Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soils in the Brazilian Pantanal classified as Espodossolos and registered in the literature diverge from the central concept of pedogenesis by podzolization, especially due to the high values of pH and basic cations, although the morphology is similar to that of spodic horizons. In this sense, this study hypothesized that the neutral to alkaline conditions along the edges of the saline basins in the Lower Nhecolândia region do not inhibit the podzolization process nor the development of spodic soils. The objectives were to analyze the attributes of soils with spodic features and evaluate whether they correspond to a podzolization process. Four profiles in a transect in Lower Nhecolândia were selected, where the morphology indicated the presence of a spodic horizon. Three profiles (P1, P2 and P4) were located in a bay and one in the transition between a bay and a “cordilheira” (small elevation between lagoons) (P3). The soils were analyzed for particle size, chemistry and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), as well as organic carbon (C org), total carbon (TC) and XRF of the nodules. The complexity of features and characteristics of soil profiles in the Lower Nhecolândia region indicate multiple pedogenetic processes in this environment. The characteristics of all profiles denote a redoximorphic process: poor profile development (except for P3), mottles formed by precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides, as well as presence of Fe and Mn nodules. The organic matter content of these nodules is mostly greater than or equal to that of the surrounding material, and aluminum is relatively not higher than in the fine earth. This reinforces a rexodimorphic process in the horizons with spodic features. The occurrence of sodic and solodic characters, as well as clay accumulation in P3 also characterize the sodification process. The neutral to alkaline pH values in water, high sum of bases and low C org and Al oxide contents of the studied soils all contradict the occurrence of a podzolization process. However, Fe, Al and C org accumulation in the nodules and some B horizons indicate a spodic character. Also, the fact that SiBCS criteria classify the studied soils as Espodossolos indicates the relevance of establishing limits for chemical attributes, which would adjust the taxonomy of soils with a spodic character according to their pedogenesis.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study analyzes the scientific production about soils within cities in Brazil, the most populous country of Latin America, to highlight significant patterns and contributions and point out gaps and future challenges. A more robust literature about urban soils in Brazil started in the 90´s decade and has intensified since 2015. Papers are mostly published in Portuguese, majority performed in cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, many of them located in the Southern and Southeastern regions, and mainly focused on soil characterization, classification, mapping and/or contamination. Important methodological propositions (related to classification and land potential) and morphological, physical and chemical results are published. Urban soils formed from landfills are the most common, but soils developed from irregular zones of waste disposals are also frequent, showing the deficiency of proper waste management in developing countries. Properties such as pH, base saturation, soil organic matter and P amounts tend to be higher in soils marked by the addition of earthy materials and solid waste than in soils developed from the process of cutting, which commonly exposes the acid and deep saprolite of the tropical and subtropical zones. Although the attention on the Brazilian urban soils has grown in the last years, more studies, with a higher variety of morphological and analytical data, still have to be performed to obtain more representative results. Systematization of concepts, terminologies, and methodologies is also necessary, allowing a more complete understanding of the soils. In addition, the incorporation of a classification key of Anthropogenic soils, including urban soils, in the Brazilian official classification system seems urgent. Finally, it is relevant to foment international publications about the Brazilian urban soils, allowing a wider comparison between the produced data and the results obtained worldwide.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brazilian palm swamps (veredas) are fundamentals in the hydrological balance of watercourses in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). The “sponge effect” of their soils is the main factor controlling local hydrology, storing rainwater, and functioning as headwaters. The restricted knowledge of these tropical ecosystems has led to increased losses, poor preservation, and reduction in their ecosystem services. Veredas have become refuges surrounded by croplands, often drained and inappropriately managed. This study shows the impacts of anthropization on soil processes and properties of a vereda in an agricultural area. Two soil profiles were selected and characterized as preserved and anthropized, respectively upstream and downstream of the studied vereda. Morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological properties were analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was applied to synthesize the data and provide evidence of the main properties and underlying processes that most responded to the degradation action. The arrangement of this analysis shows three main distinguish drivers: one joining the properties related to the humification of organic matter and relative accumulation of mineral matter versus accumulation of organic matter; the second with properties related to soil chemical reactivity; and the third reflecting the mineralization of organic matter. Our results suggest that the anthropic action has strongly caused the organic carbon reduction (~22 %). After 20 years, the anthropized soil presents not only a great decline in carbon stock (~14 kg m-2), but also strong impacts on several other ecologic functions, such as water holding capacity. Veredas are complex and fragile environments, and they should be fully protected to maintain their ecosystem services.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS), system fertilization exploits the nutrient cycling imposed by animal grazing and increases the system efficiency. An increasingly popular approach to fertilization in southern Brazil is anticipating P and K requirements for soybeans into the pasture phase. This can increase the use efficiency of these nutrients in ICLS based on meat production in winter and soybean in summer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fertilization strategy, grazing and soil acidity correction on herbage and animal production, soybean yield, P and K contents in soil and plant tissue, and P and K use and economic efficiency. In 2017, a field experiment was established on an Acrisol ( Argissolo Vermelho distrófico ) double-cropped with soybean and Italian ryegrass under no-tillage. Herbage and animal production, soybean yield, available P and K contents, and P and K plant tissue status were determined. Available P and K in the soil were unaffected by grazing and fertilization strategy. Conversely, system fertilization and liming increased the P and K contents of aboveground Italian ryegrass biomass. Additionally, the available K budget in the soil was 2.7 times smaller in the integrated system with system fertilization than in the specialized system with conventional fertilization, possibly due to K fixation in non-exchangeable forms. By contrast, the available P budget in the soil was not affected by treatments and was positive with all systems. The use of ICLS increased economic return, and P and K use efficiency for protein production. System fertilization did not affect soybean yield, but it increased the total herbage production of Italian ryegrass. Despite this, sheep live weight did not increase. Using ICLS in combination with system fertilization provides an effective nutrient management strategy with a higher potential for sustainable food production when compared with conventional fertilization.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil evolves in landscapes in a natural process in which soil properties are gradually transformed. However, the transformation of argic to ferralic horizons in basic rock-derived soils under tropical conditions is poorly understood. Depending on the position of the soil profiles in landscape, evidence of pedogenetic transformation between different horizons might indicate the formation and destruction of aggregates with shiny faces. This study aimed to determine pedogenetic changes in basic rock-derived profiles in a toposequence, because soils derived from mafic rocks are not abundant in the study region (Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). Trenches were dug at the summit (P1), upper (P2), middle (P3), and lower (P4) thirds along the toposequence. The morphological, physical, chemical, mineralogical, and micromorphological properties of the profiles were characterized, and a weathering index was calculated from X-ray fluorescence element values. All profiles had chemical and physical properties indicating an advanced degree of weathering resulting from the parent material and tropical climate conditions. In P1 and P4 that were classified as Nitossolos, the most evident pedogenetic processes were ferralitization and nitidization, due to the advanced degree of weathering, accumulation of oxyhydroxides and kaolinite in the horizons, and formation of textural pedofeatures by mechanical-hydric stress and evidence of the illuviation process. Profiles P2 and P3 revealed a ferralitization process and were classified as Latossolos. Absence of shiny macromorphological ped faces in some Bw horizons, and their micromorphological coexistence in Bt and Bw horizons within the same profile were associated with the transformation of the blocky into a granular microstructure, suggesting argic-ferralic horizon transformation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soils classified as Alisols are very frequent in the sedimentary agricultural areas of southern Brazil. The presence of red mottles with morphology similar to plinthite and saprolite residue is very common in these soils, and its identification can be considered a difficult task, both in the field and in the laboratory. The incorrect identification of these redoximorphic features can affect soils’ taxonomic and technical classification. We aimed to compare morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical data to identify reddish mottles, possibly plinthites or saprolite residues, that occur in soils with high textural contrast in southern Brazil. Four soil profiles classified as Argissolos Bruno-Acinzentados (Alisols) were sampled. Matrix and mottles samples from the horizon Bt, CB, C and Cr were separated and subjected to morphological, granulometric, total sand fractionation, chemical extractions of iron and potassium and mineralogical features. Peds from each horizon were submitted to the submersion test in water for 2 and 8 hours and to 5 wetting and drying cycles. The mineralogy indicated the low degree of alteration of the samples, with abundant presence of 2:1 minerals and feldspars, even in the clay fraction. The saprolite resisted in the water submersion tests, making it difficult to interpret the results for the correct identification between plinthites and saprolite fragments. The morphological field data associated with the results of the tests of submersion in water, the cycle of wetting and drying, the dissolution of K and mineralogy, indicate the saprolithic nature of the mottles in all horizons and profiles. The submersion test in water for 2 and 8 hours was not efficient for the plinthite/saprolite identification. The cycle of wetting and drying tests allowed the identification of saprolite.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Technological advances have demonstrated the need for intellectual property rights, and patent granting is one of its most widespread forms. This includes the protection of inoculant formulations for agriculture, in which Brazil is a leader. This study aimed to analyze the number of patents for formulations of biological inoculants for agriculture in Brazil and the microorganisms used. An advanced search was performed in the National Institute of Industrial Property database, using the title and abstract fields. The indexers included inoculant, bioinoculant, endophyte, endophytic, fungus, bacteria, Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Gluconacetobacter. The inoculant formulation patents were grouped by the number of files per decade, number of patents per holder(s), characterization of granted patents, international patent classification, and main genera of fungi and bacteria used in inoculant formulations per decade. The number of patents filed for inoculant formulations in the last four decades increased from 7 in the first decade (1981–1990) to 37 from 2011–2020. In the first decades of study, the use of Rhizobium in inoculants stood out, followed by other genera of fungi and bacteria. However, most inoculant patent applications are still denied, considering data from 1981 to 2020. This may be partially due to the low reproducibility of inoculant results, as microorganism activity is highly affected by climate, soil, plant cultivars and crop management. The percentage of acceptance equal to or higher than 50 % in the number of applied patents for using endophytic microorganisms may be because this group of microorganisms acts mainly inside plants and is thus more protected from the influence of climate and some soil and management factors. The growing number of patent applications in the last 40 years demonstrates the business and technological development interest in inoculants in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The nature of the soil is shaped by the presence of roots and the soil microbiota. Bacteria, archaea and fungi profoundly alter plant growth and, in turn, depend on root exudation of carbon-rich and energy-yielding compounds. The microbial communities act as facilitators of plant processes by secreting plant growth regulators, solubilizing minerals, providing N for plant growth, altering plant immune responses and competing with plant pathogens. Characterizing and engineering the processes driven by the multiple microbial taxa that make up a “plant growth-promoting soil” represents an ecologically friendly solution that may lead to unprecedented increases in agronomic efficiency. This review outlines the characteristics of soil-plant-microbiota interactions that would lead to enhanced plant growth and the importance of characterizing the soil microbial communities with metabarcoding and shotgun metagenomics allied to machine learning analytics. Although much is still needed to be understood about soil microbial ecology, it is possible to choose the best soil management practices to take advantage of beneficial microbial activity with our current knowledge.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Conventional tillage and intensive machinery traffic are the major causes of physical soil degradation in sugarcane fields. This study evaluates the impact of adopting conservation management practices during sugarcane planting on soil physical properties and stalk yield of sugarcane in the municipality of Ibitinga, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The experimental design (split-block) included four cover crops and three soil tillage systems, with three repetitions. For comparison purposes, a control treatment was also included (without cover crop and under conventional tillage). Sampling for soil physical analysis was performed in three layers that coincide with soil horizons A (0.00-0.20 m), AB (0.20-0.30 m), and Bt (0.30-0.70 m), during cane-plant and first sugarcane ratoon cycles. The results showed that cultivation of sunn hemp associated with deep subsoiling induced high stalk yield of sugarcane in both production cycles, cane plant (116 Mg ha -1 ) and first ratoon (114 Mg ha -1 ), with a net gain of 11 and 9 Mg ha -1 compared with the control treatment, respectively. However, these results were not sufficient to induce significant differences in sugarcane yield. Nonetheless, the use of sunn hemp and millet, associated with subsoiling (at 0.40 or 0.70 m depth) during sugarcane planting, are promising management strategies to sustain better soil’s physical quality when compared to traditional management, conventional soil tillage without cover crops and/or cash crop, as peanuts, that increase the risks of soil compaction and physical degradation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Commercial eucalyptus forestry has significantly increased in the last decades to supply the growing demand for forest goods (pulp, paper, sawmill, by-product industries, and biomass for bioenergy and biofuels). Among factors most influencing forest productivity, the soil physical environment is very important and can be harmful or beneficial to trees. In the effort to increase environmental and economic sustainability of commercial plantations, in this literature review, we summarize relationships between soil type and properties, forest rotation, and forest growth and productivity. Mechanized soil tillage must consider soil type, particularly land slope, soil drainage and depth, along with forest rotation (first or higher-order). Soil surveys, including soil physical properties (e.g., compaction, granulometry including gravel) and morphological attributes (e.g., horizons, solum depth, subsurface drainage impedance), are thus essential for foresters to make knowledgeable decisions on soil tillage, provided tillage is the single most costly practice in eucalyptus forestry. Subsoiling is the most common soil tillage for eucalyptus, but it is best for deep, drained soils. Existing scientific publications show, for clayey cohesive or compacted soils, tillage depth might be of 0.70 m (deep subsoiling) to ameliorate compacted soil of low microporosity and restriction to root growth, but 0.50 m (shallow) subsoiling plus ridding produce similar results. The latter, nonetheless, has a higher operational cost. Downslope subsoiling on sloppy lands increases the risk for soil erosion, which may be reduced by interrupting ripping, mechanized hole- or pit-drilling with low operational cost. Chiseling performed for fertilizer application (minimum 0.25 m deep) might be the only tillage required for non-compacted sandy soils. Mechanical or manual pitting could also be an option for second or higher rotations, but results show crop early-growth is restricted, possibly because of root confinement. For second or higher rotations, stumps require cutting to allow cross-slope tractor traffic and tillage. Subsoiling plus ridging or bedding is required in low-drainage or shallow soils to increase the soil volume to be explored by roots. The ridges can be built by grade bedding or terracing plows. In areas with waterlogging, drainage and ridging without subsoiling are necessary. Research opportunities include further studies for slopy lands and low-drainage or compacted soils, tillage affecting soil erosion and eucalyptus productivity, equipment for special tillage, and mapping compaction risk and special tillage needs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The often widespread and serious Root-Knot Nematode (RKN) disease is an important soil-borne disease affecting tobacco production. This study aimed to understand micro-ecological changes caused by RKN disease and interactions between disease and rhizosphere soil fungal communities. The 18S rRNA gene sequencing was used to study changes in rhizosphere fungal community of tobacco plants having RKN disease. In June 2018, a paired comparison was performed between rhizosphere fungal community structures of healthy tobacco plants and those with RKN disease in Yuxi and Jiuxiang, Yunnan Province, China. Compared with uninfested soil, the OTU abundance, Shannon, ACE and Chao1 indexes of infested soil in the two tobacco areas showed a decreasing trend. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed fungal communities of infested soil and uninfested soil in the two tobacco areas were clustered in different areas, and the community composition was significantly different. Moreover, the dominant fungi community and relative abundance are significantly different at phylum, genus and species levels. More beneficial fungi, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus, were found in soil samples of healthy plants, whereas more pathogenic fungi, such as Phoma and Alternaria, were found in soil samples of diseased plants. In conclusion, changes in fungal community structure and decreases in species diversity and richness were important characteristics of rhizosphere soils from diseased tobacco plants. Disequilibrium in the tobacco rhizosphere micro-ecosystem may allow the development of RKN disease and other more complex diseases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil CO2 emissions are formed from biotic and abiotic processes related to organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC), respectively. Calcareous soil has a high amount of SIC and occurs mainly in arid areas, and little is known about CO2 emissions from aggregates of this soil. This study aims to evaluate the emission of CO2 of aggregates from calcareous soil in the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico. Soil samples were taken from the layers of 0.00-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m, and soil physical and chemical properties were determined. Aggregates distribution was obtained using the dry-sieving method. Macro (0.25–0.149 mm), meso (0.149–0.074 mm) and microaggregates (<0.074 mm) were selected for incubation in a dynamic closed system for 30 days under two moisture contents (15 and 30 %, dry weight basis). The CO2 emissions were quantified using a non-dispersive infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). From total carbon measured, 97 % were found to be SIC. Soil texture is a sandy clay loam with a field capacity and a permanent wilting point of 27 and 17 %, respectively. From whole soil aggregates, 60 % were distributed in fractions lower than 0.25 mm diameter, which are highly erodible by the wind. Soil moisture content had a significant effect on the emission of CO2. The highest accumulated CO2 emission was registered in the superficial layer (0.00-0.15 m) within 0.25 mm aggregates (29.4 g m-2 h-1), which turned out higher than reported for similar areas. The CO2 emissions were attributed to the dissolution - reprecipitation process of high concentrations of SIC present in soil, involving a considerable contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT An important aspect in the study and understanding of the physical phenomena involved in water movement in the soil-plant system is the need to carry out the hydrodynamic characterization (HC) of non-saturated field soils. Studies of this type have been widely developed in soils of temperate climates, but they are infrequent in the tropics, hence there is a need for further research in tropical Vertisols under field conditions. Hydrodynamic characterization consists of finding the functional relationship between soil hydraulic conductivity (K), matric head (h) and soil moisture content (θ), widely known as K(θ) and h(θ) relationships, being the main objective of this study. The instantaneous profile method (IPM) was applied, in which splines were used for the HC of a bare, tropical agricultural field soil classified as a Vertisol. Field measurements of h and θ were made at five different soil depths (0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.90 m) and values of K at the same depths were estimated with the IPM, which allowed for the estimation of pairs of values of the K(θ) relationships in the soil profile. Unlike in other studies with the same objective, the use of splines was proposed to represent the spatial variation of the H(z) and θ(z) functions in the IPM. Subsequently, the van Genuchten equation was adjusted to the specific values determined for the h(θ) relations (r2 value ranged from 0.65 to 0.87), and the Ks values and the point data of K and θ were used to estimate the accuracy of the equation proposed by Mualem–van Genuchten (M-vG): in this case negative values for the exponent l of the M-vG function were determined for the five soil depths under study, ranging from –7.04 (0.45 m deep), to -13.26 (0.90 m deep). In addition, pedotransfer functions for tropical soils proposed in the literature, based on different soil physical properties, were used to estimate the h(θ) and K(θ) relationships and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Best square root of the mean squared error (SRMSEθ) observed was 0.02853 cm3 cm-3 at 0.15 m depth and 0.02262 cm3 cm-3 at 0.9 m depth for h(θ) relations, and in all cases, the SRMSEk values are less than 0.0018 m day-1 for K(θ) relationships. The results reveal the utility of splines in the IPM for characterizing the soil profile K(θ) relationships in field studies, as well as the need for more research to the generation of pedotransfer functions in tropical Vertisols.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Use of soil in forensic science is related to its several chemical, physical, and biological properties associated with its capacity to adhere to different materials and surfaces. Forensic soil experts and police investigators have been using soil samples as an aid in criminal investigations. Soils can act as fingerprints because they present contrasting physical, chemical, biological, and mineralogical properties. However, depending on the analytical tools utilized to characterize the soil, differentiating the samples when they have similar properties might be impossible. Thus, soil utilization as a fingerprint material requires increasing the number of variables measured as well as the accuracy and precision of the measurements. This study presents the feasibility of methods based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and radiation interaction parameters to discriminate soils for forensic investigations. Analyses of soil particle size, elemental composition (XRF), mass attenuation coefficient (μ), atomic (σa) and electronic (σe) cross-sections, effective atomic number (Zeff), and electron density (Nel) were carried out to evaluate the potential of nuclear parameters to differentiate soils. Ten different soil types collected at 0.00-0.05 m layer were studied. The radiation interaction parameters were obtained through the XCOM computer code, while the experimental measurements were carried out by the traditional gamma-ray attenuation method utilizing the radioactive sources of 241Am and 137Cs. The results showed that the soils presented broad differences in terms of clay, silt, and sand contents as well as in the major oxides. These differences influenced the radiation attenuation properties as verified through the multivariate analysis. For the lowest photon energy studied (10 and 30 keV), σe was the most interesting parameter to discriminate the soils. For energies above 59.5 keV, Zeff and Nel were the most important parameters. Good agreement was found between the calculated and measured parameters. The findings of this study indicate that radiation interaction parameters have great potential for crime scene investigation providing new parameters for better discrimination of soils. The main advantage of the method presented here is that it is fast, easy to implement, does not require powerful computers, and the XCOM code can be run online at the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) website.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Ultramafic soils are originated from ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite and are highly enriched in metals (e.g., Ni, Cr, and Co) and depleted in plant nutrients (e.g., P, K, and Ca). Such characteristics make these soils unfavorable for agriculture and have raised environmental concerns on metal release to the environment. From another perspective, ultramafic soils host a diverse flora with higher endemism than surrounding non-ultramafic areas, which has provided scientists with an opportunity to investigate the evolutionary genetics of plant adaptation. Some plant species adapted to these stressful edaphic conditions developing the ability to accumulate uncommonly high metal concentrations in the harvestable biomass. Such species, called metal hyperaccumulators, can extract metals from ultramafic soils, especially Ni, in a circular economy approach in which the metal-rich biomass is incinerated to generate valuable bio-ores. Phytomining promises to turn ultramafic soils and low-grade ore bodies into economically viable alternatives to metal extraction. Here, we review the current knowledge on ultramafic soils and the most promising hyperaccumulators used to exploit them in temperate and tropical climates. In the tropics, including Brazil, the search for new hyperaccumulator candidates for phytomining and the knowledge to crop these species is incipient and holds untapped opportunities. Despite the feasibility of the phytomining chain has been proven, large-scale demonstrations of profitability are needed to establish the technology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Phosphorus availability in soils is low due to its strong retention by inner-sphere complexation on minerals in the clay fraction with pH-dependent charges, such as goethite. On the other hand, sulfur has greater availability because it is retained mainly by electrostatic attraction. We evaluated the intensities of the inner-sphere complexation of orthophosphate and sulfate (H2PO4-/HPO42- and SO42- - generically treated as PO4 and SO4) under different experimental conditions (pH, goethite purity, and contact times) on synthetic goethite samples to establish the mechanisms and models involved in those bonds. Inner-sphere PO4 and SO4 were extracted using both HNO3 1 mol L-1 and USEPA 3051A methods. Inner-sphere complexation of PO4 and SO4 was highest at pH 5 in relation to pH 9. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra showed inner-sphere complexation bands of PO4 on goethite in the protonated binuclear bidentate (pH 5) and deprotonated binuclear bidentate (pH 9) forms. Inner-sphere complexation of PO4 was much more expressive than that of SO4. Phosphorus and sulfur oxyanions displace the diprotonated ferrol ligand (-OH2+0.5 in -FeOH2+0.5), while the -OH-0.5 in the -Fe-OH-0.5 group are only displaced by PO4. The -O-1.5 ligand in Fe-O-1.5 group is not displaced by PO4 or SO4. The high surface negative charge density of PO4 defined its higher activation energy for exchanging -OH2+0.5 and -OH-0.5 on the goethite surface in relation to SO4. The proposed model can be used to reduce inner sphere phosphate adsorption in soils and improve P fertilization efficiency for farming.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Biolog Eco technology was used to investigate the effects of different chemical herbicide application methods, such as pre-emergence after sowing and post-emergence (stem and leaf spraying), on the characteristics of carbon source utilization by microbial communities in alfalfa rhizosphere soil. The averages of well color development (AWCD) and microbial metabolism diversity indices of post-emergence herbicide spraying on stems and leaves were significantly lower than those of pre-emergence herbicide and without herbicide treatments. Furthermore, pre-emergence after sowing herbicide treatment did not affect soil microorganisms. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the microbial community diversities of the rhizosphere soils differed significantly between herbicide treatments. Carbohydrate was the carbon source type that was most sensitive to herbicide treatment changes, followed by amino acids and carboxylic acids. The herbicide application method significantly reduced the capacities of the microbial community to utilize the carbon sources, as mainly manifested in the ability to use polymers. As shown by a comprehensive analysis on the growth of alfalfa and the physiological and biochemical indices of its root system, the application of herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl reduced the alfalfa yield, and the two different application methods tested showed no significant difference. Herbicide application and different application methods showed significant impacts on alfalfa root activity and membrane permeability, suggesting that the application of herbicide damaged the membrane permeability and the activity of the alfalfa root system. Impacts of herbicide residues in the soil after stem and leaf post-emergence treatment on alfalfa growth and soil microorganisms should not be ignored.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The measurement method (MM) and the land-use (LU) are two soil structure-related attributes that are available in infiltration experiments. This study aims to hypothesize that measurement technique and land-use might be good predictors of the performance of infiltration parameter values and models. The Soil Water Infiltration Global (SWIG), which includes about 5000 experiments worldwide and assembled in the Institute of Agrosphere in Jülich, Germany, was used. Except for the known properties such as texture, measurement method, and land-use, changes were observed in organic carbon content, saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, pH, initial water content, and the electrical conductivity of saturated paste. Horton and Mezencev models outperformed from Green and Amp and Two-term Philip models, hence it has been seen that Horton and Mezencev models could be preferred according to the measurement method. To determine the most influential predictors of these two models’ parameters, the machine learning method “regression trees” was applied. In 80 % of cases for both models, the textural class, the MM (40 % of cases), and the LU were found as the most influential predictors. The accuracy of parameter estimates increased when a subset of measurements was used with the same method to estimate infiltration parameters. Textural class, LU, bulk density, and K sat were determined as the most influential predictors for the parameters of the Horton. However, textural class, LU, and organic carbon content became most important in the case of the Mezencev model. Overall, estimates of the infiltration equation parameters can be more accurate if they have been developed for the same MM as in the task at hand. The MM and the LU provide useful surrogate information about the effect of soil structure on infiltration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sugarcane culture in Brazil has expanded the planting area to degraded pastures and sandy soils. Sugarcane field reform is carried out after five or more harvest cycles, with conventional tillage, followed by planting sugarcane, or growing soybeans or a cover crop. This study aimed to analyze the effects of these different managements in the conventional sugarcane reform on the physical properties and organic carbon in an Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico (sandy Ultisol), located at latitude 21° 13’ 40” south, longitude 50° 52’ 06” west, and altitude of 449 m. In each management study, areas of 10 ha were delimited in which 36 months after the renovation period, during the 3rd crop cycle, soil samples were collected in eight trenches measuring 1.0 × 1.0 × 0.5 m, 30 m apart between the crop rows and 0.25 m from the planting furrow, to analyze: the stability index of aggregates in the layers of 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m and density and porosity (total, macro, and microporosity) of the soil in addition to organic carbon, in the layers of 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.40 m. The results allowed us to conclude that the tillage+sugarcane and tillage+soy managements negatively affected the physical properties compared to the tillage+cover crop management, whose use of Crotalaria spectabilis provided higher Pt, higher Ma, and Mi, higher AS. Furthermore, the increase in carbon contents was low, with small variations between treatments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil fauna is an essential component of the soil ecosystem for maintaining nutrient cycling and biological soil fertility. This study assessed the soil biodiversity (macrofauna, mesofauna, and microfauna) to define strategies for the sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils. The study was carried out in 200 agricultural production units in the Department of Sucre, in northern Colombia. Physicochemical properties (organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH) were determined for each soil sample. The Berlesse-Tullgren method was used to determine the composition of macrofauna and mesofauna, while the sown surface plate counting method was applied for microfauna. Community biodiversity was quantified with diversity indices, and Pearson correlation was carried out to determine the relationships between soil fauna and soil quality indicators. For the macrofauna, 1330 individuals were found, distributed in 22 orders and 65 families; the families Tenebrionidae, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Scarabaeidae and Julide presented the highest abundance and distribution. Mesofauna presented 1,171 individuals, distributed in the classes Arachnida with seven families and Collembola with four families; the Scheloribatidae, Isotomidae and Galumnidae families presented the highest abundance and distribution. The indices of richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Simpson dominance indicated that biodiversity was higher for macrofauna. Pearson’s correlation indicated significant correlations between soil mesofauna and soil organic matter (R2 = 0.87; p≤0.05) and phosphorous (R2 = 0.70; p≤0.05). The relationships between fauna and soil chemical properties indicate that soil biological diversity is sensitive to changes in the soil environment. This study revealed the importance of investigating the three components of soil fauna (macrofauna, mesofauna, and microfauna), since all three contribute to soil enrichment to grow nourished crops that allow plants to survive under climate change. Finally, this study may serve as a baseline to define strategies for sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT New management practices applied to coffee crops may influence the soil’s capacity to tolerate vertical stresses. This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of two coffee crop management systems on the soil load-bearing capacity and critical soil water content to agricultural machinery traffic. This study was performed in the experimental area of the Federal Institute of the Southeast of Minas Gerais - Rio Pomba college, in Rio Pomba city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico) (LVA7) with clayed texture predominating in the experimental unit. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from layers of 0.00-0.03, 0.12-0.15 and 0.27-0.30 m, randomly, in the center of the interrows of coffee plants (Coffea arabica L.) in monoculture plots under traditional management (in full sun) and in the plots of coffee plants intercropped with gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) (shaded) to estimate pre-consolidation pressures, through uniaxial compression tests and adjustment of soil load-bearing capacity models. The average and maximum normal stresses applied to the soil and the vertical stress distribution of three agricultural tractors used in mechanized farming operations were estimated, and the critical soil water content to the traffic of these tractors was determined for both treatments, aiding in the decision-making process regarding additional compaction risks in the area. Cultivation of gliricidia in consortium with coffee did not influence the soil load-bearing capacity. The soil layer of 0.12-0.15 m was the most vulnerable to vertical stresses in both treatments. Agricultural tractors Agrale 4100, MF 265 and MF 275 presented values of vertical stresses of 335.76, 200.24 and 245.55 kPa, respectively, and the soil water content for the traffic of agricultural machines without plastic deformation was higher in the coffee plants in full sun for all studied depths.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Heavy clayey Ferralsols are known for their high capacity to form water-stable macroaggregates. However, little is known about how different size classes of macroaggregates exchange mass with increasing organic matter content. This study aimed to characterize and detail aggregation dynamics with increasing organic matter content in these soils. Profiles of three heavy clayey Ferralsols were sampled to isolate the role of organic matter on the stability of aggregates. In this sampling scenario, a conceptual model was established to calculate the aggregation rate of different size classes of water-stable aggregates. This approach allowed the establishment of a critical value for classifying microaggregates in the studied soils (≤0.50 mm) based on their behavior as “building blocks” for macroaggregates when organic matter content is increased. In surface soil layers, where organic matter is higher, most dynamics are expected to happen between macroaggregates classes because free microaggregates are scarce. Consequently, it is important to subdivide macroaggregates into different size classes when evaluating their stability. Quantifying macroaggregates as a single class (e.g., >0.25 or >0.50 mm) was insufficient in representing the macroaggregation dynamics in heavy clayey Ferralsols.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Understanding soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in production systems on tropical soils is necessary to guide strategies to increase SOM formation. This study aimed to evaluate soil carbon (C) dynamics by combining applications of different plant residues used on tropical soils. An incubation study was carried out with and without adding millet (Pennisetum americanum) residues combined with six crop residues (legumes and non-legumes); and one additional treatment with only millet residue. Higher C-CO2 fluxes recorded in jack bean, sunflower and velvet bean residues were correlated with high soluble compound contents (49.5, 49.6 and 32.1 %, respectively). Adding millet residues resulted in positive PE for all residue combinations. Soils without millet, except jack bean, had a negative PE. Residues application promoted four times increase in C-POM content (from 1.04 to 4.2 g kg-1 soil). The C-MAOM content had 2.4 times increase, being more expressive due to its high initial content (from 15.3 to 37.3 g kg-1 soil). The comparison between the final C contents in the SOM fractions showed a significant increase of 8.8 times for MAOM in relation to POM, demonstrating the larger dimension of this C reservoir in the soil. Both combinations of legumes + non-legumes and non-legume + non-legume contributed significantly to the conversion of C to MAOM. The results give insight into possible management strategies for significant C increments in the more stable SOM fractions, depending on the residue type (quality) and residue combination.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT To reveal the differences between land-use patterns and the changes in soil properties, the changes in soil bacterial microbial communities and functions driven by land-use patterns were studied by 16SrRNA Gene Fragments and its high-throughput sequencing, relying on the wetland, farmland and forestland soils in the Hongxing National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. The study area was slightly acidic soil, and the water content, soil organic carbon content, total soil nitrogen and phosphorus contents of wetland soil were higher than farmland and forestland. The suitable C/N of wetland and farmland soil could promote the decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms. The OTUs sequence, Shannon diversity index, ACE index and Chao1 index were significantly higher in wetland than in farmland and forestland. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria in the tested soil samples. The abundance of Proteobacteria in wetland soil samples was significantly higher than in farmland and forestland. The abundance of Acidobacteria in farmland soil samples was significantly higher than in wetland and forestland. According to FAPROTAX algorithm and BugBase phenotype analysis, land-uses can change the abundance of soil functional microorganisms. The dominant functional genes are mainly Chemoheterotrophy and Aerobic chemoheterotrophy bacteria. Nitrification and Aerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria involved in nitrogen cycle in farmland soil are significantly different from wetland and forestland. Land-use mode leads to significant differences between Mobile elements and Gram negative bacteria. It is mainly related to the changes in soil physical and chemical properties such as soil pH, bulk density, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in regulating the global water cycle, especially in arid areas, and is one of the main indicators of ecological environmental health. Although traditional methods can accurately measure SM at a single sample site, they are limited in large-scale and dynamic SM monitoring. Therefore, we used the Landsat images as the data source and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) to build the adjusted SAVI (aSAVI) index by modifying the soil adjustment parameter L and introducing the short-wave infrared band. According to the theory of temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) and feature space, we introduced a model, combined the measured SM data (Minqin Basin, China) through a comparative analysis of four vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, aSAVI) determine the optimal model. Taking the Minqin Basin as the study area, the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of SM in three sub-regions (the entire study area, irrigated region, and periphery of the irrigated regions) were quantitatively analyzed and compared in four different periods: pre-Comprehensive Treatment Program of the Shiyang River Basin (pre-CTSRB) (2000–2005), CTSRB I (2006–2010), CTSRB II (2011–2016), and CTSRB-end (2017–2021) to evaluate the ecological restoration effects of treatment programs from the SM perspective. The results showed that: 1) SM values derived from TVDI inversion and the aSAVI were more accurate, and the model sensitivity decreased with soil depth; 2) the mean value of SM fluctuated across the four periods but decreased slightly over the entire time series. The spatial variations of the SM were characterized by a “descending then ascending” trend. Soil moisture increased in 21.35 % of areas at 0.00-0.10 m in the past 22 years, and 59.66 % at 0.10-0.20 m. There was a negative correlation between the mean variation trend of SM and the percentage of area where SM fell in different periods; 3) the treatment program positively affected the ecological restoration of the Minqin Basin from the SM perspective. The area where SM increased was larger than that of decreasing SM, especially in 0.10-0.20 m soil layer. The increase can promote growth and confer resistance to desertification.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Delay of sowing date in subtropical environments with long growing seasons can modify the yield response of corn hybrids to nitrogen (N) fertilization. This study evaluated the effects of the sowing time, and N top-dress rate on corn hybrids’ yield and N-use efficiency with different cycles. Two field experiments were carried out in subtropical environment of southern Brazil. The following factors were investigated: corn hybrids (AG9025, super early cycle and P30F53, early cycle), sowing times (early and late spring), and N top-dress rates (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha-1). The delay of sowing date from early to late spring reduced 10 % the number of kernels per ear, decreasing grain yield. Corn presented lower yield potential in late sowings (-24 %), associated with a smaller response of grain yield to the N rate increase. The maximum corn yield was achieved at a rate of 360 kg ha-1 of N in early spring sowing and 300 kg ha-1 in late spring. The hybrid with early cycle presented greater yield stability and higher N use efficiency than the super early cycle hybrid in the late sowing. The N agronomic efficiency use is 47 % lower in late spring sowing than in early spring sowing. Regardless of the sowing date, the N use efficiency decreased 0.08 for each kg ha-1 N rate increase. This study suggests a reduction of at least 20 % in the N top-dress rate when the sowing date of corn is delayed to late spring in southern Brazil to decrease N losses and production costs.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The concept of a no-tillage system (NTS), or “Sistema Plantio Direto,” was established in Brazil from the evolution of no-tillage (NT) or “Plantio Direto,” given the edaphoclimatic conditions and the need to promote chemical, physical and biological improvements in cultivated soils. While “Plantio Direto” is a conservationist practice, “Sistema Plantio Direto” presents itself as an agricultural production system based on the simultaneous adoption of minimum soil disturbance, maintenance of permanent soil cover and crop rotation. This study reviews the concepts of “Plantio Direto” and “Sistema Plantio Direto” in the Brazilian literature and uses two case studies in Paraná State to demonstrate the practical implications of these concepts. These two terms and their variations are recurrent themes in Brazilian scientific research and the professional environment, and may occur erroneously, hindering their adoption, results and implications. Regarding the “Sistema Plantio Direto,” we highlight the need to clarify the concepts of its basic practices to parameterize and characterize this process. The definition of crop rotation, for example, requires limits on the number of species along a given time scale, thus enabling their identification. Regarding the case studies, most grain crops conducted in Paraná State did not adopt the “Sistema Plantio Direto,” mainly neglecting the component of crop rotation. Nevertheless, the use of the “no-tillage system participatory quality index” (PQI) tool can contribute to the assessment and monitoring of the quality of the “Sistema Plantio Direto.” However, it requires adjustments to differentiate the “Sistema Plantio Direto” from the “Plantio Direto.”
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Nitrogen release from organic amendments, e.g., from organic agriculture, is a key process to raise soil fertility to sustain crop production in low environmental impact agroecosystems. This study aimed to investigate nitrogen release from a pelletized organic amendment containing poultry litter, guano and pot ale applied to soil from a field under two different management systems: an alfalfa-based crop rotation, enriched with N by the legume, under low-intensity tillage and a cereal-sunflower crop rotation under high-intensity tillage. Both sample types were evaluated under different temperature and soil moisture conditions (optimal and variable). The influence of the released amount of N-NO 3 on soil microbial biomass, soil basal respiration as well as on β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase and o-diphenoloxidase were investigated. The soil fertility level under low-intensity was higher than under high-intensity tillage. Consequently, compared to the control, microbial biomass growth in pellet-treated samples was intensified, both under optimal and variable conditions. Nevertheless, at the end of the experiment under variable conditions, microbial biomass decreased down to the level of the control. Soil moisture was identified as the limiting factor for basal respiration in low-tillage soil, while in the intensively tilled soil, low fertility was limiting, and respiration increased in response to pellet application, supplying C for microbial biomass. During the experimental period, the investigated enzyme activities were somewhat intensified by pellet application, contributing slightly to improve soil biochemical fertility. More N-NO 3 was released from soil under low than high-intensity tillage; however after 90-days, the pellet was not completely mineralized, and even at optimal soil moisture content, nitrate release was only partial. This indicated that pelletizing, though useful for practical reasons such as handling, storage and field distribution, can reduce the fertilization efficiency of organic amendments.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sandy soil often has low nitrogen (N) stock. Thus, crops grown in sandy soil rely on high levels of N fertilization. The use of cover crops and efficient fertilizers can increase N stock in the soil and N availability in the topsoil, and reduce overall fertilizer costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cover crops (fallow, a single grass species (ruzigrass), two grass species (ruzigrass + millet), one grass species (millet) with legumes [lime-yellow pea (2018) and velvet bean (2019)], and a mixture of three cover crops [two grass species (ruzigrass + millet) and one legume (lime-yellow pea (2018)] and velvet bean (2019), N sources (conventional urea and controlled-release urea) and N doses (70, 100 and 130 kg ha-1) on N dynamics in an Oxisol (Latossolo) with sandy texture in Brazil cultivated with cotton. Systems with the cover crops (average) had 17 % more total N stock in the soil than fallow systems. Inorganic N increased only in systems with legumes. The systems with cover crop mixtures had 70 % more ammonium than fallow systems. Systems only with grass species had low percentages of inorganic N in relation to total N in the soil. The increase in N-fertilizer rates augmented the N stock in the soil (total and inorganic). In the first year, controlled-release urea reduced the availability of inorganic N in cotton flowering, except for the system with mixed cover crops. After the cotton harvest, areas of controlled-release urea application had 12 % more inorganic N than the areas with conventional urea. Our findings show that the combined use of cover crops with high biomass production, moderate dose of N and controlled-release N can increase the availability of inorganic nitrogen in the upper layers of the soil in tropical areas with sandy soil and this can reduce nitrogen fertilizer consumption in the medium and long term in cotton fields.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Rainfall erosivity (R factor) is one of the six factors of the Universal Soil Loss Equation, being calculated based on the product of rainfall kinetic energy multiplied by its 30-minute maximum intensity. However, the lack of detailed and reliable rainfall data in many parts of the world has driven the use of other methods to estimate rainfall erosivity based on daily, monthly or annual data. These methods still need to be assessed to determine if their estimates are consistent with the standard method for calculating rainfall erosivity. This study aimed to select a consistent method for such replacement in Brazilian conditions without access the rainfall intensity data. The tested methods included: modified Fournier, MF; modified Fournier by Zhang, MF-Z; modified Fournier by Men, MF-M; Rainfall Disaggregation, RD; TRMM Satellite with modified Fournier coefficient, TRMM-F; and TRMM Satellite with monthly rainfall, TRMM-M. The rainfall data were obtained from the USP Meteorological Station, referring to the period from 2009 to 2015. The analyses were performed according to the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model and Scott-Knott statistical tests. Considering the 1:1 line, all methods had a good adjustment, presenting similar behavior in relation to the standard method. The methods behaved differently for monthly and annual periods. The MF method proved to be capable of consistently replacing the standard method in all aforementioned situations. Considering the driest period, any method can be used. For annual rainfall erosivity estimation, the RD, MF, TRMM-F and TRMM-M methods can be applied; highlighting that the TRMM-based methods are optimal for locations without on-site rain gauges. Additionally, it was computed that the modified Fournier by Men and the modified Fournier by Zhang underestimated and overestimated the rainfall erosivity, respectively.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Grazing intensity is a preponderant factor for the success of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS). Management of grazing intensity impacts soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, soil reacidification process, and amount and quality of residues added to the ICLS. Consequently, the soil mineral nitrogen (N) forms may present different behavior throughout the pasture cycle, because they are directed linked to SOM and soil acidity dynamics. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of grazing intensities and liming in the temporal variation of acidity and mineral N forms in soil surface (0.00-0.20 m) and subsurface (0.20-0.40 m), throughout the pasture cycle of an ICLS under an Oxisol in the Brazilian subtropics. The study was performed 11 years after the beginning of the field experiment, characterized by the cattle grazing in a winter pasture of oat + ryegrass during the winter and soybean cropping during the summer. The experimental design is randomized block with three replicates, where the grazing intensities are in the plots and liming is the subplots. The grazing intensities were defined as grazing sward height management, being 0.10, 0.20-0.30, and 0.40 m defined as intensive (IG), moderate (MG) and light grazing (LG), respectively. We evaluated the soil ammonium (N-NH4+), nitrate (N-NO3-), mineral N and pH at 45, 70, 156 and 192 days after pasture sowing (DAPS). Our results showed that grazing intensities only affected the soil pH at the end of pasture cycle, with MG presenting higher pH than IG and LG, regardless of liming. A decrease of soil N mineral stocks was observed throughout the pasture cycle in all managements, due to the decrease of soil N-NO3- stocks in the surface and subsurface layers and of N-NH4+ only in the surface layer. The influence of grazing intensities was only observed for N mineral forms in limed areas before the beginning of grazing. At 45 DAPS, MG and LG presented the highest and the lowest N-NH4+, respectively. At 70 DAPS, the behavior was inverse, and LG presented the highest N-NO3- stock and the MG and IG the lowest N-NO3- stocks. With such results, it is possible to conclude that there is an influence of grazing intensity and liming in the temporal variation of soil pH and mineral N forms in ICLS and this may be utilized for improvements in N fertilizer management, mainly before the starting of winter grazing.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In some rural properties of Brazil, soil and water conservation practices are partially or inappropriately implemented, intensifying soil erosion, even in no-tillage (NT) areas. This study aimed to check the farmer’s understanding of conservation agriculture (CA) and assess whether they are using practices appropriate to soil conservation. A basin in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil, was selected. Surveys were conducted based on a structured questionnaire and in-person interviews of 234 farmers. Among these farmers, 67 % do not understand CA pillars adequately, and 68 % stated they have been using NT for over 12 years. However, 58 % stated that they carried out some kind of soil preparation. Furthermore, some of the farmers only partially implemented CA, adopting a low level of crop diversification. The main problems pointed out by the farmers to justify simplifying the CA approach were soil compaction, low production of plant biomass and resistance of weeds to herbicides. Most farmers in the study do not have enough knowledge of the pillars of CA. As a result, there is little diversification in crop rotation, and the soil is continually disturbed with chiseling. Furthermore, although most farmers use terracing, they drive sprayers crossing terraces and following the slope, a practice that can impair the capacity of terraces to control surface water runoff. These practices do not contribute to soil and water conservation and endanger the sustainability of agricultural production systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Páramos are unique strategic ecosystems in the neotropical region, above the upper limit of closed forest and below the lower limit of perpetual snow in the tropical mountains of Central and South America. Their soils are of particular importance for water regulation and carbon storage; however, thousands of peasants develop agricultural activities such as potato cultivation and livestock farming in these areas. This research aimed to evaluate the possible heavy metals contents (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead) and pesticide residues (348 in total) associated with potato cultivation and livestock farming activities in soils of Páramo ecosystems (Cruz Verde and El Verjón) in Cundinamarca, Colombia. Soil samples are from areas in the Páramo under potato crops and livestock farming, at two different altitudes: 3300 m a.s.l. (meters above sea level) and 2900 m a.s.l.; and then, the physical-chemical properties, heavy metals, and pesticide content were determined in each sample. The results showed that none of the soils evaluated exceeded the concentrations of heavy metals permitted by the normativity that was analyzed. On the other hand, we found the presence of the fungicide dimethomorph (0.27 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitudes 1 and 2, fungicide metalaxyl (0.013 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitude 1, and insecticide thiamethoxam (0.048 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitude 2. Anyhow, the statistical analysis did not show significant heavy metals contents or pesticide residues in the Páramo soils associated with potato cultivation and livestock farming; nonetheless, there are significant impacts on five of the physicochemical properties of the soils under study (moisture, bulk density, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and phosphorus). Although soil physicochemical parameters properties were modified by soil potato crop and cattle raising, these land land-use types did not cause relevant impacts heavy metals and pesticides, which could be due to the specific agricultural practices adopted in the area (Potato-pasture rotation system, with fallow periods of between 7 and 10 years). Finally, this study represents the first report on heavy metals and pesticide residues in Páramo soils.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Although numerous studies have been conducted with common bean regarding nitrogen (N) dose, time of application, and source in no-till (NT) soils in Brazil, the heterogeneity of the results makes it difficult to establish technical recommendations based on individualized studies. This meta-analysis aimed to rank the main factors influencing common bean response to N management in NT areas. The database consisted of 99 scientific papers that encompassed 160 trials and 2394 observations. In general, the probability of obtaining a positive response to N application in common bean productivity was 77 %, with an average 18 % increment (358 kg ha-1). The main factors that affect the response of common bean grain yield to N fertilization and the choice of the applied N dose are soil organic matter (OM) content and the preceding crop. In soils with OM content >20 g kg-1, the N dose that determines the highest economic return is 50 kg ha-1. For soils with OM content <20 g kg-1, the N dose to be applied is 70 and 100 kg ha-1 for crops preceded by legumes and grasses, respectively. The timing of the N application did not result in a significant difference in common bean yield in 62 % of the trials. However, the results showed that the average yield increase in the common bean went from 15 % (293 kg ha-1) with a single application to 32 % (622 kg ha-1) with split N applications. All N sources tested showed similar gains to those obtained with N application through urea. Excluding situations with high doses of N application (>100 kg ha-1), inoculating common bean seeds increased grain yields by 6 % on average (118 kg ha-1). The combined analysis of the available results demonstrated that the crop recommendations used in Brazilian soils under NT could be refined considering the soil OM concentration and preceding crop. Additionally, seed inoculation and N dose splitting in the form of common urea should be recommended.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Due to large-scale wetland reclamation, the typical wetland had been conversed to different wetland use types (upland field, paddy field, and artificial forest) in the Sanjiang Plain. However, there are scarce data regarding soil aggregates and active organic carbons during land-use transition. Here, soil aggregates and the changes in content and storage of active organic carbon [total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and readily oxidized carbon (ROC)] were studied under three land-uses reclaiming wetlands as an upland field, paddy field, and artificial forest in Heilongjiang Province, China. The results showed that soil aggregate structure changed significantly under the three land-uses, of which the largest decrease of mean weight diameter (MWD) occurred in the upland field. Under the three land-use types, the content and storage of TOC and each active organic carbon in soil aggregates with different size fractions significantly decreased compared with that in the wetland. In addition, the proportion of the 1–2 mm soil aggregate was significantly lower than that of other particle sizes, which resulted in the lowest storage of TOC and active organic carbon at 1-2 mm and was found in the wetland, and different land-use types; small aggregates (<0.25 mm) with a small proportion were ignored in calculating organic carbon content and storage. The TOC and active organic carbon content in various soil aggregates varied significantly in different land-use types; the paddy field was most similar to the wetland because of seasonal flooding factors. In soil aggregates with various size fractions, the paddy field presented small changes in the TOC, DOC, and MBC content, and the ROC content was significantly lower than that in the upland field and the artificial forest land-use types. The TOC, DOC, and MBC content in the upland field and the artificial forest were significantly reduced compared with that in the paddy field due to the decrease of water content in the soil. In the artificial forest, which had less human disturbance, organic carbon content was less affected than in long-term cultivated upland fields due to its abundant plant root systems and large input of organic matter. The upland field could seriously affect the structure of soil aggregates and organic carbon in the wetlands and had the most negative impact on the wetland ecosystem.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Most studies regarding the impacts of agricultural systems on soils of the Amazon region of Brazil have been carried out on upland soil, locally known as terra firme. Information regarding the impacts of different land-use systems on floodplain soil properties is still scarce. There is a need to broaden this knowledge to understand this Amazonian ecosystem better, especially how its soils respond to human interventions. This study aimed to describe the major chemical features of floodplain soils along the Solimões-Amazon Rivers and the effects of different land-use systems on soil nutrient levels. Sixty-two different land-use systems were sampled in 15 communities located in three different regions of the Solimões/Amazonas River floodplain complex: Upper and Middle Solimões (UMS), Lower Solimões and Middle Amazon (LSMA), and Lower Amazon (LA). Soils under cultivation showed a high availability of Ca2+, Mg2+, and P and low levels of exchangeable Al, in contrast to soils under forest and secondary vegetation, which were more acid and showed higher levels of exchangeable Al. Although most of the samples showed high contents of K+, for some areas, the low level (K+ <0.15 cmolc kg-1) of this nutrient can become limiting to crop production. The low levels of N found in most of the analyzed samples confirm that this element may be the limiting nutrient for agriculture in floodplain ecosystems. The use of legumes and other nutrient-rich plants, which naturally occur in the Amazon floodplain environments, could potentially address this N deficiency in these soils.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Sandy soils are characterized by low organic matter content and soil water retention and availability. Conventional tillage has been used for the implementation of orange orchards, but it exposes the soil to erosion and promotes accelerated oxidation of organic matter with negative impacts on the soil’s physical quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil physical quality of sandy soils influenced by two soil tillage practices for planting the orange trees in areas after long-time under pastures. Soil sampling was carried out in three experimental areas (one under Lixisol and two under Ferralsol) where the planting of orange trees had been carried out using two tillage practices: (i) conventional tillage in total area; and (ii) localized conventional tillage in a strip corresponding to the orange tree planting lines. A complete randomized design was used with two treatments (total or strip tillage) and four replications. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken in 2011 (8 to 18 years after the establishment of the treatments) from the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers in transects crossing: (i) under canopy projection below orange trees; (ii) under machine wheel tracks in the interrow of the orange trees; and (iii) under grass groundcover between the wheel tracks in the interrow of the orange trees. The following determinations were made for these samples: texture analysis, total organic carbon, soil bulk density, reference bulk density obtained with saturated soil subjected to a 200 kPa, soil resistance to penetration, soil water content, and water retention curves and the least limiting water range. The results suggest that total tillage for the implantation of orange orchards is unnecessary; however, after a long time of establishing orange orchards occurs soil physical quality discontinuity under wheel tracks compared to the other sampling positions. A positive correlation between organic carbon and soil physical quality was identified under the canopy of trees and grass groundcover in the interrow of the orange trees. For similar sand content, the higher soil organic carbon in the Ferralsol provided better physical quality than in Lixisol.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Microorganisms in the soil and rhizosphere can release part of the total phosphorus in the soil through solubilization, mineralization, and an increase of the root absorption surface. The ability of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi to promote higher yield and profitability in co-inoculated soybean was investigated. For this purpose, field and greenhouse experiments were conducted in the years 2020 and 2021 in Brazil. In the field, the first factor was composed of microorganism application on soybean (simple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium; co-inoculation with Bacillus strains; co-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza), and the second factor consisted of the application or not of phosphate fertilizer (0 and 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5). In the greenhouse, treatments of the first factor were maintained with 50 % of the phosphate fertilization and one treatment added (standard inoculation with 100 % of the fertilization). Plant growth, roots, nodules, leaf nutrition, yield, and profitability were evaluated. In 2020, co-inoculation increased plant height, the number of pods, grains, and profitability index. The co-inoculation with Bacillus strains and arbuscular mycorrhiza promoted yield increase only associated with phosphate fertilization, by 813 and 761 kg ha-1 compared to standard inoculation, respectively. In 2021, there were increases for pods, grains, yield, gross profit, net income, and profitability index. Co-inoculation with Bacillus strains and arbuscular mycorrhiza promoted increased soybean yield and profitability, confirming itself as a sustainable technology for Brazilian soybean fields.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT High acidity and low soil P availability in the soils from the Pampa natural grasslands generally limit the forage growth and economic return. Thus, to increase the economic return and avoid environmental degradation and biodiversity loss due to replacement by intensive cropping systems, it is essential to improve the soil P availability. This study aimed to diagnose the nutritional status of the pluri-specific natural grasslands amended with different history of P sources. Additionally, we also try to indicate the most appropriate range of soil P availability for maximizing forage growth. The experiment started in 1997 in an area of Pampa natural grasslands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The treatments evaluated the application of Gafsa hyperphosphate (HP) and triple superphosphate (SP) for four years (1997, 1998, 2002, and 2010). Soil and aboveground biomass sampling were performed five times from October 2010 to March 2011 to access aboveground biomass production, botanical composition, soil available P, and N and P nutrition index. Greater P availability in the soil amended with SP produced more forage and resulted in a higher P accumulation than in the soil amended with HP. The ideal range of soil P availability in the soils of natural grasslands ranged from 14 to 20 mg kg˗1, varying for different plant species. The species Paspalum plicatulum and Aristida laevis produce less aboveground biomass and accumulate less P in their tissue than Dichantelium sabulorum and Eustachys uliginosa, and P. notatum. Therefore, areas of natural grasslands dominated by D. sabulorum, E. uliginosa and P. notatum demand higher soil P availability to maintain high forage production. Soil P fertilization of pluri-specific natural grasslands in the Brazilian Pampa biome must consider the dominant forage species in the area and the soil P availability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soils with low potassium (K) availability require corrective fertilization for grain crops. The recommended rate to increase K availability up to the critical level depends on the soil K buffering capacity (KBC). This study aimed to quantify the KBC and recalculate the rates necessary to reach the K critical level in 23 soils from Southern Brazil. Soil samples were incubated with six K rates, that were thus grouped according to CECpH7.0: below 7.5 cmolc dm-3 (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 kg K2O ha-1); from 7.6 to 15 cmolc dm-3 (0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg K2O ha-1) and from 15.1 to 30 cmolc dm-3 (0, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 360 kg K2O ha-1). The soil test K (STK) was extracted by Mehlich-1 and the fertilizer rates necessary to increase the STK by 1 mg dm-3 were quantified. The KBC values were correlated with a suite of soil testing metrics. The relationship between the cation exchange capacity (CECpH7.0) and KBC was modeled, and a linear-plateau equation presented the best fit. The K rates were calculated using the following equation: K rate =( Critical Level −STK)×KBC and were compared with the current rate indicated by the Local Soil Fertility Committee. The K fertilizer rates by KBC were about 2.5 times higher than the values currently indicated, and the largest differences were observed in soils with low STK and high CECpH7.0.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Evaluations of biomass and nutrient contents in teak stands are necessary alternatives for avoiding early cutting to provide supplemental data for the plant module of fertilization recommendation systems. This study aimed to adjust allometric equations to estimate the accumulation of biomass and nutrient contents in teak plantations in the central region of Brazil. Plots in seminal and clonal stands contained 81 trees aged 75 months, that had not received previous fertilization or thinning. Additional clonal stands aged 15, 51 and 63 months and a seminal stand aged 63 months had been previously fertilized during implantation. Allometric equations for biomass and macronutrient contents were obtained for components of the aerial parts of trees as a function of diameter at 1.3 m height (DBH), and the possibility of using an equation or the need for specific equations was evaluated for genetic material (seminal or clonal) and the fertilization scheme (not fertilized or fertilized). The equations adjusted to the four sets of stands, all with elevated predictive capacity, did not differ among each other based on an identity test. Thus, the use of a robust equation adjusted with data from all stands is recommended to obtain estimates with a high degree of accuracy. The biomass and accumulation of macronutrients in components of the aerial parts of teak trees should be considered to obtain the nutrient contents in both the exportable components in thinned trees and the components maintained in the area and available for biogeochemical cycling.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Studies on lability of soil phosphorus (P) under integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) are still scarce, especially for deep soil layers (more than 0.20 m depth) and different managements in the crop and livestock phase. Distinct management in these phases may lead to a different distribution of soil P pools according to its lability (labile, moderately labile, less labile and residual) and, consequently, the P availability for plant nutrition. This study aimed to determine the soil P pools, by P fractionation and its distribution in lability classes. In a long-term ICLS experiment of grain and sheep production established in 2003, in Southern Brazil, we sampled in 2017 the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.26, 0.26-0.30 and 0.30-0.40 m layers of a Red Dystrophic Acrisol ( Argissolo Vermelho distrófico ) under two cropping systems in the summer (soybean/corn rotation and soybean/soybean succession), two grazing intensities (moderate and low) and two methods (continuous and rotational) in winter. Fractionation of P consisted of sequential extractions with anionic exchange resin, NaHCO 3 0.5 mol L -1 , NaOH 0.1 mol L -1 , HCl 1 mol L -1 , and NaOH 0.5 mol L -1 . The fractions were grouped in four different pools: labile, moderated labile, less labile and residual P. The soybean/soybean succession increased the labile pool of soil P in the 0.00-0.10 m layer compared to the soybean/corn rotation, regardless of the management of the livestock phase. Meanwhile, the management of the livestock phase also influenced soil P lability, regardless of the management of the crop phase. Low grazing intensity increased the levels of labile soil P in the 0.00-0.05 m layer, in comparison with the moderate grazing intensity and regardless of the grazing method. Grazing methods did not impact the soil P lability or content. The greater soil P availability in the soybean/soybean succession can be attributed to the higher quality (low carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the residue, while in the low grazing intensity to the higher forage dry matter production. Such management benefits nutrient cycling and consequently the P availability to the plants, being important to decrease production costs with the reduction and/or greater use efficiency of phosphate fertilizers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil aggregates and their stability affect a wide range of soil properties. This study aimed to (a) verify whether biogenic aggregation provides higher macro- and microaggregate stabilization, and (b) evaluate whether biogenic aggregates are associated with higher labile organic carbon and glomalin contents. Three management systems were evaluated (permanent pasture, PP; no-tillage system, NT; and no-tillage + Brachiaria system, NT+B) as well as a reference area (Atlantic Forest biome vegetation, NF). According to their origin or formation pathway, the aggregates were separated, identified, and classified as biogenic (formed by biological processes) and physicogenic (resulting from chemical and physical actions). The PP system provided the greatest stabilization of the macroaggregates, regardless of the formation pathway, as reflected by a greater mean weight diameter (MWD). The PP system also influenced the degree of microaggregate stability by increasing the bond strength and reducing the dispersion of the clay fraction. Finally, the PP system elevated the contents of labile organic carbon (POXC), easily extractable glomalin (GRSP-EE), and total glomalin (GRSP-T) under both formation pathways. The NT+B system favored the stabilization of macroaggregates, especially in the subsurface soil layer, compared with the NT area. In the aggregates of the NT and NT+B areas, the highest values observed were for water-dispersible clay (WDC) and the lowest values observed were for non-dispersible clay (NDC), a pattern opposite to that observed in the aggregates of the PP and NF areas. In the biogenic aggregates of all areas, a high POXC content was quantified, and biogenic aggregation proportionally increased the values of MWD, GRSP-EE, and GRSP-T relative to physicogenic aggregation. The results showed that grain production systems, pasture systems, and non-anthropized environments differentially influenced aggregation and the concentrations of organic fractions associated with aggregate stability. This study highlights the need for future studies using these indicators to monitor the quality of soils, especially those with sandy texture, which are considered more fragile.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bases are chemical species that donate electrons, accept protons, or release hydroxyls (OH–) in aqueous solution. In Soil Science, “base saturation”, “exchangeable bases” or “basic cations” has been widely used to distinguish Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+ from H+ and Al3+ cations. This terminology is confusing since none of these cations are truly a base in chemistry sense. However, in the absence of the proposition of a correct term, the term “base saturation” remains in use nowadays, causing confusion among students, professionals, and even among professors and researchers in Soil Science, as it leads to the erroneous interpretation that the soil acidity can be corrected by adding these cations to the soil. Here, we present the historical background of this nomenclature and a theoretical foundation that justifies the abolition of the use of these terms in Soil Science. We consider that the most correct is to call it “Ca-Mg-K-Na saturation”, which, despite being long, would refer directly and without any misinterpretation of the terminology. In Soil Fertility, the “base saturation” is often calculated only as a function of the sum of Ca, Mg, and K, since the Na content is negligible in most tropical and subtropical soils. Thus, one could use the term “Ca-Mg-K saturation”. Likewise, it is also suggested to abolish the use of the term “sum of bases” and use the term “sum of Ca-Mg-K” or “sum of Ca-Mg-K-Na” instead when necessary.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Brazilian soil scientists have increased the use of the term “soil quality” in their scientific publications in the last decade. However, it remains unclear if those publications only mention “soil quality” in a broad context, or the studies are focused on soil quality assessments, integrating soil chemical, physical and biological indicators. The objective of this systematic review was to carry out a critical analysis of the conception in using the term “soil quality” in recent publications derived from studies performed in Brazil. For this purpose, the terms [(“soil health” or “soil quality” or “qualidade do solo”) and (“Brazil*” or “Brasil*”)] were searched in databases of Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo from 2014 to 2021. Initially, 1,284 peer-reviewed papers were found, subsequently selected according to the criteria established in two filters: (i) First filter - studies carried out in Brazil, which mentioned at least one of the terms of interest (“soil health” or “soil quality” or “qualidade do solo”) and that evaluated soil biological, physical or chemical indicators, assessing at least one of them; (ii) Second filter - studies in which all three groups of soil indicators were assessed and integrated, and presented a specific discussion about soil quality. According to the results, 36 % of the papers met the first criteria (n = 464), and only 2 % (n = 30) attended the second filter. The terms “soil health” or “soil quality” or “qualidade do solo” were mentioned 7 and 37 times per paper for those papers selected in the first and second filter, respectively. We evidenced in our study that the term soil quality in agricultural science papers has been predominantly used in a broad context, mostly to refer to the suitable soil conditions for plant growth. Thus, we concluded that even if the use of soil quality term is increasing in Brazilian literature, there are still very few researchers working specifically with soil quality assessments, in its full conception (i.e., integrating chemical, physical and biological indicators). Therefore, there is a promising research field to be explored to promote scientific advances in the soil quality area (e.g., new concepts, assessment frameworks, on-farm monitoring protocols), as well as disseminate the soil quality assessment among the Brazilian farmers, environmentalists, and other stakeholders.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Transparency of evaluation criteria and monitoring recommendations for research grants require careful judgment and frequent reassessment of guiding parameters. The aim of this study is to inform the scientific community and funding agencies about the applicants profile for research productivity grants (PQ) in the field of Agronomy of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and to contribute to the analysis of grant distribution using the grant applicants of the 2018 call as a study sample. The data registered in the Lattes Curriculum platform were used to quantify the scientific production index. This index considers the number of published articles with different weights for the different segments of the journal’s impact factor values, in addition to the number of patents and books, and human resources training index that considers the number of supervisions and their level (scientific initiation, master’s, doctorate and post-doctorate) completed as principal advisor. The H index (ISI-Web of Science base and Scopus base), scientific age (equal to the number of years after doctorate thesis defense), and the m index (H index divided by scientific age) were also considered, as well as the gender of the fellows. The results show that more than three quarters (75.8 %) of Agronomy PQ fellows are male. At the Category 1 levels and on the Agronomy Committee itself, the relative participation of female researchers is even lower. Women are more involved in human resource training, publish more in non-JCR journals, and are older (scientific age) at the lower level of fellow and among candidates, while men have greater scientific production, H and m indices, and m increase as scientific age advances. The indices of scientific production and human resources training, and national/international insertion (H index) are not homogeneous within the same level/category, despite the search for more transparent and verifiable evaluation indices/indicators. There are fewer opportunities for success and advancement for women, which characterizes a space for achieving gender equity. Objective, easily calculated indices/indicators are absolutely necessary for a large number of researchers, while the critical evaluation and the search for more such parameters must move forward and be compatible with the peer-review process. We suggest that CNPq collect data on citations to Google Scholar and, in particular, share information on gender and interruptions due to illness, maternity and paternity, and care for the sick, elderly or dependent.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Soil Education aims to give individuals a transforming formative process for conscious actions related to the soil in their life experiences in and with the world. As such, the educational methodologies addressing soil-related contents should be in dialogue with the purpose of this educational process. On the perspective of education for social transformation, it is recommended that professors of Higher Education avoid from pedagogical actions with traditional approaches, and start using other strategies and methodologies centered on students and their context. With the challenge of addressing the implementation of emancipatory principles in educational procedures within the disciplinary structure of a traditional paradigm of education and achieving the aim of Soil Education, we put forward the Alternative Methodology of Problem Cases (AMPC), which was shaped up from two methodologies with constructivist principles, P roblem-Based Learning (PBL) and Team-Based Learning (TBL). This methodology is divided into three phases (preparation, application, and reflection), which are in turn divided into seven steps that complement each other (recovery of socio-historical knowing and knowledge; study of the themes; problem case resolution; team guidance; individual activity report; and individual and collective feedback). In addition, the steps contain individual and team assignments, which revolve around the resolution of problem cases related to the future profession. The AMPC is different from PBL and TBL as the former is grounded on emancipatory principles that facilitate the development of educational processes that value the socio-historical knowing and knowledge of individuals and enable the development of students’ autonomy, creativity, critical thinking, and awareness for actions in real life. The challenges through which individuals can develop relational, complex, and critical thinking, apply them to professional life situations, confront and reframe their knowledge and knowing, as well as create solutions and plan future scenarios with the practice of solving problem cases about soils consist in the capacity of AMPC to be efficient to soil learning.