• "Vasopressor Support Sparing Strategies": a Concept to be Incorporated as a Paradigm in the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock EDITORIAL

    Evora, Paulo Roberto B.; Braile, Domingo M.
  • Ventricular Assist Devices: an Evolving Field EDITORIAL

    Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando
  • Surgical Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects in Down Syndrome Patients ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Santos, Fernando Cesar Gimenes Barbosa; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Murakami, Alexandre Noboru; Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Borim, Bruna Cury; Finoti, Renata Geron; Godoy, Moacir Fernandes de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze data related to surgical treatment in patients with congenital heart defects (CHD) and Down syndrome (DS) based on information from International Quality Improvement Collaborative Database for Congenital Heart Disease (IQIC). Methods: Between July 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017, 139 patients with CHD and DS underwent surgery at Hospital de Base and Hospital da Criança e Maternidade de São José do Rio Preto (FUNFARME)/Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto - SP (FAMERP). A quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study was performed in which the pre, intra and postoperative data were analyzed in an IQIC database. The data included gender, age, prematurity, weight, preoperative procedures, diagnosis, associated cardiac and non-cardiac anomalies, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1), type of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), perfusion time, aortic clamping time and CPB temperature, bacterial sepsis, surgical site infection and other infections, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU), length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. Results: The most prevalent procedures were complete atrioventricular septal defect repair (58 - 39.45%), followed by closure of ventricular septal defect (36 - 24.49%). The RACHS-1 categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 were distributed as 22 (15%); 49 (33.3%); 72 (49%) and 4 (2.7%), respectively. There were no procedures classified as categories 5 or 6. Bacterial sepsis occurred in 10.2% of cases, surgical site infection in 6.1%, other infections in 14.3%. The median length of ICU stay was 5 days and the median length of hospital stay was 11 days. In-hospital mortality was 6.8%. Conclusion: Surgical treatment in patients with CHD and DS usually does not require highly complex surgical procedures, but are affected by infectious complications, resulting in a longer ICU and hospital length of stay with considerable mortality.
  • Relationships Between Phenotype and Function of Blood CD4+ T-Cells and Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: an Experimental Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Sbrana, Silverio; Tiwari, Kaushal Kishore; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Giungato, Paola; Kallushi, Enkel; Solinas, Marco; Mazzone, Anna Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction: Non-familial ascending thoracic aorta dilation and aneurysms (TAAs) are silent diseases in elderly patients. Histopathology revealed that functionally polarized infiltrating CD4+ T-cells play a key role in aortic wall weakening. Objective: To evaluate the possible associations between phenotype and cytokine production of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocytes and the presence of TAA in patients with aortic valve disease (AVD). Methods: We studied blood samples from 10 patients with TAA and 10 patients with AVD. Flow cytometry was used to quantify: a) CD4+ T-lymphocytes surface expression of CD25, CD28, and chemokine receptors (CCR5, CXCR3, CX3CR1); b) fractions of in vitro stimulated CD4+ T-cells producing cytokines (interferon gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin [IL]-17A, IL-21, IL-10); c) CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Treg) fraction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed for cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-23, transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) and chemokines (RANTES, CX3CL1). Results: The total CD4+CD28±CD4+/CX3CR1+ T-cells fraction was higher (P=0.0323) in AVD (20.452±4.673) than in TAA patients (8.633±2.030). The frequency ratio of CD4+ T-lymphocytes producing IFN-γ vs. IL-17A+IL-21 cytokine-producing CD4+ T-cells was higher (P=0.0239) in AVD (2.102±0.272) than in TAA (1.365±0.123) patients. The sum of CD4+CD28±CD4+/CX3CR1+ T-cells correlated positively with values of the previous cytokine ratio (P=0.0002, R=0.732). The ratio of CD4+CD28±CD4+/CX3CR1+ T-cells vs. Treg was higher (P=0.0008) in AVD (20.859±3.393) than in TAA (6.367±1.277) patients. Conclusion: Our results show that the presence of TAA in subjects with AVD is associated with imbalance between phenotypic and cytokine-producing subsets of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocytes, prevalently oriented towards a pro-fibrotic and IFN-γ counteracting effect to functional polarization.
  • Clinical Significance of Cys-C and hs-CRP in Coronary Heart Disease Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight CHD patients were divided into drug treatment (56 cases) and PCI treatment (72 cases) groups, receiving conventional drug treatment and PCI plus conventional drug treatment, respectively. At admission time and 4 weeks after treatment, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and left ventricular end systolic diameter were measured. At admission time and 24h, 72h, 1 week, and 4 weeks after treatment, the serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP were determined. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, LVEF in the PCI treatment group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.01) and it was significantly higher than in the drug treatment group at the same time (P<0.01). Cys-C and hs-CRP level in the PCI treatment group were significantly higher than in the drug treatment group 72h and 1 week after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01), respectively, but they were significantly lower than in the drug treatment group 4 weeks after treatment (P<0.01). There were obvious interaction effects between grouping factor and time factor in Cys-C (F=3.62, P<0.05) and hs-CRP (F=17.85, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of Cys-C and hs-CRP are closely related to the heart function in CHD patients undergoing PCI, and they may be used for predicting the outcome of PCI.
  • Predictors of Normalization of Circulating Interleukin-6 after Cardiac Myxoma Resection ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To disclose the relationships between the anatomic features of cardiac myxomas and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels. Methods: Twelve patients undergoing cardiac myxoma resection at The First Hospital of Putian, Teaching Hospital, Fujian Medical University were enrolled into this study. Pre- and postoperative IL-6 levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and correlations between cardiac myxoma dimension or volume and plasma IL-6 levels were analyzed. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also evaluated. Results: IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly decreased one month after cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to preoperative values. IL-6 and CRP levels did not differ between patients with a cardiac myxoma of irregular appearance and those with a myxoma of regular gross appearance, or between patients with a pedicled or a sessile myxoma. Decrement of IL-6 of patients with irregular cardiac myxomas was much higher than that of patients with regular ones, while no intergroup difference was noted in decrement of CRP. A close direct correlation was noted between IL-6 levels and maximal dimension (length) or volume of cardiac myxomas, whereas CRP levels only correlated with maximal dimension of cardiac myxomas. Conclusion: Anatomic features of cardiac myxomas (sessile, irregular appearance, maximal dimension, and volume) could be determinants of the patients' circulating IL-6 levels. IL-6 was likely to be a more sensitive biomarker than CRP in predicting the inflammatory status of patients with cardiac myxoma. Sessile and irregular cardiac myxomas might predict more severe inflammatory conditions for their more abundant endothelial cells and IL-6 overproduction.
  • Glycated Hemoglobin as a Predictor of the Length of Hospital Stay in Patients Following Coronary Bypass Graft Surgery in the Saudi Population ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Almogati, Joud G.; Ahmed, Elnazeer O.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: The diabetic population has a high prevalence of coronary artery disease, and frequently patients with diabetes undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetics is shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality, but the association of HbA1c with postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) has conflicting results. In this study, we aim to identify if elevated HbA1c levels are associated with prolonged LOS after CABG surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was performed, using a total of 305 patients who were referred for CABG surgery. HbA1c levels were measured before the day of surgery. Patients were classified into two groups according to HbA1c levels: <7% and ≥7%. A LOS of more than 14 days was proposed as an extended LOS. HbA1c and the LOS relationship were assessed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Patients who had diabetes mellitus comprised 81.6% of our studied population. Sixty-four percent had HbA1c levels ≥ 7%. There was no significant difference in the total LOS in HbA1c <7% compared to HbA1c ≥7% patients (P=0.367). Conclusion: Our study results rejected the proposed hypothesis that elevated HbA1c levels ≥7% would be associated with prolonged hospital stay following CABG surgery in a Saudi population.
  • Potentially Modifiable Predictors for Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients with Cardiac Surgery Associated-Acute Kidney Injury: a Propensity Score-Matched Case-Control Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Jiang, Wuhua; Shen, Bo; Wang, Yimei; Xu, Jiarui; Luo, Zhe; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Teng, Jie

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To discover potentially modifiable perioperative predictors for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Methods: A cohort of 1773 consecutive cardiac surgery patients with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) from January 2013 to December 2015 were included retrospectively. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. The primary outcome was CSA-AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT). The initiation of RRT was based on clinical judgment regarding severe volume overload, metabolic abnormality (e.g., acidosis, hyperkalemia), and oliguria. Patients with AKI-RRT were matched 1:1 with patients without AKI-RRT by a propensity score, to exclude the influence of patients' demographics, comorbidities, and baseline renal function. Multivariable regression was performed to identify the predictors in the matched sample. Results: AKI-RRT occurred in 4.4% of the entire cohort (n=78/1773), with 28.2% of in-hospital mortality (n=22/78). With the propensity score, 78 pairs of patients were matched 1:1 and the variables found to be predictors of AKI-RRT included the contrast exposure within 3 days before surgery (odds ratio [OR]=2.932), central venous pressure (CVP) >10 mmHg on intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR=1.646 per mmHg increase), and erythrocyte transfusions on the 1st day of surgery (OR=1.742 per unit increase). Conclusion: AKI-RRT is associated with high mortality. The potentially modifiable predictors found in this study require concern and interventions to prevent CSA-AKI patients from worsening prognosis.
  • The Relation Between Echocardiographic Epicardial Fat Thickness and CHA2DS2-VASc Score in Patients with Sinus Rhythm ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Aksoy, Fatih; Guler, Serdar; Kahraman, Fatih; Oskay, Tülay; Varol, Ercan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of epicardial fat thickness (EFT) in CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) score risk groups. Methods: A total of 158 consecutive patients (75 females, 83 males, mean age 70.8±6.3 years) admitted routinely for cardiologic control were divided into two groups according to their CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores 0 and 1 were regarded as low risk, and score ≥2 as high risk). One hundred twenty-five of 158 patients had a high-risk score. Results: Mean EFT was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (4.34±0.62 vs. 5.37±1.0; P<0.001). EFT was positively correlated with CHA2DS2-VASc score (r=0.577, P<0.001). According to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, EFT value of 4.4 mm was found to be predictive of high risk in CHA2DS2-VASc score with 80% of sensitivity and 79% of specificity (C-statistic = 0.875, P<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76-0.90). And according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, EFT was an independent predictor of high thromboembolic risk in terms of CHA2DS2-VASc score. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that echocardiographic EFT measurement could provide additional information on assessing cardiovascular risks, such as thromboembolic events, and individuals with increased EFT should receive more attention to reduce unfavorable cardiovascular risk factors and the development of future cardiovascular events.
  • Efficacy and Safety of "Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Angiography" with Right Transradial Access versus Left Transradial Access and Femoral Access: a Retrospective Comparative Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Balaban, Yakup; Akbaş, Mustafa Haluk; Akbaş, Merih Leventyüz; Özerdem, Ali

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: Over the past 10 years, the rate of patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has increased twofold in cases of coronary angiography. Today, transradial access is the first choice for coronary angiography. We aimed to compare the efficacy and reliability of radial versus femoral access for coronary angiography in post-CABG surgery in this study. Methods: Data from 442 patients who underwent post-CABG surgery between 2012-2017 were retrospectively compared. The right radial route was used in 120 cases, the left radial route in 148, and femoral route in 174. These three pathways were compared in terms of procedure time and fluoroscopy time, efficacy, and complication development. Comparisons among the three groups were performed with Bonferroni test for continuous variables and chi-square or Fisher's exact test for nominal variables as a binary. Results: Comparison results indicate that femoral access was better than left radial access and the left radial access was better than right radial access in terms of fluoroscopy time (10.71±1.65, 10.94±1.25, 16.12±5.28 min, P<0.001) and total procedure time (17.28±1.68, 17.68±2.34, 23.04±5.84 min, P<0.001). The left radial pathway was the most effective way of viewing left internal mammary artery (LIMA). No statistically significant differences were found among the three groups in other graft visualizations, all minor complications, total procedure and fluoroscopy time "Except LIMA imaging". Mortality due to processing was not observed in all three groups. Conclusion: The left radial route is preferred over right radial access for post-CABG angiography because the left radial pathway is close to the LIMA and is similar to the femoral pathway. In LIMA graft imaging, right radial access is a reliable route, even though it is not as effective as other pathways. We hope that the right radial pathway will improve with physician experience and innovations.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency is not Associated with Higher Levels of SYNTAX Score ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cerit, Levent; Cerit, Zeynep

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between serum vitamin D (vitD) level and SYNTAX (synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery) score (SS). Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, were retrospectively reviewed. The study group consisted of 158 patients. Biochemical, clinical, and echocardiographic parameters and SS were evaluated in all patients. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to SS (≥23= high, <23= low). Results: The high SYNTAX score (HSS) group was older and had higher body mass index, C-reactive protein (CRP), low-density lipoprotein, and fasting plasma glucose level than the low SYNTAX score (LSS) group. The HSS group had lower high-density lipoprotein and vitD level than the LSS group. The HSS group had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia (HL), and current smoking patients than the LSS group. On univariate analysis, age, HT, DM, HL, smoking, CRP, and serum vitD level were associated with HSS. On multivariate analysis, HT, DM, and HL were independent predictors of HSS (odds ratio [OR]: 2.137, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.468-2.935, P<0.001; OR: 3.559, 95% CI: 2.763-5.927, P<0.001; OR: 2.631, 95% CI: 1.529-3.438, P<0.001; respectively). Conclusion: In our study, we have found out that HT, DM, and HL were independent predictors of HSS. Serum vitD level was not found to be an independent predictor of HSS.
  • Early and Medium Outcomes of On-Pump Beating-Heart versus Off-Pump CABG in Patients with Moderate Left Ventricular Dysfunction ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Wang, Weitie; Wang, Yong; Piao, Hulin; Li, Bo; Wang, Tiance; Li, Dan; Zhu, Zhicheng; Xu, Rihao; Liu, Kexiang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare the early and medium outcomes of on-pump beating-heart (OPBH) coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and off-pump CABG (OPCABG) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 30% and 40%. Methods: This is a retrospective study of ischemic heart disease patients with LVEF between 30% and 40% who underwent surgical revascularization from January 2013 to December 2017. Patients were divided into OPBH group (n=44) and OPCABG group (n=68), according to the surgical method. Clinical material with early and medium outcomes were investigated and compared between these groups. Results: The two groups had similar baseline. Two OPBH patients and 3 OPCABG patients died in the hospital, which had no statistical significance (P>0.05). OPBH patients received a greater number of grafts (3.74±0.84) and presented more improved LVEF (45.92±7.11%) than OPCABG patients (3.36±0.80) and (42.81±9.29%), respectively, which had statistical significance (P<0.05). An increased amount of drainage during the first 12 hours was found in the OPBH group (P<0.05). Reoperation for bleeding, duration of mechanic ventilation, and other early outcomes had no statistical significance between the two groups. During the medium-time follow-up, OPBH patients showed significantly lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE)-free survival time (P=0.049) than OPCABG patients. Conclusion: The OPBH technique was a safe and an acceptable alternative for surgical revascularization in patients with moderate left ventricular dysfunction which provided better mid-term MACE-free survival compared with OPCABG.
  • Risk Factors and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury after Isolated CABG Surgery: a Prospective Cohort Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Amini, Shahram; Najafi, Mona Najaf; Karrari, Seyedeh Parissa; Mashhadi, Mohammadghasem Etemadi; Mirzaei, Sahereh; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Hoseinikhah, Hamid; Aazami, Mathias Hossain; Jafari, Mahdieh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent event after cardiac surgery with increased mortality and morbidity. We explored frequency, risk factors, and associated morbidity and mortality of AKI after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery at a single institution. Methods: All consecutive adults undergoing CABG surgery from March 2013 to October 2016 were assessed for development and severity of AKI based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The patients were also investigated regarding their need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), predictive risk factors, and associated outcomes, including duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay. Results: Of 1737 patients in the study, 275 (15.8%) developed AKI. Twenty-five (12.8%) cases required RRT. Patients with AKI had longer ventilation time, ICU and hospital length of stay (P<0.001). Mortality rates were 28 (10.2%) and 22 (1.5%) in patients with and without AKI, respectively (P<0.001). There was a strong association between advanced age (aOR=1.016, 95% CI=1.002-1.030, P=0.028), diabetes (aOR=1.36, 95% CI=1.022-1.809, P=0.035), on-pump surgery (aOR=2.63, 95% CI=1.543-4.483, P<0.001), transfusion of more than 1 unit of red blood cells (aOR=2.154, 95% CI=1.237-3.753, P=0.007), and prolonged mechanical ventilation and development of AKI (aOR=2.697, 95% CI=1.02407.071, P<0.001). AKI was seen less frequently in those with opium abuse (aOR=0.613, 95% CI=0.409-0.921, P=0.018). Conclusion: We demonstrated that advanced age, diabetes, on-pump surgery, red blood cell transfusion, and prolonged mechanical ventilation were independent positive risk factors for the development of AKI after isolated CABG while opium abuse was a protective factor.
  • Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting REVIEW ARTICLE

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Lin, Hong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common complication following cardiac surgery. The incidence of cognitive dysfunction is more pronounced in patients receiving a cardiac operation than in those undergoing a non-cardiac operation. Clinical observations demonstrated that pulsatile flow was superior to nonpulsatile flow, and membrane oxygenator was superior to bubble oxygenator in terms of postoperative cognitive status. Nevertheless, cognitive assessments in patients receiving an on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery have yielded inconsistent results. The exact mechanisms of postoperative cognitive dysfunction following coronary artery bypass grafting remain uncertain. The dual effects, neuroprotective and neurotoxic, of anesthetics should be thoroughly investigated. The diagnosis should be based on a comprehensive cognitive evaluation with neuropsychiatric tests, cerebral biomarker inspections, and electroencephalographic examination. The management strategies for cognitive dysfunction can be preventive or therapeutic. The preventive strategies of modifying surgical facilities and techniques can be effective for preventing the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Investigational therapies may offer novel strategies of treatments. Anesthetic preconditioning might be helpful for the improvement of this dysfunction.
  • Sclerosing Mediastinitis Causing Unilateral Pulmonary Edema Due to Left Atrial and Pulmonary Venous Compression. A Case Report and Literature Review REVIEW ARTICLE

    Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Leivaditis, Vasileios; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Koletsis, Efstratios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Sclerosing mediastinitis (SM), previously named chronic fibrosing mediastinitis, is an inflammatory process that in its end-stage results to sclerosis around the mediastinal structures. SM is quite rare and has been correlated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as malignancy. SM may either present in a mild form, with minor symptoms and a benign course or in a more aggressive form with severe pulmonary hypertension and subsequent higher morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of SM may be difficult and quite challenging, as symptoms depend on the mediastinal structure that is mainly involved; quite often the superior vena cava. However, practically any mediastinal structure may be involved by the fibrotic process, such as the central airways, as well as the pulmonary arteries and veins, leading to obstruction or total occlusion. The latter may be impossible to undergo proper surgical excision of the lesion, and is considered to be a real challenge to the surgeon. We herein report a case of SM that presented with arterial and venous compression. The imaging appearance was that of unilateral pulmonary edema, associated with lung collapse. The case is supplemented by a non-systematic review of the relevant literature.
  • Current Practice of State-of-the-Art Coronary Revascularization in Patients with Heart Failure SPECIAL ARTICLE

    Rayol, Sérgio Costa; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Luiz Rafael Pereira; Saragiotto, Felipe Augusto Santos; Diniz, Roberto Gouvea Silva; Sá, Frederico Browne Correia de Araújo e; Menezes, Alexandre Motta de; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The best treatment for patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) is still on debate. There is growing evidence that coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) benefits these patients. The current recommendations for revascularization in this context are that CABG is reasonable when it comes to decreasing morbidity and mortality rates for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <35%), and significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and should be considered in patients with operable coronary anatomy, regardless whether or not there is a viable myocardium (class IIb). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not have enough data to allow the panels to reach a conclusion. The Korean Acute Heart Failure registry (KorAHF) had its data released recently, showing that patients with acute HF who underwent CABG had lower death rates, more complete revascularization and less adverse outcomes compared with patients treated with PCI. Recent ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization clearly recommended CABG as the first choice of revascularization strategy in patients with multivessel disease and acceptable surgical risk to improve prognosis in this scenario of left ventricular dysfunction. However, a high peri-procedural risk must be compared with the benefit of late mortality, and pros and cons of each strategy (either PCI or CABG) must be weighed in the decision-making process. Spurred on by the publication of the above-mentioned article and the release of new guidelines, we went on to write an overview of the current practice of state-of-the-art coronary revascularization options in patients with HF.
  • Surgical Aspects of No-Touch Saphenous Vein Graft Harvesting in CABG: Clinical and Angiographic Follow-Up at 3 Months MULTIMEDIA

    Samano, Ninos; Pinheiro, Bruno Botelho; Souza, Domingos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract With more than 800,000 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations annually worldwide and the saphenous vein being the most common conduit used, there is no question that improving saphenous vein graft patency is one of the most important tasks in CABG. This video describes the no-touch harvesting procedure of the saphenous vein on an 80-year old man with hypertension, hyperlipidemia and a previous myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention to the right coronary artery. He was complaining of exertional chest pain and was diagnosed with stable angina pectoris. The coronary angiography showed advanced three vessel disease with significant stenoses in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, two marginal arteries (MAs) and the posterior descending artery (PDA), in addition to an occluded diagonal artery (DA). The patient received a triple sequential no-touch vein graft to the PDA and two MAs together with a double sequential no-touch vein graft to the DA and LAD. A vein graft was used to bypass the LAD due to the age of the patient and the low degree of stenosis in the LAD. The no-touch harvesting technique is described in detail in the film with complete narration. A follow-up of this patient was performed at three months both clinically and with a computed tomography angiography (CTA). No angina pectoris symptoms were reported by the patient and the wounds in the chest and lower limb were completely healed. The CTA showed patent no-touch saphenous vein grafts to all the distal anastomoses.
  • Long-Term Traumatic and Asymptomatic Aorto-Right Atrial Fistula MULTIMEDIA

    Lima, Sandro Gonçalves de; Lordsleem, Andréa Bezerra de Melo da Silveira; Campos, Kaique Leal; Silva, Juliana Guedes; Santos, Marcelo Antônio Oliveira; Markman, Brivaldo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aorto-atrial fistulas due to cardiac trauma are rare, and survivors require immediate surgical correction. Here, we report a case of an aorto-right atrial fistula due to penetrating trauma after a 16-year evolution, which developed symptoms of acute coronary syndrome and was treated with myocardial revascularization and correction of the aorto-cameral fistula.
  • Congenital Aneurysm of the Right Atrium: Two Cases Report CASE REPORT

    Melo, Halyna; Moraes, Fernando; Lapa, Cleusa; Moraes, Carlos R.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Congenital aneurysm or enlargement of the right atrium is a rare condition. Two children operated on at the age of 14 months and 11 years old for congenital aneurysm of the right atrium are reported. Both presented cardiomegaly and symptoms of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography. Surgical resection was successful. Both patients are free of symptoms and their chest X-ray and echocardiogram are normal. The first patient is now in her 17th postoperative year. The patients' evolution suggests that the surgery is a curative procedure.
  • Intracoronary Hydatid Cyst Resulted in Coronary Artery Disease in a Young Patient CASE REPORT

    Vural, Unsal; Aglar, Ahmet Arif; Kayacioglu, İlyas

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Among all cystic echinococcosis cases, only 0.5%-2% exhibit a cardiac involvement. Only 10% of these become symptomatic. Considering the long time interval between the start of infestation and symptoms to occur, it is hard to diagnose cystic echinococcosis. When detected, even if it is asymptomatic, intramyocardial hydatid cyst requires surgical intervention due to risks of spontaneous rupture and anaphylaxis. In literature, no case of hydatid cyst located in the coronary arterial wall has been reported. Twenty-two-year-old male patient with previous history of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis was referred to us with typical symptoms of coronary artery disease. Coronary cineangiography revealed proximal left diagonal artery (LAD) occlusion. Pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography of the patient planned to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting unveiled an intracoronary calcified cystic mass. In operation, the calcified cystic mass with well-defined borders and size of 2x2 cm located within wall of proximal segment of the LAD artery was excised and double bypass with left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and great saphenous vein grafts to the LAD and first diagonal arteries, respectively, was done. Pathological analysis of the mass revealed it to be an inactive calcified hydatid cyst. Echinococcal IgG-ELISA test was positive. 12-week oral albendazole treatment (2x400 mg/day) was launched postoperatively and the patient was discharged on 7th postoperative day.
  • Ligature of the Left Main Coronary Artery after Surgery in Kawasaki Disease: Case Report CASE REPORT

    Barca, Laura Varela; López-Menéndez, José; Palacios, Ana Redondo; Stuart, Jorge Rodríguez-Roda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We report a case of a 23-year-old man who was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease that progressed to a coronary aneurysm in the left main coronary artery (LMA). He had suffered from acute coronary syndrome and then underwent an emergent percutaneous coronary angioplasty, in which a polyurethane-covered stent was placed inside the aneurysm. The stent was thrombosed one year later, despite the patient had been treated with anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy. Emergency percutaneous intervention was then performed. LMA was reopened and stent malposition was observed. Therefore, urgent coronary bypass grafting was performed in which a high degree of competitive flow was observed through the reopened stent. LMA was ligated at the inflow of the aneurysm, resulting in an improvement of graft flow. Left main ligature has not been previously reported.
  • Coronary Artery Dissection in a Patient with Buerger's Disease CASE REPORT

    Tekin, Ali İhsan; Arslan, Ümit

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Buerger's disease, vasculitis of small and medium-sized blood vessels, is a non-atherosclerotic and progressive occlusive condition which frequently involves the distal part of the limbs. The occlusion of coronary arteries in Buerger's disease is a rare condition; however, coronary artery dissection has not been reported previously. Therefore, this paper presents a 45-year-old man who developed coronary artery dissection associated with Buerger's disease. The patient was treated successfully with coronary artery bypass grafting with the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery, and saphenous vein graft to the right coronary artery.
  • Comment on "Heart Injury with Projectile Lodged Inside the Heart" LETTER TO THE EDITOR

    Stolf, Noedir Antônio Groppo
  • Heart Team - the Reality in Some Groups LETTER TO THE EDITOR

    Rocha, Eduardo Augusto Victor
  • ERRATUM ERRATUM

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