Percutaneous occlusion of Fontan fenestrations in the late postoperative period

Rodrigo Nieckel da Costa Roberto Omar O'Connor Reyes Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra Giselle de Montalvão e Alpoim Louzas Maria Aparecida de Almeida Silva Eliana Muscalu Rubayo Maria Virgínia Tavares Santana Paulo Chaccur Ieda Biscegli Jatene Sérgio Luiz Navarro Braga Valmir Fernandes Fontes Carlos Augusto Cardoso Pedra About the authors

BACKGROUND: Surgical fenestrations improve the early postoperative outcomes of the Fontan operation (FO) as a result of reduced systemic venous congestion and increased cardiac output, in spite of mild systemic desaturation and risk of paradoxical embolization. Generally, these fenestrations are occluded in the midterm follow-up. This study was aimed at reporting our experience with the percutaneous occlusion of Fontan fenestrations. METHODS: Longitudinal descriptive, observational, retrospective study of a non-consecutive cohort of patients. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia with the guidance of the transesophageal echocardiogram. A fenestration occlusion test was performed prior to the intervention using a Bermann angiographic catheter. Different techniques and devices were used to occlude fenestrations. RESULTS: From April 2004 to December 2010, 12 patients (mean age 103.1 ± 88.6 months; weight 29.9 ± 12.7 kg) undergoing FO (10 extracardiac conduits, 2 intra-atrial tunnels) were treated 44.1 ± 26.7 months after the operation. One patient failed the balloon occlusion test and the procedure was contraindicated. The following devices were used: HelexTM (4 patients), AmplatzerTM (2 patients), Cardia AtriaseptTM (2 patients), FigullaTM (1 patient), CeraTM (1 patient) and 1 covered Cheatham-PlatinumTM stent. After fenestration closure there was a significant increase in oxygen saturation (82.1 ± 6.5% to 95.2 ± 3.2%), without a significant increase in central venous pressures (12.4 ± 2.6 mmHg to 14.5 ± 2.3 mmHg) or reduction of cardiac output. Immediate residual shunt was observed in 5 patients, which disappeared before discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous occlusion of Fontan fenestrations can be performed safely and effectively using a variety of techniques and devices resulting in normalization of systemic saturation levels.

Fontan procedure; Stents; Prostheses and implants; Hearth defects, congenital; Angioplasty

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