Hypatropis inermis (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae): first record on rice crops

Diones Krinski Luís Amilton Foerster Jocélia Grazia About the authors

Abstract

This study reports for the first time the occurrence of Hypatropis inermis on upland rice crops (variety Cambará), in Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil (7°07'45.71"S 55°23'21.13"W). The inventory of insect pests was conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with entomological sweep nets and visual search on stems of rice plants. This record indicates that rice crops may represent important feeding and mating sites for this species.

Amazon forest; Insect pest; Integrated pest management; Small rice stem stink bug


Stink bugs of the genus Hypatropis Bergroth, 1981 are widely distributed and are found in Central and South America (Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352.; Grazia & Schwertner, 2008Grazia, J., Schwertner, C.F., 2008. Hemiptera: Pentatomidae-Cyrtocoridae, In: Claps, L.E., Debandi, G. & Roig-Juñent, S. (Orgs.). Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos, v. 2, 1 ed., Sociedad Entomologica Argentina ediciones, Tucumán, pp. 223-234.). Hypatropis has been considered related to Glyphepomis Berg, 1981, Mecocephala Dallas, 1851, Tibraca Stål, 1860, and Paramecocephala Benvegnú, 1968 (Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., 1996. Parahypatropis um novo gênero de Pentatomini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 353-356.), and also to Amauromelpia Fernandes & Grazia, 1998Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1998. Amauromelpia, a new northern neotropical genus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Iheringia. 84, 153-160., Hypanthracos Grazia & Campos, 1996, LuridocimexGrazia et al., 1998, Parahypatropis Grazia & Fernandes, 1996, Paratibraca Campos & Grazia, 1995, and StysianaGrazia et al., 1999 (Schwertner et al. 2002Schwertner, C.F., Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., 2002. Revisão do gênero Mecocephala Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 46, 169-184.). Among all these genera, Hypatropis is placed in a monophyletic group with Amauromelpia and Luridocimex (Grazia & Fernandes 1996Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., 1996. Parahypatropis um novo gênero de Pentatomini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 353-356.; Fernandes & Grazia 1998Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1998. Amauromelpia, a new northern neotropical genus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Iheringia. 84, 153-160.; Grazia et al. 1998).

Hypatropis includes five recognized species: Hypatropis australis Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352., Hypatropis inermis (Stål, 1872), Hypatropis rolstoni Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352., Hypatropis similis Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352., and Hypatropis sternalis (Stål, 1869) (Fernandes & Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352.; Klein et al., 2013Klein, J.T., Redaelli, L.R., Barcellos, A., 2013. Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 240-245.).

Host plant records are only available for two species of Hypatropis: H. sternalis has been found on rice crops, Oryza sativa L., in Argentina (Quintanilla et al., 1976Quintanilla, R.H., Margheritis, A.E., Rizzo, H.F., 1976. Catálogo de hemípteros hallados en la Provincia de Corrientes (Argentina). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Arg. 35, 115-133.), and H. inermis was reported hibernating in tussocks of donkey-tail grass, Andropogon bicornis L., on rice production areas in southern Brazil (Klein et al., 2013Klein, J.T., Redaelli, L.R., Barcellos, A., 2013. Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 240-245.). However, there are no published studies on the biology of any species of Hypatropis. In Brazil, H. inermis has been recorded from the states of Pará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul (Fernandes and Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352.).

In accordance to the Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento do Brasil (CONAB, 2014CONAB (Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento), 2014. Arroz. Séries Históricas de Área Plantada, Produtividade e Produção, Relativas às Safras 1976/77 a 2014/15. Available at: http://www.conab.gov.br/conteudos.php?a=1252&t=2 [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
http://www.conab.gov.br/conteudos.php?a=...
), rice cultivation in the state of Pará has been recorded since 1976-1977, and mainly in the North (Lopes et al., 2004Lopes, A.M., Silveira-Filho, A., Husny, J.C.E., Correa, J.R.V., 2004. BRS Talento: cultivar de arroz para cultivo em terra firme no Estado do Pará. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental - Comunicado Técnico 93. Available at: http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/18749/1/com.tec.93.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/b...
). However, planting of upland rice in the Southwest is recent (less than 10 years) (Azevedo, 2009Azevedo, R., 2009. Manejo integrado de insetos-praga em arroz, milho e soja. In: Simpósio sobre Manejo de Pragas, 1., Belém, PA. Manejo integrado de pragas, doenças e plantas daninhas em grãos e fruteiras: Anais. Belém, PA: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, pp. 145-160. Available at: http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/46112/1/Azevedo00186.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/b...
; Silva and Magalhães, 1981Silva, A.B., Magalhães, B.P., 1981. Insetos noviços à cultura do arroz no Estado do Pará. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental - Circular Técnica 22. Available at: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/bitstream/doc/379480/1/CPATUCirTec22.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/bi...
). For this reason, few entomological inventories have been conducted in rice cultivars of this region, and our work is the first conducted in a standardized manner.

Specimens of Hypatropis inermis were collected on upland rice crops (variety Cambará), in Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil (707'45.71"S 5523'21.13"W), during an inventory of insect pests conducted between November 2010 and March 2011 with entomological sweep nets and visual search on stems of rice plants. The sampling effort included 16 collecting points visited weekly, covering 400 meters in four transects of 100 meters, distant 25 meters from each other.

Thirty-two specimens of H. inermis (15 males and 17 females) were collected. Insects were found only during the reproductive stage of the crop, always on stems of rice, and most of the times with the head pointed downwards, similarly to the feeding position reported for the rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål, 1860 (Pentatomidae) (Panizzi, 2000Panizzi, A. R., 2000. Suboptimal nutrition and feeding behavior of hemipterans on less preferred plant food sources. An. Soc. Entomol. Bras. 29, 1-12.) (Fig. 1A). Furthermore, it was observed that H. inermis uses rice plants as a mating site (stink bugs in copula) (Fig. 1B). We also emphasize the small size of H. inermis compared to T. limbativentris, which allows for a quick distinction between the two species (Fig. 1C).

Figure 1.
Hypatropis inermis (small rice stem stink bug). A - Feeding position with head down; B - Male and female mating on rice stems; C - Comparison between the size of H. inermis (right) and Tibraca limbativentris (left).

This record indicates that rice crops may represent important feeding and mating sites of this species. Additionally, considering that H. inermis has been found in tussocks of donkey-tail grass in areas surrounding rice crops at the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, it is possible that this species migrates to the rice crop during their reproductive period, as has been shown, for example, for Oebalus poecilus(Dallas, 1851) (Pentatomidae) (Albuquerque, 1993Albuquerque, G.S., 1993. Planting time as a tactic to manage the small rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Crop Protection 12, 627-630.; Klein et al., 2013Klein, J.T., Redaelli, L.R., Barcellos, A., 2013. Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 240-245.).

There are no specific studies published on the biology of H. inermis, and the few studies that cite this species are entomological inventories of sites where the species was found (Fernandes and Grazia, 1996Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352.; Klein et al., 2013Klein, J.T., Redaelli, L.R., Barcellos, A., 2013. Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 240-245.; Quintanilla et al., 1976Quintanilla, R.H., Margheritis, A.E., Rizzo, H.F., 1976. Catálogo de hemípteros hallados en la Provincia de Corrientes (Argentina). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Arg. 35, 115-133.). Therefore, considering the economic importance of rice crops in Brazil, we recommend careful monitoring in rice growing regions and studies on the biology, morphology, and ecology of H. inermis in different host plants. In addition, more studies are needed to assess the damage that the small rice stem stink bug may cause to different rice varieties, mainly to investigate whether this species can be a potential pest of rice crops in the future.

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge farmers of Fazenda Florentino, Marlete Florentino, Eurides Florentino (in memoriam), and Nadir de Lima Florentino (in memoriam) for allowing this research on their property. We also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for providing scholarships.

References

  • Albuquerque, G.S., 1993. Planting time as a tactic to manage the small rice stink bug, Oebalus poecilus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Crop Protection 12, 627-630.
  • Azevedo, R., 2009. Manejo integrado de insetos-praga em arroz, milho e soja. In: Simpósio sobre Manejo de Pragas, 1., Belém, PA. Manejo integrado de pragas, doenças e plantas daninhas em grãos e fruteiras: Anais. Belém, PA: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, pp. 145-160. Available at: http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/46112/1/Azevedo00186.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
    » http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/46112/1/Azevedo00186.pdf
  • CONAB (Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento), 2014. Arroz. Séries Históricas de Área Plantada, Produtividade e Produção, Relativas às Safras 1976/77 a 2014/15. Available at: http://www.conab.gov.br/conteudos.php?a=1252&t=2 [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
    » http://www.conab.gov.br/conteudos.php?a=1252&t=2
  • Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1996. Revisão do gênero Hypatropis Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 341-352.
  • Fernandes, J.A.M., Grazia, J., 1998. Amauromelpia, a new northern neotropical genus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Iheringia. 84, 153-160.
  • Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., 1996. Parahypatropis um novo gênero de Pentatomini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 40, 353-356.
  • Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., Schwertner, C.F., 1998. Luridocimex, um novo gênero de Pentatomini (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) do Brasil. Iheringia 84, 161-166.
  • Grazia, J., Schwertner, C.F., 2008. Hemiptera: Pentatomidae-Cyrtocoridae, In: Claps, L.E., Debandi, G. & Roig-Juñent, S. (Orgs.). Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos, v. 2, 1 ed., Sociedad Entomologica Argentina ediciones, Tucumán, pp. 223-234.
  • Klein, J.T., Redaelli, L.R., Barcellos, A., 2013. Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 240-245.
  • Lopes, A.M., Silveira-Filho, A., Husny, J.C.E., Correa, J.R.V., 2004. BRS Talento: cultivar de arroz para cultivo em terra firme no Estado do Pará. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental - Comunicado Técnico 93. Available at: http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/18749/1/com.tec.93.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
    » http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/18749/1/com.tec.93.pdf
  • Panizzi, A. R., 2000. Suboptimal nutrition and feeding behavior of hemipterans on less preferred plant food sources. An. Soc. Entomol. Bras. 29, 1-12.
  • Quintanilla, R.H., Margheritis, A.E., Rizzo, H.F., 1976. Catálogo de hemípteros hallados en la Provincia de Corrientes (Argentina). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Arg. 35, 115-133.
  • Schwertner, C.F., Grazia, J., Fernandes, J.A.M., 2002. Revisão do gênero Mecocephala Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 46, 169-184.
  • Silva, A.B., Magalhães, B.P., 1981. Insetos noviços à cultura do arroz no Estado do Pará. Embrapa Amazônia Oriental - Circular Técnica 22. Available at: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/bitstream/doc/379480/1/CPATUCirTec22.pdf [accessed 19 Dec 2014].
    » http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/bitstream/doc/379480/1/CPATUCirTec22.pdf

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2015

History

  • Received
    12 May 2014
  • Accepted
    12 Nov 2012
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