Physical activity and nutritional habits among Physical Education undergraduates: a crosssectional study in Brasília

Atividade física e hábitos nutricionais entre estudantes de Educação Física: um estudo transversal em Brasília

Luciana Zaranza Monteiro Andrea Ramirez Varela Bruno Alves Lira Daniel de Oliveira Gomes Junior Priscila de Souza Leonardo Chagas Contiero Maria de Lourdes Alves Carneiro José Maria Thiago Bonardi About the authors

Abstract

Studies carried out in Brazil have demonstrated that the lifestyle profile of university students presents worrying deficiencies in respect to physical activity and eating habits. The aim was to evaluate the dietary habit and physical activity profile of physical education students and investigate the association between nutritional status, physical activity and eating habits. A cross-sectional design with 903 Physical Education students. All the questions were extracted from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (Vigitel). The women were found to be more sedentary (p<0.01) and showed a higher prevalence of obesity. Those who did not practice physical activity had a high prevalence of having a chronic disease. The men had a more adequate diet and physical activity profile. Studies that focus on promoting healthy habits should be inserted early in the universities.

Key words
Students; Feeding behavior; Exercise; Universities

Resumo

Estudos realizados no Brasil demonstraram que o perfil de estilo de vida de universitários apresentam deficiências preocupantes em relação à atividade física e hábitos alimentares. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os hábitos alimentares e o perfil de atividade física dos estudantes de Educação Física e investigar a associação entre o estado nutricional, atividade física e hábitos alimentares. Estudo transversal com 903 estudantes de Educação Física. Todas as questões foram retiradas do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para as Doenças Crônicas (Vigitel). As mulheres eram mais sedentárias (p<0,01) e apresentaram maior prevalência de obesidade. Aqueles que não praticavam atividade física tinham alta prevalência de sofrer uma doença crônica. Os homens tinham uma dieta e um perfil de atividade física mais adequado Estudos voltados à promoção de hábitos saudáveis devem ser inseridos nas universidades.

Palavras-chave
Estudantes; Comportamento alimentar; exercício; Universidades

INTRODUCTION

One of the fundamental health problems afflicting the contemporary world are cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and obesity; these being prime examples of non-communicable disease (NCD)11 Ibrahim NK, Mahnashi M, Al-Dhahri A. Risk factors of coronary heart disease among medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. BMC Public Health 2014; 14, 411..

Acquiring appropriate dietary habits and a sufficient level of physical exercise are well recognised to be the best ways of reducing the risk of CVD11 Ibrahim NK, Mahnashi M, Al-Dhahri A. Risk factors of coronary heart disease among medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. BMC Public Health 2014; 14, 411.. The Mediterranean diet is considered as being one of the best dietary models and consists of cereal products, vegetables, fruit, small quantities of animal derived foods and low amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (especially the trans types), cholesterol, sugar, sweets and salt22 Hadjimbei E, Botsaris G, Gekas V. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab 2016;2016:2742841..

Studies carried out in Brazil have demonstrated that the lifestyle profile of university students presents worrying deficiencies in respect to physical activity and eating habits33 Pires CGS, Mussi FC, Cerqueira BB, Pitanga FJG, Silva DO. Prática de atividade física entre estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Acta Paul Enferm 2013; 26(5):436-43.. Lifestyle has a significant impact on the health of individuals. In a study carried out with university students, it was found that risk behaviors adopted by the students were unhealthy eating habits, having excess weight and consuming alcoholic beverages44 Faria YO, GandolfI L, Moura LBA. Prevalência de comportamentos de risco em adulto jovem e universitário. Acta Paul Enferm 2014; 27(6):591-5..

Having the proper dietary habits, undertaking sufficient physical activity and tackling overweight and obesity are fundamental aspects of the prophylactic ways of ensuring health, which includes the prevention of CVD55 Basu M, Sarkar K, Shahbabu B. Pattern and determinants of overweight and obesity among medical students of Kolkata. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2016; 7: 377-86..

Monitoring such subjects about a healthy lifestyle, nutrition and physical activity is vital, because in the future these students will themselves be responsible for ensuring public health care and its promotion66 AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, AlDhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W. Time for an adolescent health surveillance system in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “Jeeluna”. J Adolesc Health 2015; 57:263‑269..

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate of a dietary habits profile and physical activity of Physical Education students and investigate the association between nutritional status, physical activity and eating habits.

METHOD

This cross-sectional study was conducted with undergraduate students Physical Education of a private institution in Brasilia, Brazil.

The study population was composed of first to eighth-semester students who were in their classrooms on the day of data collection. A convenience sample consisted of 903 undergraduate students older than 18 years.

The number of participants was defined based on the guidelines on simple random sampling provided by Luiz and Magnanini77 Luiz RR, Magnanini MMF. A lógica da determinação do tamanho da amostra em investigações epidemiológicas. Cad Saúde Colet 2000; 8: 2000-9.. The number of students per course was taken into consideration for sample size calculation. The maximum tolerable error rate was 5% and the 95% confidence levels were indicated. We assumed a 50% prevalence for the outcome. Thus, the final sample consisted of 903 undergraduate Physical Education students.

Measures

Data collection was performed between October 2016 and May 2017 by trained researchers. The instrument was administered during the break between lessons, in a classroom with a seating capacity for 60 students. The completed questionnaire was placed in an envelope containing the group name and the course session (morning and evening), and handed back to the researchers.

Before distributing the instrument for self-completion and the informed consent form for signing, the researchers briefly introduced themselves and explained the aims and methods of the study to the professor in charge of that particular class. Next, the researchers introduced themselves and the study project to the students and invited them to participate. The informed consent of each participant, as well as the authorization and the required ethical approval of the Centro Universitário do Distrito Federal, Brasil, were obtained (CAAE: 59713316.0.0000.5650).

We used a self-administered questionnaire on health-related life habits. All questions were obtained from the Surveillance of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases through Telephone Interviews.88 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Vigitel Brasil: vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014. The questionnaire monitored the main risk and protective factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD) among adults older than age 18 and is applied on an annual and continuous basis in all Brazilian states and the Federal District.88 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Vigitel Brasil: vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014.

Sociodemographic characteristics

The following demographic variables were included in the analysis: gender (male or female); age; socioeconomic level (based on the questionnaire of the ABEP – Brazilian Association of Research Companies)99 Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. Critério de classificação econômica Brasil, 2016.; alcohol consumption (heavy drinking was defined as the consumption of five or more drinks in one sitting for men and four or more drinks in one sitting for women); smoking (yes/no); and health self-perception (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor).

Assessment of dietary habits

Specific questions were asked about the regularity and frequency of consumption of the following food items: fruit, greens/vegetables, and raw salad (on five or more days in a week – the recommended consumption frequency is five times a day or more, on five days a week or more); beans (on five or more days in a week); soft drinks (on five or more days in a week); full fat milk (on five or more days in a week); meat with excess fat (red meat with visible fat and/or chicken with skin)88 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Vigitel Brasil: vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014..

Assessment of nutritional status

Nutritional status was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) [weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters]. Self-reported weight and height, as well as cut-off points were used in the calculation. Participants were classified as: underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9) and obese (≥30)1010 World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000..

Physical Activity

Level of physical activity was classified as inactive (less than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity a week or less than 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity a week accumulated across work, home, transport or discretionary domains) or active (150 or more minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity a week). WHO1111 World Health Organization (WHO). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. WHO, Geneva, 2010. has recommended that adults aged 18–64 years should do at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week.

Statistical Analysis

Data are presented as absolute and relative frequencies, and displayed with their respective 95% confidence intervals. Gender differences and the association between physical activity and nutritional status and eating habits were analyzed using chi-square tests. The association between nutritional status and the remaining variables was analyzed using chi-square tests.

A multiple correspondence analysis was conducted to test the joint relationship between nutritional status, gender, physical activity and eating habits. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS Software, version 9.2, while correspondence analysis was conducted using SPSS, version 2.1. The level of significance was set at 5%.

RESULTS

A total of 903 students (who were 18 or older) out of the total of 1.208 students enrolled in the program during the academic year of 2016-2017 were included in the study. The loss of 305 students representing 25% of the population is because students did not attend to the university in the day of data collection. A second attempt to include the students that missed the first day of data collection was made during another day. If the student missed both opportunities, he/she was not included in the study.

Table 1 shows participants’ sociodemographic characteristics and health-related lifestyle behaviors. Most participants were women (57.4%), 67.6% were aged 20-29 years, 68.7% used alcohol, and 28.5% did not achieve 150 minutes or more of physical activity per week.

Table 1
Description of the sample according to students’s characteristics. Brasília, FD, Brazil, 2017.

Table 2 shows gender differences in eating habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and nutritional status (overweight and obesity). Although prevalence of alcohol use was higher among men (71.9%), there was no difference in alcohol consumption between the two groups. Women were found to be more sedentary (34.3% / p<0.01) and showed a higher prevalence of obesity (4.2%) than men.

Table 2
Prevalence of risk factors for NCDs among university, overall and according to sex. Brasília, FD, Brazil, 2017.

Table 3 shows the association between physical activity and health-related life habits. Physically active participants consumed more fruit (p<0.01), salad (p=0.01) and whereas physically inactive participants consumed more soft drinks (p<0.01). Those who did not perform physical activity had a high prevalence of having a chronic disease, such as hypertension (p=0.01), diabetes (p<0.01) and high cholesterol (p <0.01).

Table 3
Association between healthy life habits and physical activity in undergraduate students.

These findings demonstrate that physically active individuals tend to have healthier lifestyles than their physically inactive peers.

There was a positive association between nutritional status and salad consumption (p=0.04) (Table 4).

Table 4
Association between nutritional status and health-related life habits. Brasília, FD, Brazil, 2017.

Figure 1 shows the joint relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and physical activity, as assessed by multiple correspondence analyses.

Figure 1
Joint relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and physical activity of university students.

The graph indicates that obese participants did not consume full fat milk, meat with visible fat, beans and soft drinks. This is probably due to dietary reeducation. Physically active individuals (150min or more/week) tended to regularly consume vegetables/greens, fruit and salad, whereas their physically inactive counterparts did not consume these foods regularly.

DISCUSSION

Modern times have caused shifts in the lifestyle of the population, and quality of life has been compromised by poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and drug abuse, making people more vulnerable to the risks of non-communicable diseases33 Pires CGS, Mussi FC, Cerqueira BB, Pitanga FJG, Silva DO. Prática de atividade física entre estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Acta Paul Enferm 2013; 26(5):436-43..

Starting university is one of the factors that often exposes students to health-hazardous behavior and increases their likelihood of engaging in activities that were previously prohibited, such as alcohol and drug use66 AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, AlDhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W. Time for an adolescent health surveillance system in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “Jeeluna”. J Adolesc Health 2015; 57:263‑269.. Without parental supervision, most university students manage to adapt to these experiences; for those do not, however, the change in routine causes anxiety, depression and difficulties in the new academic setting66 AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, AlDhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W. Time for an adolescent health surveillance system in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “Jeeluna”. J Adolesc Health 2015; 57:263‑269..

When students start university, they move out of their parent´s homes and change their eating habits, often preferring a quicker and more practical diet of processed foods with low vitamin and nutritional content1212 Garcia D, Nabo G, Aleixo V, Correia V, Ribeiro I, Costa MC. Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a University Population. Biomed Biopharm Res 2013;9(2):147-58.. A poor diet is associated with meals away from home since these meals tend to have more calories and fat and fewer vitamins and nutrients, linked to low fruit and vegetable consumption, thus causing unhealthy eating habits and nutritional imbalance1111 World Health Organization (WHO). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. WHO, Geneva, 2010..

In this study, the students consumed a low amount of foods that protect them against NCD (salads, vegetables and fruit) and high amounts of sodas, full-fat milk and alcohol, in addition to being physically inactive, especially the women.

Poor eating habits, with low consumption of fruit, salad and greens were found, corroborating the results of a previous study conducted in Santa Catarina1313 Teo CRPA, Sá CA, Dallagnol P, Welter S. Ambiente alimentar e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes universitários: um estudo com foco no convívio familiar. Rev Bras Pesq Saúde 2014;16(1): 49-58..

Frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption among university students has been widely investigated in Brazil and internationally1414 Louzada MLC, Martins APB, Canella DS. Alimentos ultraprocessados e perfil nutricional da dieta no Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública 2015; 49: 1-11.. Recent studies show that regular intake of fruit and greens/vegetables increased between 2008 (33.0%) and 2016 (35.2%)1515 De Piero A, Bassett N, Rossi A. Trends in food consumption of university students. Nutricion Hospitalaria 2015; 31:1824-1831..

A study conducted with medical students found that 73.4% of their daily diet consisted of foods rich in fats, while 13.1% were fast foods1616 Hadjimbei E, Botsaris G, Gekas V. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab 2016; 2016: 1-8.. These findings confirm that university students have poor dietary habits and corroborate the concern about this transition phase from adolescence to adulthood, when healthy dietary habits are established1616 Hadjimbei E, Botsaris G, Gekas V. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab 2016; 2016: 1-8..

A study in Jeddah reported that 73.4% of the students were eating food rich in fat and 13.1% were eating fast food daily, while the majority of the students (76.6%) eats fruits and 38.3% eat vegetables weekly1717 Lupi S, Bagordo F, Stefanati A. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in Northern Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2015: 51:154-161..

Although this study was conducted with students of the physical education course, who are expected to represent health and wellness, 28.5% did not practice physical activity and 33.2% were overweight and presented some risk factors for NCD.

Higher percentages have been identified in studies conducted in other countries, such as a study in the United States in which the authors reported a prevalence of 36% being overweight among men and 10% among women, besides a prevalence of 5% for obesity among the male population and 2% in the female population1818 Costa LCF, Vasconcelos FAG. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2013; 15(3): 326-337.,1919 Franca C, Colares V. Estudo comparativo de condutas de saúde entre universitários no início e no final do curso. Rev Saúde Pública 2014; 42(3):420-7..

Kiadaliri et al2020 Kiadaliri AK, Jafari M, Vaez Mahdavi MRV, Faghihzadeh S, Kalantari N, AsadiLari M. The prevalence of adulthood overweight and obesity in Tehran: findings from Urban Heart2 study. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015; 14(29):178., in a population-based study conducted in Tehran, Iran, found a high prevalence of obesity and excess weight among adults.

Peltzer and Pengpid2121 Peltzer k, Pengpid S. Correlates of healthy fruit and vegetables diet in students in low, middle and high income countries. Int J Public Health 2015; 60: 79-90. assessed nutritional status and associated factors in 15,068 university students from 21 underdeveloped and developing countries and found a prevalence of overweight and obesity of 61.1% (41% in men and 25.1% in women) and 27%, respectively.

Gasparotto el at2222 Gasparotto GS, Gasparotto LPR, Salles MR, Campos W. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em universitários: comparação entre sexos, períodos de graduação e áreas de estudo. Med 2013; 46(2):154-63. found that about 55% of undergraduate students in the fields of Biological and Exact sciences and Humanities undertook less than 150 minutes of physical activity per week. This evidences that only a little less than half of the sample meets the recommended levels of physical activity. In this study, a between-sex comparison demonstrated that women (58.5%) were more sedentary than men.

Another study2323 Almeida A, Beraldo CL, Magalhães EF, Lima JPR, Guimarães ML. Tabagismo e sua relação com dados sociais uso de álcool, café e prática de esportes, em estudantes daUniversidade do Vale do Sapucaí (UNIVÁS), Pouso Alegre, MG. Rev Med Minas Gerais 2016; 21(2):168-173. found that 52.6% of a sample of 234 undergraduate medical, physical therapy, and nursing students at the University of Campina Grande were sedentary. This percentage is much higher than the one reported in the Surveillance of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases through Telephone Interviews88 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Vigitel Brasil: vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014., where only 14.2% of the same age population was physically inactive.

The incidence of risk behaviors among university students is high2424 Lachat C, Otchere S, Roberfroid D, Abdulai A, Seret FM, Milesevic J. Diet and physical activity for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic policyreview. PLoS Med 2013;10(6):e1001465.. Several studies conducted with young university students showed that women are mostly less physically active than their male counterparts2525 Sousa TF, José HPM, Barbosa AR. Condutas negativas à saúde em estudantes universitários brasileiros. Ciênc Saúde Colet 2013; 18(12): 3563-75..

This may be correlated with the fact that women report performing multiple tasks, having little time for physical activity2626 Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Samuels TA, Ozcan NK, Mantilla C, Rahamefy OH. Prevalence of overweight /obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11(7):7425-41..

Florindo et al.2727 Florindo AA, Brownson RC, Mielke GI, Gomes GA, Parra DC, Siqueira FV. Association of knowledge,preventive counseling and personal health behaviors on physical activity andconsumption of fruits or vegetables in community health workers. BMC Public Health 2015;15:344. demonstrated an association between level of physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption among university students.

Thus, the increase of regular physical activity participation during university attendance may have a positive impact on current and future health, due to the possibility of these individuals becoming more active adults2828 Dinger MK, Brittain DR, Hutchinson SR. Associations between physical activity and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. J Am Coll Health 2014;62: 67-74..

The university is a place where students learn, work, socialize, spend their leisure time, and make use of health services2929 Griffiths A, Kouvonen A, Pentti J. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women. Eur J Public Health 2014; 24: 813-8..

The present study has a number of limitations. First, the cross sectional nature of the data analyzed impedes indicating any causal relationship or direct influences of the variables included in the study. Second, the data on physical activity and diet were collected using a self-reported questionnaire, which might have caused measurement errors in the estimation of the prevalence (over-reporting in the case of healthy habits or under- reporting in the case of unhealthy habits as previously reported in literature). Finally, regarding dietary information, consumption of each of the selected foods was collected based on frequency per week without portion size.

If health care professionals are regarded as potential health promoters, then their own health behavior represents an important key function.

CONCLUSION

The diet adopted by the university students, mostly characterized by low consumption of fruits, vegetables and legumes, does not reflect good eating choices according to the dietary guidelines for the Brazilian population3030 Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Coordenação Geral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição. Guia alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável. Brasília, DF, 2006. 210 p..

Since this course is related to sport, a larger number of physically active students was expected.

Therefore, it is suggested that all undergraduate courses in the fields of health include the subject of healthy eating and enable the practice of physical activities in the curricula to help students establish healthier habits.

Universities play a critical role in promoting a healthy environment that enables the qualification of individuals who are aware of the importance of a healthy diet and regular physical activity for their wellbeing, and the effective formation of multipliers of these habits in society.

How to cite this article

  • Monteiro LZ, Varela AR, Lira BA, Gomes DJO, Souza P, Contiero LC, Carneiro MLA, Bonardi JMT. Physical activity and nutritional habits among Physical Education undergraduates: a cross-sectional study in Brasília. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2019, 21:e60066. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2019v21e60066.

COMPLIANCE WITH ETHICAL STANDARDS

  • Funding
    This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
  • Ethical approval
    Ethical approval was obtained from the local Human Research Ethics Committee – Centro Universitário do Distrito Federal (UDF) and the protocol (no. 1.794.275) was written in accordance with the standards set by the Declaration of Helsinki.

REFERENCES

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    Hadjimbei E, Botsaris G, Gekas V. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab 2016;2016:2742841.
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    Faria YO, GandolfI L, Moura LBA. Prevalência de comportamentos de risco em adulto jovem e universitário. Acta Paul Enferm 2014; 27(6):591-5.
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    Basu M, Sarkar K, Shahbabu B. Pattern and determinants of overweight and obesity among medical students of Kolkata. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2016; 7: 377-86.
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    AlBuhairan FS, Tamim H, Al Dubayee M, AlDhukair S, Al Shehri S, Tamimi W. Time for an adolescent health surveillance system in Saudi Arabia: Findings from “Jeeluna”. J Adolesc Health 2015; 57:263‑269.
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    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Vigitel Brasil: vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas por inquérito telefônico. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014.
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    Garcia D, Nabo G, Aleixo V, Correia V, Ribeiro I, Costa MC. Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a University Population. Biomed Biopharm Res 2013;9(2):147-58.
  • 13
    Teo CRPA, Sá CA, Dallagnol P, Welter S. Ambiente alimentar e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes universitários: um estudo com foco no convívio familiar. Rev Bras Pesq Saúde 2014;16(1): 49-58.
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    Louzada MLC, Martins APB, Canella DS. Alimentos ultraprocessados e perfil nutricional da dieta no Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública 2015; 49: 1-11.
  • 15
    De Piero A, Bassett N, Rossi A. Trends in food consumption of university students. Nutricion Hospitalaria 2015; 31:1824-1831.
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    Hadjimbei E, Botsaris G, Gekas V. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey. J Nutr Metab 2016; 2016: 1-8.
  • 17
    Lupi S, Bagordo F, Stefanati A. Assessment of lifestyle and eating habits among undergraduate students in Northern Italy. Ann Ist Super Sanita 2015: 51:154-161.
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    Costa LCF, Vasconcelos FAG. Prevalence and factors associated with nutritional status among female university students in Florianópolis, SC. Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum 2013; 15(3): 326-337.
  • 19
    Franca C, Colares V. Estudo comparativo de condutas de saúde entre universitários no início e no final do curso. Rev Saúde Pública 2014; 42(3):420-7.
  • 20
    Kiadaliri AK, Jafari M, Vaez Mahdavi MRV, Faghihzadeh S, Kalantari N, AsadiLari M. The prevalence of adulthood overweight and obesity in Tehran: findings from Urban Heart2 study. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2015; 14(29):178.
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    Peltzer k, Pengpid S. Correlates of healthy fruit and vegetables diet in students in low, middle and high income countries. Int J Public Health 2015; 60: 79-90.
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    Gasparotto GS, Gasparotto LPR, Salles MR, Campos W. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em universitários: comparação entre sexos, períodos de graduação e áreas de estudo. Med 2013; 46(2):154-63.
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    Almeida A, Beraldo CL, Magalhães EF, Lima JPR, Guimarães ML. Tabagismo e sua relação com dados sociais uso de álcool, café e prática de esportes, em estudantes daUniversidade do Vale do Sapucaí (UNIVÁS), Pouso Alegre, MG. Rev Med Minas Gerais 2016; 21(2):168-173.
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    Lachat C, Otchere S, Roberfroid D, Abdulai A, Seret FM, Milesevic J. Diet and physical activity for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic policyreview. PLoS Med 2013;10(6):e1001465.
  • 25
    Sousa TF, José HPM, Barbosa AR. Condutas negativas à saúde em estudantes universitários brasileiros. Ciênc Saúde Colet 2013; 18(12): 3563-75.
  • 26
    Peltzer K, Pengpid S, Samuels TA, Ozcan NK, Mantilla C, Rahamefy OH. Prevalence of overweight /obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014;11(7):7425-41.
  • 27
    Florindo AA, Brownson RC, Mielke GI, Gomes GA, Parra DC, Siqueira FV. Association of knowledge,preventive counseling and personal health behaviors on physical activity andconsumption of fruits or vegetables in community health workers. BMC Public Health 2015;15:344.
  • 28
    Dinger MK, Brittain DR, Hutchinson SR. Associations between physical activity and health-related factors in a national sample of college students. J Am Coll Health 2014;62: 67-74.
  • 29
    Griffiths A, Kouvonen A, Pentti J. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women. Eur J Public Health 2014; 24: 813-8.
  • 30
    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Coordenação Geral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição. Guia alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável. Brasília, DF, 2006. 210 p.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 May 2019
  • Date of issue
    2019

History

  • Received
    04 Nov 2018
  • Accepted
    25 Mar 2019
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