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Mitochondrial biogenesis and physical exercise: electric-transcriptional coupling hypothesis

Abstract

One of the main changes happened in skeletal muscle tissue as a result of physical and sport training with prolonged exercise is the increase in the quantity and functional quality of mitochondria. There is not yet an explanatory causal mechanism for this phenomenon. The suggestion to be discussed in this assay is called "electric-transcriptional coupling hypothesis". In this hypothesis, changes in electrical activity, mainly membrane depolarization, are considered methods used for the control of biosynthesis in multicellular organisms. For example, studies that resulted in somatic cell hyperpolarization induced suppression of differentiation and proliferation, and the opposite happened with depolarization. That is, cell depolarization that occur during the exercise as a consequence of intense and prolonged muscle contraction could activate processes responsible for biosynthesis and, possibly, mitochondrial replication.

KEY WORDS:
Bioenergetics; Bioelectricity; Endurance; Metabolism; Oxidative stress

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