Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: The present study aimed the functional recovery evaluation after long term of cardiac arrest induced by Custodiol (crystalloid-based) versus del Nido (blood-based) solutions, both added lidocaine and pinacidil as cardioplegic agents. Experiments were performed in isolated rat heart perfusion models. Methods: Male rat heart perfusions, according to Langendorff technique, were induced to cause 3 hours of cardiac arrest with a single dose. The hearts were assigned to one of the following three groups: (I) control; (II) Custodiol-LP; and (III) del Nido-LP. They were evaluated after ischemia throughout 90 minutes of reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility function was reported as percentage of recovery, expressed by developed pressure, maximum dP/dt, minimum dP/dt, and rate pressure product variables. In addition, coronary resistance and myocardial injury marker by alpha-fodrin degradation were also evaluated. Results: At 90 minutes of reperfusion, both solutions had superior left ventricular contractile recovery function than the control group. Del Nido-LP was superior to Custodiol-LP in maximum dP/dt (46%±8 vs. 67%±7, P<0.05) and minimum dP/dt (31%±4 vs. 51%±9, P<0.05) variables. Coronary resistance was lower in del Nido-LP group than in Custodiol-LP (395%±50 vs. 307%±13, P<0.05), as well as alpha-fodrin degradation, with lower levels in del Nido-LP group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Del Nido-LP cardioplegia showed higher functional recovery after 3 hours of ischemia. The analysis of alpha-fodrin degradation showed del Nido-LP solution provided greater protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in this experimental model.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) is a common complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between development of PoAF and vitamin D levels in patients undergoing isolated CABG. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on the patients with isolated CABG. The study was terminated when 50 patients in both PoAF(+) group and PoAF(-) group were reached. Development of AF until discharge period was assessed. Vitamin D level was measured immediately after AF; it was measured on the discharge day for the patients without PoAF. Predictive values of the independent variables were measured for the development of PoAF. Results: The groups were separated as PoAF(-) group (66% male, mean age 58.18±10.98 years) and PoAF(+) group (74% male, mean age 61.94±10.88 years). 25(OH) vitamin D level (OR=0.855, 95% CI: 0.780-0.938, P=0.001) and > 65 years (OR=3.525, 95% CI: 1.310-9.483, P=0.013) were identified as an independent predictor of postoperative AF after CABG surgery in multivariate analysis. The cut-off level for 25(OH) vitamin D level in receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was determined as 7.65 with sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 64% for predicting PoAF (area under the curve: 0.679, P=0.002). Conclusion: Vitamin D level is considered an independent predictor for development of PoAF. Lower vitamin D levels may be one of the reasons for PoAF.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Hemodilution is a concern in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Using a smaller dual tubing rather than a single larger inner diameter (ID) tubing in the venous limb to decrease prime volume has been a standard practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these tubing options. Methods: Four different CPB circuits primed with blood (hematocrit 30%) were investigated. Two setups were used with two circuits for each one. In Setup I, a neonatal oxygenator was connected to dual 3/16" ID venous limbs (Circuit A) or to a single 1/4" ID venous limb (Circuit B); and in Setup II, a pediatric oxygenator was connected to dual 1/4" ID venous limbs (Circuit C) or a single 3/8" ID venous limb (Circuit D). Trials were conducted at arterial flow rates of 500 ml/min up to 1500 ml/min (Setup I) and up to 3000 ml/min (Setup II), at 36°C and 28°C. Results: Circuit B exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit A, and Circuit D exhibited a higher venous flow rate than Circuit C, at both temperatures. Flow resistance was significantly higher in Circuits A and C than in Circuits B (P<0.001) and D (P<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: A single 1/4" venous limb is better than dual 3/16" venous limbs at all flow rates, up to 1500 ml/min. Moreover, a single 3/8" venous limb is better than dual 1/4" venous limbs, up to 3000 ml/min. Our findings strongly suggest a revision of perfusion practice to include single venous limb circuits for CPB.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: In this study, we investigated the role of two of the recent biomarkers of inflammation on the development of acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Three hundred and eleven patients, who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass by the same surgery team in our clinic between May 2010 and October 2014, who had a preoperative serum creatinine level lower than 1.5 mg/dl were included in the study. These patients' records were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis of acute kidney injury was performed according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes 2012 Acute Kidney Injury Guideline criteria. Patients who developed acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period were classified as Group-1 (n=62) and the patients with normal postoperative renal functions were classified as Group-2 (n=249). The demographic data, body mass index, comorbidities, hematologic/biochemical profiles, preoperative ejection fraction, blood transfusion history, and operative data of the groups were compared. Univariate analyses were performed to determine significant clinical factors, and multiple logistic regression analyses were subsequently done to determine independent predictors of acute kidney injury. Results: Sixty-two (19.9%) patients developed acute kidney injury during the first 72 hours postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed preoperative increased creatinine (P=0.0001), C-reactive protein (P=0.02), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (P=0.04) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P=0.002); increased postoperative first day leukocyte count (P=0.03), C-reactive protein levels (P=0.02), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (P=0.002), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (P=0.01) and increased intubation time (P=0.006) as independent predictors of early postoperative acute kidney injury in patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusion: The preoperative and postoperative increased levels of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio which can be calculated by simple methods from routine blood analysis showed us that these parameters are independent biomarkers directly related to development of acute kidney injury in the early postoperative period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Donor shortage and organ allocation is the main problem in pediatric heart transplant. Mechanical circulatory support is known to increase waiting list survival, but it is not routinely used in pediatric programs in Latin America. Methods: All patients listed for heart transplant and supported by a mechanical circulatory support between January 2012 and March 2016 were included in this retrospective single-center study. The endpoints were mechanical circulatory support time, complications, heart transplant survival and discharge from the hospital. Results: Twenty-nine patients from our waiting list were assessed. Twelve (45%) patients were initially supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and a centrifugal pump was implanted in 17 (55%) patients. Five patients initially supported by ECMO were bridged to another device. One was bridged to a centrifugal pump and four were bridged to Berlin Heart Excor®. Among the 29 supported patients, 18 (62%) managed to have a heart transplant. Thirty-day survival period after heart transplant was 56% (10 patients). Median support duration was 12 days (interquartile range [IQR] 4 - 26 days) per run and the waiting time for heart transplant was 9.5 days (IQR 2.5-25 days). Acute kidney injury was identified as a mortality predictor (OR=22.6 [CI=1.04-494.6]; P=0.04). Conclusion: Mechanical circulatory support was able to bridge most INTERMACS 1 and 2 pediatric patients to transplant with an acceptable complication rate. Acute renal failure increased mortality after mechanical circulatory support in our experience.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of extended- versus short-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on pulmonary function, tissue perfusion, and clinical outcomes in the early postoperative period following coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with preserved left ventricular function. Methods: Patients were randomized into two groups according to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation intensity: short-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation n=20 (S-NPPV) and extended-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation n=21 (E-NPPV). S-NPPV was applied for 60 minutes during immediate postoperative period and 10 minutes, twice daily, from postoperative days 1-5. E-NPPV was performed for at least six hours during immediate postoperative period and 60 minutes, twice daily, from postoperative days 1-5. As a primary outcome, tissue perfusion was determined by central venous oxygen saturation and blood lactate level measured after anesthetic induction, immediately after extubation and following noninvasive positive pressure ventilation protocols. As a secondary outcome, pulmonary function tests were performed preoperatively and in the postoperative days 1, 3, and 5; clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: Significant drop in blood lactate levels and an improvement in central venous oxygen saturation values in the E-NPPV group were observed when compared with S-NPPV group after study protocol (P<0.01). The E-NPPV group presented higher preservation of postoperative pulmonary function as well as lower incidence of respiratory events and shorter postoperative hospital stay (P<0.05). Conclusion: Prophylactic E-NPPV administered in the early postoperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery resulted in greater improvements in tissue perfusion, pulmonary function and clinical outcomes than S-NPPV, in patients with preserved left ventricular function. Trial Registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical trial - RBR7sqj78 - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: The injury-reducing effect of acetaminophen, an effective analgesic and antipyretic on ischemia-reperfusion continues to attract great attention. This study analyzed the protective effect of acetaminophen on myocardial injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in an experimental animal model from lower extremity ischemia-reperfusion. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomized into three groups (n=8) as (i) control group (only laparotomy), (ii) aortic ischemia-reperfusion group (60 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion) and (iii) ischemia-reperfusion + acetaminophen group (15 mg/kg/h intravenous acetaminophen infusion starting 15 minutes before the end of the ischemic period and lasting till the end of the reperfusion period). Sternotomy was performed in all groups at the end of the reperfusion period and the heart was removed for histopathological examination. The removed hearts were histopathologically investigated for myocytolysis, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration, myofibrillar edema and focal hemorrhage. Results: The results of histopathological examination showed that acetaminophen was detected to particularly diminish focal hemorrhage and myofibrillar edema in the ischemia-reperfusion + acetaminophen group (P<0.001, P=0.011), while there were no effects on myocytolysis and PMNL infiltration between the groups (P=1.000, P=0.124). Conclusion: Acetaminophen is considered to have cardioprotective effect in rats, by reducing myocardial injury induced by abdominal aortic ischemia-reperfusion.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare open surgical and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms in terms of their effects on quality of life, using Short Form-36 (SF-36). Methods: A total of 133 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR or open surgical repair for infra-renal abdominal aorta aneurysm between January 2009 and June 2014 were included in the study. Twenty-six (19.5%) patients died during follow-up and were excluded from the analysis. Overall, 107 patients, 39 (36.4%) in the open repair group, and 68 (63.6%) in the EVAR group, completed all follow-up visits and study assessments. Quality of life assessments using SF-36 were performed before surgery and at post-operative months 1, 6, and 12. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 29.55±19.95 months. At one month, both physical and mental domains of the quality of life assessments favored EVAR, while the two surgical approaches did not differ significantly at or after six months postoperatively. Conclusion: Despite anatomical advantages and acceptable mid-phase mortality in patients with high- or medium-risk for open surgery, EVAR did not exhibit a quality of life superiority over open surgery in terms of physical function and patient comfort at or after postoperative six months.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To identify main complications in outpatient follow-up, as well as factors before or during operation that may interfere in patient's evolution. Methods: Retrospective study of patients submitted to total cavopulmonary shunt with extracardiac conduit from 2000 to 2014 at the Hospital do Coração (São Paulo, Brazil) and who underwent clinical follow-up at this institution. Results: One hundred and fifty surgeries were performed and 59 patients maintained outpatient follow-up. The mean age of these patients at the time of surgery was 4.45 years (median of 45 months) and 70.2% of them were males. Among the patients undergoing outpatient follow-up, postoperative time at evaluation ranged from 10 days to 145 months; 30 (50.8%) patients had single left ventricle and 29 (49.2%) had single right ventricle (48.2% of these presented with hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS]). Patients with single left ventricle had a higher percentage of reintervention-free survival, but without statistically significant difference. 40% of the patients had no complications and 35% of them presented with thrombosis at some point in the follow-up period, with ventricular dysfunction being the second most frequently found complication (15% of cases), mainly among patients with single right ventricle morphology (P=0.04). Between the patients currently under follow-up, 20 (35%) of them had been evaluated by ultrasonography and had some degree of hepatic congestion and/or hepatomegaly. 16.7% of the patients with such alteration had HLHS (P=0.057). Conclusion: Except for the right ventricular morphology, no other factor has been shown to interfere in late evolution after total cavopulmonary shunt.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent postoperative complication after cardiovascular surgery. It has been described as a predictor of decreased survival rates, but how dialysis decreases survival when initiated on the postoperative period has yet to be determined. To analyze the survival of patients who presented postoperative AKI requiring dialysis up to 30 days after cardiovascular surgery and its risk factors is the aim of this study. Methods: Of the 5,189 cardiovascular surgeries performed in a 4-year period, 157 patients developed AKI requiring dialysis in the postoperative period. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test were used in the statistical analysis to compare the curves of categorical variables. P-value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Patient average survival was 546 days and mortality was 70.7%. The need for dialysis on the postoperative period decreased late survival. Risk factors for decreased survival included age (P<0.001) and postoperative complications (P<0.0003). Conclusion: The average survival was approximately one year among dialytic patients. Age and postoperative complications were risk factors that determined decreased survival.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Rhythm abnormalities following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and indications for permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) were reviewed, which aren't well established in the current guidelines. New left bundle branch block and atrioventricular block are the most common electrocardiographic changes after TAVI. PPI incidence ranges from 9-42% for self-expandable and 2.5-11.5% for balloon expandable devices. Not only anatomical variations in conduction system have an important role in conduction disorders, but different valve characteristics and their relationship with cardiac structures as well. Previous right bundle branch block has been confirmed as one of the most significant predictors for PPI.
Abstract in English:Abstract The heat shock proteins are endogenous proteins with the ability to act as molecular chaperones. Methods that provide cell protection by way of some damage can positively influence the results of surgery. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective role of the heat shock proteins as occurs in heart damage, including relevant information about the stresses that regulate the expression of these proteins and their potential role as biomarkers of heart disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Penetrating heart injuries present high mortality rates. Increasing rates of urban violence have contributed to a significant rise in the number of heart injuries by firearm projectiles. Such injuries are associated with the highest mortality rates among penetrating cardiac injuries and may involve one or more cardiac chambers. We present the case of a police officer who, in an approach to five robbers, suffered a transfixed cardiac injury by firearm with the projectile having been lodged inside the right ventricle. This patient was successfully operated, 65 days after the injury, at our institution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Giant cell myocarditis is a rare and highly lethal disorder with resultant cardiac insufficiency. It necessitates aggressive immune suppression therapy, although the results are often fatal. When it affects only the atria, the characteristics of the disease changes completely. In this case report, we present atypical presentation of atrial giant cell myocarditis with mass lesion, which completely resolved after successful surgical resection without immuno suppression therapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Moyamoya disease is a rare, idiopathic, progressive, occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery characterized by the development of collateral vasculature in the brain base. In patients with accompanying coronary artery disease, cardiopulmonary bypass posses a potential risk for perioperative cerebral ischemic complication. Herein, we report a 53-year-old male case of Moyamoya disease and coronary artery disease who was treated with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.