Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Left ventricular assist devices are an established therapy for end-stage heart failure. Follow-up of these patients showed complications, such as thrombosis. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of echocardiography — in association with HeartWare HVAD online logfiles reviews and lactate dehydrogenase titration — for diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis. Methods: Seventeen episodes of thrombosis were diagnosed in 8/20 patients with HVAD. Diagnosis was made by trans-thoracic echocardiographic blood flow velocities, logfiles review of power consumption and pump flows, and titration of lactate dehydrogenase. Data were collected at baseline routine control (Group A), during thrombosis (Group B), after thrombolysis (Group C). Results: Thrombolysis was successful in all cases; one patient died of cerebral haemorrhage. Echocardiographic maximal blood flow velocity near the inflow cannula was 598±42 cm/sec (Group B), 379.41±21 cm/sec (Group C), and 378.24±28 cm/sec (Group A) (P<0.00001). In eight (47%) cases, thrombi were visualized in the left ventricle by three-dimensional modality. Logfiles recordings of blood flows were 9.52±0.9 L/min (Group B), 4.02±0.4 L/min (Group C), and 4.04±0.4 L/min (Group A) (P<00001). Power consumption was 5.01±0.7 W (Group B), 3.45±0.2 W (Group C), and 3.46±0.2 W (Group A) (P<0.00001). Lactate dehydrogenase was 756±54 IU (Group B), 234±22 IU (Group A), and 257±36 IU (Group C) (P<0.00001). Conclusions: Echocardiography of increased maximal velocity near the inflow cannula is a sign of HVAD obstruction. Logfile reviews provide a clear picture of HVAD obstruction. Combination of echocardiographic data and review of logfiles detects signs of left ventricular assist devices thrombosis leading to a successful treatment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Aortic stenosis is the most common heart valve disease in the world, and patients that present with symptoms have a high mortality rate. Aortic valve replacement has the objective of promote left ventricular remodeling, reduce symptoms, and increase overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate reverse remodeling of the left ventricle in patients with severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis who underwent surgical or percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Methods: This is a longitudinal, prospective, non-concurrent, non-randomized unicentric study with patients who underwent aortic valve replacement. Echocardiogram was performed before and after replacement procedure to evaluate several remodeling indexes. Results: Of 91 patients, 77 (84.6%) underwent surgical aortic valve replacement, and 14 (15.4%) underwent percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Mean age was 68,96±11,98 years, and most patients were male. Remodeling evaluation revealed that patients who decreased left ventricular index mass (53% vs. 38.9%; P=0,019) and those who reduced the mass/volume ratio (30.4% vs. 68.9%; P<0,001) presented with positive left ventricular remodeling. No endpoint difference was found in those with positive remodeling. Conclusion: Regarding the left ventricular remodeling in patients with severe and symptomatic aortic valve stenosis who underwent percutaneous transcatheter or surgical valve replacement, there is a positive increment in remodeling, however it remains in concentric hypertrophic shape. Implication of these findings remains uncertain and to be studied in large dedicated trials with clinical endpoints.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is commonly used as a marker of aortic stenosis (AS) disease severity and to indicate surgical intervention. However, an LVEF <50% identifies mainly advanced disease. Hence, earlier detection of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction may improve clinical decision-making. The global longitudinal strain (GLS) can identify subclinical systolic dysfunction at earlier stages of AS progression even in the presence of preserved LVEF. To this end, we evaluated the preoperative prognostic significance of the LVGLS to identify patients who will undergo a more extensive postoperative LV reverse remodeling as a surrogate marker for clinical recovery. Methods: We performed a prospective observational study based on detailed pre- and postoperative 2D transthoracic echocardiographic examinations, including strain analysis with speckle tracking. We screened 60 consecutive patients with severe AS and a preoperative LVEF ≥50% indicated for surgery; 39 patients met the study entry criteria and consented to their participation. Results: The median age was 67 (range 30-79) years; 56.4% were female. At baseline, the GLS was 61.64±7.22%. Surgery led to an improvement in the GLS; the mean difference was 3.23% [95% CI=1.96 to 4.49%] during a median follow up time of 5 (interquartile range 4-6) months. The preoperative GLS correlated with the postoperative LV mass index (LVMI) r=0.526, P=0.001 and the intraventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) r=0.462, P=0.003. Furthermore, patients with a normal GLS (≤-18.9%) at baseline experienced a better recovery of their LV morphology and systolic function during the postoperative course compared to those with an abnormal GLS (>-18.9%). The effect size, hedges g, was at least >0.75 for the LVMI, IVSd, intraventricular septal thickness in systole (IVSs), left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWd) and LVEF, suggesting a clinically significant difference between subgroups at follow-up. Conclusion: A normal preoperative left ventricular global longitudinal strain is associated with an improved left ventricular reverse remodeling and systolic function following surgery to resolve aortic stenosis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The objectives of this study are to experimentally evaluate the haemostatic effects of two organic substances, a membrane of chitosan and a collagen sponge coated with thrombin and human fibrinogen (TachoSil®), in sealing 7-0 needle stitches holes on the femoral arteries of rats as well as to evaluate local histological reactions. Methods: Twenty-four rats were included, and four holes were made in each common femoral artery. In the control group, haemostasis was achieved only by compression with gauze sponge; and in the two other groups, haemostasis was achieved with application of one of these two substances. Results: Membrane of chitosan and TachoSil® showed a power to reduce the time to achieve haemostasis compared with the control group (P=0.001), and the haemostatic effects of these two substances were comparable. There was lower blood loss in the groups where these two substances were used when compared with the control group, but no difference was found comparing the two substances. Conclusion: The use of these sealants did not promote more adhesion or local histological reactions when compared to the control group. Since chitosan is easy to find in nature, has a positive effect to promote haemostasis, and did not bring considerable local reactions, it might be used as a sealant in cardiovascular surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) remains a challenging cardiac emergency despite the availability of various management strategies. This study compared the outcomes of supracoronary ascending aortic replacement (SCAAR) with aortic valve (AV) resuspension with those of modified Bentall's operation for type A AAD and the progression of aortic regurgitation (AR), long-term dilatation of aortic root and proximal arch, and long-term mortality in SCAAR patients. Methods: Sixty patients underwent surgery for type A AAD (January 2005 to December 2015). Forty-three patients underwent SCAAR with AV resuspension and 17 underwent modified Bentall's operation. All patients were followed up. Results: Upon follow-up of SCAAR patients (n=40), there was significant reduction in aortic root size (preoperative 39.3 mm [9.4] vs. postoperative 33.1 mm [9.1]; P<0.001). Three of these patients worsened to severe AR while others had similar or lesser degree of AR. On comparison between preoperative and postoperative dimensions of all patients (n=53), there was no significant difference in distal ascending aorta size (35.7 mm [8.1] vs. 34.4 mm [8.9]; P=0.52). However, an increase in descending thoracic aorta size (28.8 mm [7.8] vs. 33.7 mm [9.9]; P<0.001) was observed. In-hospital and late mortalities for SCAAR vs. modified Bentall's procedure were 11.7% (seven patients) (7%  vs. 23.5% ) and 28% (15 patients) (15%  vs. 69% ), respectively. Conclusion: SCAAR with AV resuspension is a safe surgical option for type A AAD. Preservation of AV is associated with better long-term outcomes and reduced mortality. Modified Bentall's operation may be associated with long-term mortality.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and superiority of using the WeChat platform for midterm clinical follow-up of children who underwent transthoracic device closure for ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Methods: Ninety children with VSDs who underwent transthoracic device closure were divided into a WeChat follow-up group (WFU group) and an outpatient follow-up group (OFU group). The patients were followed up via WeChat or at an outpatient clinic three months and one year after discharge. The incidences of adverse events, associated complications, costs and time spent, loss to follow-up rate, medication adherence, and overall satisfaction were recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse events or postoperative complications between the two groups. Also, the loss to follow-up rate was similar between them. Compared with the OFU group, there were significant statistical advantages in the WFU group regarding the total time and cost spent, medication adherence, and satisfaction. Conclusion: The use of the WeChat platform in midterm clinical follow-up of children who underwent transthoracic device closure for VSDs has the advantages of reducing financial and time burdens, facilitating high medication adherence, and leading to high satisfaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Drug-eluting stents (DES) coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel as antiproliferative substances significantly reduced the incidence of clinical restenosis and had fewer side effects after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, DES coated with rapamycin or paclitaxel still cause restenosis due to abnormal tissue growth which remained a therapeutic problem, particularly in certain subgroups, possibly due to drug concentrations. This study examined the impact of different concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on cytokine, cell viability and proliferation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC)-derived foam cells. Methods: The foam cell model was established in vitro by incubating HASMC with 20 µg/mL oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) for 48 hours. Subsequently, foam cells were treated with different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL) of rapamycin or paclitaxel for 48 hours, to measure cytokine, cell viability and proliferation by ELISA and MTT, respectively. Finally, viability and proliferation were measured by MTT after the foam cells were treated with 1 µg/mL rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with cytokine antibody for 48 hours. Results: After incubation of HASMC with ox-LDL, the ratios of cholesterol ester and total cholesterol increased significantly (55.29%) (P<0.01). Lipid staining with Oil Red O showed many lipid vacuoles and red dye particles in the cells. Meanwhile, cell viability and proliferation significantly increased compared with the control. This indicated that HASMC had been transformed into foam cells (P<0.01) while rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥0.1 µg/mL can significantly decrease the foam cell proliferation (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and 1 µg/mL of rapamycin or paclitaxel appeared the most effective concentration. As for cytokines, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 ug/mL could significantly increase the level of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which was enhanced with the increase of drug concentration. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel concentrations ≥1 µg/mL could significantly reduce the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-35 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which decreased with the increase of drug concentration. In addition, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-1β, anti-IL-6, anti- TNF-α or anti-IL-35 had no significant effect on foam cell proliferation compared to the drug alone. However, rapamycin or paclitaxel combined with anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF-β can significantly enhance foam cell proliferation (P<0.01). In addition, there was no difference in the effects of the same concentrations of rapamycin and paclitaxel on foam cells. Conclusion: Although rapamycin or paclitaxel can reduce foam cell proliferation, too high or too low concentrations could decrease effectiveness. In particular, a high dose can induce foam cells to increase inflammatory cytokines secretion, reduce anti-inflammatory cytokines secretion, and thus affect the inhibiting proliferation. For rapamycin- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, this conclusion may explain the clinical observation of in-stent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. DES coated with an appropriate concentration of rapamycin or paclitaxel may, at least to some extent, contribute significantly to reducing incidence of late in-stent restenosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: This study examines early- and long-term outcomes of mitral valve repairs in a low-volume cardiac surgery centre in the Caribbean. Methods: Ninety-six consecutive patients underwent mitral valve repair from April 2009 to December 2018. Patients were divided into two groups: functional mitral regurgitation requiring simple mitral annuloplasty (FMR, n=63) or structural degenerative mitral regurgitation requiring more complex repair (DMR, n=33). Data collected prospectively were retrospectively analysed from the unit-maintained cardiac surgery database. Results: Thirty-day mortality in the whole series was 2.1%, with 3% in the FMR group and 0% in the DMR group. Early post-operative echocardiography in the FMR group demonstrated 51 patients (83.6%) without mitral regurgitation, 8 patients (13.1%) with trivial to mild regurgitation, and 2 patients (3.3%) with moderate regurgitation. However, at a mean follow-up of 98.2±50.8, only 21 patients (42.8%) were in NYHA class I, with 7 (14.2%) in class II, 16 (32.6%) in class III, and 5 (10.2%) in class IV. There were 9 cardiac-related deaths at final follow-up, with freedom from re-operation and survival of 98% and 75.6%, respectively. In the DMR group, early post-operative echocardiography demonstrated 29 patients (87.9%) without mitral regurgitation, 3 patients (9.1%) with trivial regurgitation and 1 patient (3.0%) with mild regurgitation. At a mean follow-up of 114.1±25.4 months, there was a good functional post-operative status in this group with 93.3% in NYHA class I, and 6.7% in class II. No patient required reintervention, 96.3% of patients had mild or no mitral regurgitation and survival was 90.9%. Conclusion: Despite challenges of maintaining skills in a low-volume centre, mitral valve repair can be performed safely with good early- and long-term results.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an ischemic condition that occurs as a result of partial or complete interruption of blood flow by narrowing or complete blockage of the vessels supplying the heart, which are called coronary arteries. Our objective in this study is to investigate the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-1 signaling pathway and oxidative stress in CAD patients. Methods: A total of 81 individuals aged between 40-70 years - including 45 patients (15 females and 30 males) who were admitted to the Artvin State Hospital Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic and were diagnosed with CAD and 36 healthy volunteers (15 females and 21 males) - participated in this study. Serum samples were tested for total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), RhoA, and ROCK-1 values. Results: Serum RhoA, MDA levels, and ROCK-1 activity in the CAD group were found to be statistically significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.001). Concordantly, serum SOD activity was found to be statistically significantly lower in the CAD group than in the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inhibition of the activity of RhoA/ROCK-1 pathway would be beneficial in treating cardiovascular diseases since this pathway plays an important role in the development of these diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: A potentially new marker of cardiovascular diseases — proadrenomedullin is the precursor of adrenomedullin, which is a multifunctional peptide hormone, produced in most of the tissues in response to cellular stress, ischemia, and hypoxia. Methods: Ninety-three people, aged 51-79 years, were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were severe or corrected valvular disease, acute coronary syndrome, age ≥ 80 years, glomerular filtration rate < 45 ml/min, active infectious diseases, and cancer. The subjects were observed for adverse events, including reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by ≥ 10%, first incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), and the necessity of using dopamine during hospitalization. Results: Use of pressure amines, occurrence of the first AF episode, and left ventricular dysfunction defined by a decrease in LVEF by at least 10% compared to the value before surgery were reported in the perioperative period. No death, sudden cardiac arrest with effective resuscitation, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, or heart failure were observed. Significantly higher proadrenomedullin concentration was observed in the group with reduced postoperative LVEF (1.68 vs. 0.77 nmol/l, P=0.005). The relative risk of a decrease in ejection fraction in the group of patients with proadrenomedullin concentration ≥ 0.77 nmol/l was more than twelve-fold higher (95% confidence interval 1.69-888.33; P=0.013) than in the group of patients with a concentration of proadrenomedullin < 0.77 nmol/l. Conclusion: The higher baseline concentration of proadrenomedullin has a predominantly predictive value of postoperative left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Early mobilization of patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery who are hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a practice that has a positive impact. Methods: This is a systematic review of studies published until September 2020 in the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (or MEDLINE®), Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (or PEDro), Scientific Electronic Library Online (or SciELO), and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (or LILACS) databases. Randomized clinical trials describing mobilization protocols performed early in ICU patients after cardiac surgery were included. Results: According to the eligibility criteria, only 14 of the 1,128 articles found were included in the analysis. Early mobilization protocols were initiated in the immediate postoperative period or first postoperative day. The resources and technics used were progressive mobilization, cycle ergometer, early bed activities, walking protocols, resistance exercise, and virtual reality. Intensity of the mobilization activities was determined using the Borg scale and heart rate. Conclusion: Early mobilization protocols are generalist (not individual), and low-intensity exercises are used, through progressive mobilization, with two daily physical therapy sessions, during 10 to 30 minutes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: The increase in the prevalence of aortic stenosis due to an aging population has led to an increasing number of surgical aortic valve replacements. Over the past 20 years, there has been a major shift in preference from mechanical to bioprosthetic valves. However, despite efforts, there is still no "ideal" bioprosthesis. It is crucial to understand the structure, biology, and function of native heart valves to design more intelligent, strong, durable, and physiological heart valve tissues. Methods: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify articles reporting the basic mechanisms of bioprosthetic valve dysfunction and the biology of native valve cells. Searches were run in PubMed, MEDLINE® (the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), and Google Scholar. Terms for subject heading and keywords search included “biological heart valve dysfunction”, “bioprosthesis dysfunction”, “bioprosthesis degeneration”, and “tissue heart valves”. Results: All the relevant findings are summarized in the appropriate subsections. Structural dysfunction is a logical and expected consequence of the chemical, mechanical, and immunological processes that occur during fixation, manufacture, and implantation. Conclusion: Biological prosthesis valve dysfunction is a clinically significant process. It has become a major issue considering the growing rate of bioprosthesis implantation and improved long-term patient survival. Understanding bioprosthetic aortic valve degeneration from a basic science perspective is a key point to improve technologic advances and specifications that lead to a new generation of bioprostheses.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram [EEG] and cerebral oximetry) is essential for appropriate anesthesia and neuroprotection assessment during pediatric cardiac surgery. Methods: We describe the intraoperative pediatric multimodal and multiparametric neuromonitoring pattern of the software system Neuron-Spectrum (Kandel®) that consists of continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG), spectral analysis, amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG), depth of anesthesia monitor (NINDEX), and regional cerebral and somatic oximetry (near-infrared spectroscopy-INVOS™). A physiological algorithm for management using neuromonitoring and physiological data is also described. Results: Visual data examples are presented for interpretation of the cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, neurophysiological state, anesthesia depth, possible neurologic predictions, and identification of cerebral drug effects (EEG signature). Conclusion: The neuromonitoring model can be an effective tool for anesthesia control and to provide adequate cerebral oxygenation during surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract The left ventricular aneurysm is a pathological condition defined as an akinetic or dyskinetic area of the left ventricle (LV) wall associated with reduced ejection fraction. The most common surgical technique to reconstruct a left ventricular aneurysm is endoventricular patch plasty (Dor procedure). In this case, endoventricular reconstruction of the left ventricular aneurysm using a double-layer extracellular matrix was performed.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Combined solid organ transplantation is infrequently performed in Brazil. The objective of this article is to present our initial experience with combined heart and kidney transplantation. Methods: From January 2007 to December 2019, four patients were submitted to combined heart and kidney transplantation. Their mean age was 55.7±4.4 years, and three (75%) patients were males. All patients had Chagas cardiomyopathy, two were hospitalized and inotrope dependent, and all patients were on preoperative dialysis (median of 12 months prior to transplant). Results: All patients survived and were in New York Heart Association functional class I at the latest follow-up (mean 34.7±17.5 months). Mean retarded kidney graft function was 22.9±9.7 days. One patient lost the kidney graft two years after the transplant due to Polyomavirus infection. Conclusion: Our initial experience of combined heart and kidney transplantation was favorable in selected patients with advanced heart failure and end-stage kidney disease. It requires involvement of a dedicated multispecialty team throughout all the diagnostics and treatment steps.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a very uncommon clinical finding and often requires emergency surgery due to its high risk of rupture. This educational text reports the case of a 91-year-old Italian women who was incidentally discovered to have a huge double aneurysm of the sinuses of Valsalva.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present an unusual case of a 67-year-old woman with an incidental finding of a cardiac mass on a chest computed tomography. Coronary angiotomography confirmed the diagnosis of right coronary artery aneurysm, with 5.7×5.7 cm. The patient underwent aneurysm resection and coronary bypass surgery, with subsequent histologic study suggestive of arteritis sequelae. Giant coronary artery aneurysms have a high risk of complications and aneurysm exclusion must be beneficial. This is a rare condition that can also be part of a systemic inflammatory disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Epicardial cysts are rarer benign tumors than pericardial cysts. There have been few reports on surgical management of epicardial cysts. A 17-year-old normotensive boy presented with chest pain and palpitations, which on evaluation was found to be a mediastinal mass (pericardial cyst). Surgical resection of the cyst via thoracotomy was planned. The cyst was diagnosed as an epicardial cyst intraoperatively. However, due to the epicardial origin of cyst and posterior adhesions, resection was done via midline approach. The base was formed by visceral pericardium and eroding into myocardium of left ventricle, so the resection was concluded with on-pump surgery. In case of erroneous diagnosis or undesirable finding, a safer midline approach with on-pump surgery, as an alternative to minimally invasive approach for complicated epicardial cysts (erosion into ventricle/lying in close proximity to important structures or near to coronary arteries) should be considered.