Textbooks as a pedagogical tool for the insertion of physical education and gymnastics in publicly-funded primary education in the state of Paraná, Brazil (late nineteenth century and early twentieth century)

Abstract

This article analyses author Domingos Nascimento's motivations behind his choice of Daniel Schreber's Medical Indoor Gymnastics, on which he based to write about the gymnastics that should be taught and practiced in Paraná schools. It seeks to confront the perspectives of both authors about physical education (PE) and gymnastics taught in the early twentieth century, as well as to contextualize those perspectives within the public education scenario in Paraná at the time. Such scenario featured major discussions around teaching renewal, held at the beginning of a vast school reform cycle, in which the “novelty” of regular PE in schools is just one among many changes.

KEYWORDS
History of education; History of teaching physical education/gymnastics; History of school subjects; History of textbooks

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