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EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

EFEITO DO PREPARO DO SOLO E DE RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS SOBRE A RUGOSIDADE DA SUPERFÍCIE DE UM LATOSSOLO, SOB CHUVA SIMULADA

Elói Panachuki Ildegardis Bertol Teodorico Alves Sobrinho Paulo Tarso Sanches de Oliveira Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues About the authors

Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols). In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT), and minimum tillage (MT) with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb) and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.). Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

soil cover; soil surface microrelief; soil conservation systems


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