P <0.01). Conclusion: Stationary cycle ergometer exercise training shows positive results on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation while on intravenous inotropic support.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To apply the InsCor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a university hospital in Brazil's northeast. Methods: It is a retrospective, quantitative and analytical study, carried out at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. InsCor is a remodeling of two risk score models. It evaluates the prediction of mortality through variables such as gender, age, type of surgery or reoperation, exams, and preoperative events. Data from January to December 2015 were collected, using a Physical Therapy Evaluation Form and medical records. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, considering significant differences when P value was < 0.05. Calibration was performed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results: One hundred and forty-eight patients were included. Thirty-six percent were female, with mean age of 54.7±15.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) equal to 25.6 kg/m2. The most frequent surgery was coronary artery bypass grafting (51.3%). According to InsCor, 73.6% of the patients had low risk, 20.3% medium risk, and only 6.1% high risk. In this sample, 11 (7.4%) patients died. The percentage of death in patients classified as low, medium and high risk was 6.3, 7.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusion: InsCor presented easy applicability due to the reduced number of variables analyzed and it showed satisfactory prediction of mortality in this sample of cardiac surgery patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Carcinoid heart disease is a rare but important cause of intrinsic right heart valve disorders leading to right heart failure. Occasionally, left-sided heart valves may also be involved. The characteristic cardiac pathological findings of carcinoid heart disease are endocardial thickening as a result of fibrous deposits on the endocardium. Echocardiographic examination and right heart catheterization are very useful for the diagnosis of the lesion. If more cardiac valves are affected, multiple valve replacement should be considered. The management of the pulmonary valve lesion depends on the extent of the diseased valve, either by valvulotomy, valvectomy, or valve replacement. Percutaneous valve implantations in the pulmonary and in the inferior vena cava positions have been advocated for high-risk patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present a case of a 41-year-old female with deep vein thrombosis after abdominal surgery. The patient quickly developed severe pulmonary embolism and stroke representative of paradoxical embolism. Echocardiography showed a thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale, which was confirmed intraoperatively. An accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment decisions are crucial for preventing patient deterioration in the form of new pulmonary embolisms or stroke.